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How to Write a Project Proposal

When you want to pitch a project, whether to gain financial support or get the go-ahead to proceed, you’ll need to craft a winning project proposal. This is the vehicle that sells your project and gets key people on board with the endeavor.

What Is a Project Proposal?

A project proposal is your opportunity to sell your idea and get people on board. The goal of a project proposal is to share the pertinent details to demonstrate the merits of the project. Having done your due diligence, you will use a project proposal to outline the project and counter any obvious objections, presenting your case in a genuine and persuasive tone.

Key Features of a Project Proposal

An effective project proposal has several key features that will help you attain your goals.

A Winning Tone

The tone of your project proposal is a crucial element of the document. You want your readers to be able to relate to your message and get on board, so engagement will be the key. Establishing common ground can help you be more persuasive. Pay attention to your target audience too. Who are they? What’s important to them? How do they view themselves? Above all, you want to establish yourself as an expert with the experience necessary to launch and see the project through to fruition. Be careful not to come across as condescending though. Your proposal should persuade to answer your target audience’s question of why they need to participate.

Use a Project Proposal Sample

If you’re struggling with crafting your project proposal, you might peruse a few samples and templates to get some ideas for format and tone. Once you get ideas for overall organization, you can begin to fill in the sections with your introduction, history, problem identification and scope of the project.

What to Avoid

There are definitely a few things to avoid when writing your proposal:


writing a grant proposal

How to write a grant proposal: a step-by-step guide

How to write a grant proposal: a step-by-step guide

A grant proposal is a request for funding that organizations submit to grant-making bodies.

Generally, a grant proposal outlines a project idea, explains why the organization needs grant money, and provides evidence that demonstrates the need and worthiness of the project.

In grant proposals, organizations usually describe their mission, describe how they plan to use grant funds, provide program goals and objectives, a timeline for completion of the project, and an expected outcome.

However, a grant proposal must also be written in such a way as to convince potential funders of the value and impact of the proposed project.

In this guide, we’ll take a closer look at how you can create stunning grant proposals in record time.

Why should you seek grant funding?

When done successfully, grant writing can open doors to vital funding sources needed to make your project a success.

Writing grants can also be a networking opportunity with grant-making organizations, as grant writers often make connections and partnerships that may prove valuable in the future.

Most of all, grant writing is an excellent opportunity to demonstrate your organization’s commitment to its mission and goals, as grant writers must be able to articulate the importance of their vision.

At first glance, grant proposals may only appear to benefit the organization or individual who needs the money, but that’s not exactly true.

For a grant-making organization, investing in a project, initiative, or organization is an investment in positive change that can have a powerful impact on the issues they care about.

A bit of stats to benefit:

Before you get started

Before you start writing, take the time to prepare carefully. Consider each of the following.

1. Pursuing grants will incur costs in both time and money

You’ll need to find a grant that matches your initiatives, create a proposal, and participate in the entire selection process.

2. Your grant proposal may or may not be successful

Most organizations rely on multiple sources of funding, and grant opportunities shouldn’t change that.

Remember that grants can be competitive and funding may be limited.

Calculate the award against the time invested before pursuing the opportunity.

3. Be sure to have a strong understanding of your project

Be sure to have a strong understanding of your project including desired outcomes, estimated timelines, and other funding sources before you start writing.

Your proposal will be evaluated by grant-making bodies and committees who may choose to award funds to your competitors or simply choose not to award any funding due to a lack of clarity or credibility.

4. Create the appropriate accounts

You may also need to create the appropriate accounts and go through verification processes before you can submit a grant.

For example, organizations seeking federal funding need to register with the federal grant program before they can ask for a grant .

5. Submit a grant inquiry letter before writing a full grant proposal

In many cases, it may make more sense to submit a grant inquiry letter before writing a full grant proposal.

If the grant-making body approves your letter and sends you a request for a formal grant proposal, you can proceed with writing a detailed RFP response to this prospective investor.

4. Save time by using a document management software

Save time by using a document management software like PandaDoc to assist you in this difficult task.

Besides grant proposals, our software tools can handle your quotes, agreements, contracts, and proposals.

With those basics out of the way, let’s move on to the structure of a standard grant proposal you should adhere to.

Step 1. Write a strong cover letter

Your cover letter is the perfect opportunity to capture the funder’s attention and get your foot in the door.

Unlike the rest of your grant application, the letter can be less formal and address the reader more directly.

The key objective of your cover letter is to compel the reader to get to your proposal.

They’ve likely received tens or even hundreds of grant applications and your letter should separate you from the crowd as much as possible.

Here are some dos and don’ts when it comes to cover letters:

Here is how a good cover letter can start:

Dear Mr. Jones,

The Pet Care Clinic respectfully requests a grant of $30,000 for our South Boston Health Center Project.

As the largest independent pet hospital in Boston, we are aware of the challenges pet owners in our service area are faced with. We’re particularly concerned about the lack of service quality in South Boston given the fact that the area has the largest amount of pets per capita in the city.

We are committed to solving this issue by growing our community and providing our expertise to the people and animals of Boston by the end of 2021. The South Boston Health Center Project will allow us to provide access…

No fluff and right to the point!

Step 2. Start with an executive summary

Every winning grant should start with a brief executive summary.

Also known as a proposal summary, an executive summary is essentially a brief synopsis of the entire proposal. It introduces your business, market segment, proposal, project goals — essentially, your grant request.

It should have sufficient detail and specifics; get to the point quickly and be pragmatic and factual.

Here are some questions that a good grant writer will answer in their executive summary:

1. What is your mission and history ? What do you do?

2. What is your project’s name and who is it supposed to help?

3. What problem are you solving and why should it matter?

4. What is your end goal and how will you measure whether you achieved it?

5. Why should you get the funds? What are your competencies ?

6. How much money do you need and how do you plan to finance the project in the future ? Do you have other funding sources ?

Step 3. Introduce your organization

Now that you’ve set the stage for the entire proposal, you can start with your business/organization. Share as much relevant information as you can about your infrastructure, history, mission, experience, etc.

Here you include a biography of key staff, your business track record (success stories), company goals, and philosophy; essentially highlight your expertise.

Client recommendations , letters of thanks , feedback from customers and the general public are must-have things to write in a grant proposal.

Be sure to include all valid industry certifications ( ISO or Quality Certifications ), licenses, and business and indemnity insurance details.

You need to show that your company or organization has the capacity and the ability to meet all deliverables from both an execution perspective but also meet all legal, safety, and quality obligations.

You may need to provide solvency statements to prove that you can meet your financial commitments to your staff and contractors.

Step 4. Write a direct problem statement

One of the most important parts of the grant proposal structure is the problem statement.

Also known as the “ needs statement ” or “ statement of need “, this is the place where you explain why your community has a problem and how you can provide the solution.

You may need to do extensive research on the history of the underlying problem, previous solutions that were implemented and potentially failed, and explain why your solution will make a difference.

In a winning grant proposal, the problem statement will heavily rely on quantitative data and clearly display how your organization answers a need.

Here’s how a brief problem statement could look:

A 2017 report from [institution] showed that the town of [your community] has the highest [problem stat] per capita in the state of [your state]. Another study by [institution] confirmed these findings in 2020, highlighting the importance of [potential solution] in dealing with these issues.

There is a need for education and professional services in: [fields and industries] backed by expertise and a strong infrastructure.

To meet this need, [your organization] proposes a [your program] that would, for the first time, address the problem of [problem].

With PandaDoc, you get a free grant proposal template that has all of these sections incorporated!

Grant proposal template

Step 5. state your goals and objectives.

Another important part of the grant proposal process is clearly stating your goals and objectives.

In fact, many proposals fail because they forget or mishandle this step so all their hard work goes to waste!

Write details about the desired outcome and how success will be measured.

This section is key to providing information on the benefits that the grantee, community, government, or client will see for their investment.

And, although they sound similar, Goals and Objectives should be separated.

Think of Goals as broad statements and Objectives as more specific statements of intention with measurable outcomes and a time frame.

Here is an example of well-formulated goals and objectives.

Goal: Improve the literacy and overall ability of expression of children from inner-city schools in [the community].

Objective: By the end of the 2023 school year, improve the results of reading and writing tests for fourth-graders in [the community] by at least 20% compared to current results (55/100, on average).

Notice how the goal is more optimistic and abstract while the objective is more measurable and to the point.

Step 6. Project design: methods and strategies

Now that the funding agency or grantee knows your goals, it’s time to tell them how you plan on achieving them.

List the new hires and skills, additional facilities, transport, and support services you need to deliver the project and achieve the defined measures for success.

Good project management discipline and methodologies with detailed requirements specified and individual tasks articulated (project schedule) will keep a good focus on tasks, deliverables and results.

Step 7. The evaluation section: tracking success

This section covers process evaluation — how will you track your program’s progress?

It also includes the timeframe needed for evaluation and who will do the evaluation including the specific skills or products needed and the cost of the evaluation phase of the project.

This is one of the most important steps to writing a grant proposal, as all funders will look for evaluations.

Whether we’re talking about government agencies or private foundations, they all need to know if the program they invested in made a difference.

Evaluation can be quite expensive and need to have entry and exit criteria and specifically focused in-scope activities.

All out-of-scope evaluation activities need to be specified as this phase can easily blow out budget-wise.

Once again, solid project management discipline and methodologies will keep a good focus on evaluation tasks and results.

To go back to our child literacy example, here is how an evaluation would look for that project:

Project Evaluation

The program facilitators will administer both a set of pretests and posttests to students in order to determine to which degree the project is fulfilling the objectives. The periodic tests will be created by a set of outside collaborators (experts in child education) and will take place on a monthly basis for the duration of the program.

After each session, we will ask participating teachers to write a qualitative evaluation in order to identify areas of improvement and generate feedback […]

Step 8. Other funding sources and sustainability

Your founders won’t like the idea of investing in a short-term project that has no perspective.

They’ll be much more willing to recognize a long-term winner and reward a promising project that can run on a larger scale.

That’s why you need to show how you can make this happen.

This section of your grant proposal is for funding requirements that go beyond the project, total cost of ownership including ongoing maintenance, daily business, and operational support.

This may require you to articulate the projected ongoing costs (if any) for at least 5 years.

An accurate cost model needs to include all factors including inflation, specialist skills, ongoing training, potential future growth, and decommissioning expenses when the project or the product reaches the end of its life cycle.

Step 9. Outline a project budget

Of course, one of the most important grant proposal topics is budgeting . This is the moment when you go into detail about exactly how you’ll be using the resources from an operational standpoint.

Provide full justification for all expenses including a table of services (or service catalog) and product offered can be used to clearly and accurately specify the services.

Remember that the project budget section is the true meat of your grant proposal.

Overcharging or having a high quote can lose you the grant and even be seen as profiteering.

Underquoting might win you the business but you may not be able to deliver on your proposal which could adversely impact your standing with the grantee.

Many grantors underquote in the hope of hooking the reader and then looking for additional funding at a later stage.

This is a dangerous game to play and could affect your individual or company’s brand, community standing, or industry reputation.

Here’s how a project budget would look for a fictional grant for a cross-country research study:

Below a table like this, you can further clarify any key points, like what a research assistant will do and why they’re needed for the study.

You can also explain how you intend to use a specific piece of software to save time or money.

For example, PandaDoc can help you create forms and templates so that you can gather precise information in a uniform way.


Schedule a demo here and see for yourself how PandaDoc can expedite your grant proposal process. With PandaDoc, you’ll enjoy:

If filling out forms and gathering information is a key component of your research study, you’ll need a tool that can help you capture data quickly and easily without breaking the bank.

PandDoc is not a law firm, or a substitute for an attorney or law firm. This page is not intended to and does not provide legal advice. Should you have legal questions on the validity of e-signatures or digital signatures and the enforceability thereof, please consult with an attorney or law firm. Use of PandaDocs services are governed by our Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Frequently asked questions about grant proposals

What is the difference between a grant proposal and a grant letter.

It’s quite easy to confuse a grant proposal with a grant letter.

But a grant proposal contains all the sections we mentioned: the project’s summary, a cover letter, problem statement, etc. and is typically pretty long.

Some companies or individual investors consider this document too long and prefer a grant letter, which is a shorter, much more streamlined document. A grant letter typically doesn’t exceed 3-4 pages although it has a similar structure.

How do you write a scientific grant proposal?

Here you should emphasize the significance of your project and its contribution to science if implemented successfully.

Back it up with relevant statistics, scientific facts, and research data on the subject. It’s important to use simple terms comprehensible to the prospective Grantee.

Also, explain why you are the one who can finish this project: provide some proof of your expertise to make your proposal stronger.

How do you write a grant proposal for education?

Besides the project description, you need to mention how it will improve the education system.

Detail how your project will improve student’s productivity, increase their knowledge, and make their overall learning process better.

Educational projects usually involve a team of people who will put the idea into practice. Provide more information about each team member and why this person can perform their duties.

How to write a grant proposal for art?

Even though the inspiration can’t be forced, an art project should be time-specific. Mention the start and end date of your activity.

Otherwise, a prospective grant may not take it seriously.

Primarily you should convey your message to the grant-making organization, even if they don’t know much about the kind of art you create. Explain the idea in the simplest way so anybody can understand it clearly.

How do you write a grant proposal for a non-profit organization?

Unlike other organizations, an NGO needs to drill down to the key community issues and show how deeply its work can affect the people it’s meant to serve.

Given the democratic and often local nature of NGOs, their work will be viewed more through an altruistic lens.

An NGO also needs to pay special attention to demonstrating the sustainability of the project over time, since that’s a unique problem to NGOs and something that commercial businesses have already dealt with.

How many pages should a grant proposal be?

There isn’t a strict rule when it comes to grant proposals — their length will always depend on the complexity of the issue it covers and the amount of research behind it.

Typically, a grant proposal should be up to 25 pages , although different funding institutions will often put this in their “ Rules ” section — so read those carefully!

How many hours does it take to write a grant proposal?

Proposal writing is slightly different from regular writing: it needs to follow a specific structure and rules.

Add to that all the research and argumentation needed to write a good proposal, and you’ll be looking at hours, days, or even weeks if you’re really a perfectionist.

As a rule of thumb, you should devote one week to writing a proposal. Although you might finish earlier, it’s good to have enough time to cover everything.

Originally was published March 2014 and has been updated for comprehensiveness in February 2023

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Planning and Writing a Grant Proposal: The Basics

Grant Proposal Writing is Exciting, Imaginative Work

Download this Handout PDF

Overview Additional Resources about Grants and Grant Writing Considering the Audience, Purpose, and Expectations of a Grant Proposal Common Elements of Grant Proposals General Tips Successful Sample Proposals

So, you want to write a grant proposal? This is exciting! This means that you have valuable research to do or a particular nonprofit to build or a community resource you’re passionate about developing. You have a distinct vision for how something could be improved or advanced, and you’re ready to ask for funding or other support to help this vision become a reality.

writing a grant proposal

As you reach toward this unrealized vision by developing a grant proposal, you should think about successful grant writing as an act of imagination. Professor Kate Vieira, a Curriculum and Instruction professor at UW-Madison with considerable grant writing experience, describes grant proposal writing as a creative process akin to fiction writing—these are works of imagination. Professor Vieira recommends approaching the task of writing a grant proposal with an attitude of wonder and excitement as you strive to turn your ideas into something real. You have a great idea, and you think that you’re the best person to achieve a specific goal. Now you just need to convince others to get excited about this vision as well.

On this page, we offer some ways of thinking about grant proposals and advice about the process of planning and writing a proposal. We consider grant proposals; overall purposes, audiences, and expectations in order to make this information applicable across a range of contexts. However, this general approach has important limits . First, you will need to get more tailored advice about grant writing within your specific discipline or sphere. Second, you’ll need to follow very carefully the exact instructions about proposals from the granting agencies to which you are applying.

Talk with professors, mentors, previous grant recipients, the funding agency/group you are applying to, and trusted advisers in your field to learn more about what successful grant proposals look like in your situation and to get feedback on your plan and on your drafting process.

Before you start writing your grant proposal, you’ll want to make sure that you:

When you’ve done all of this, you’re ready to start drafting your proposal!

Additional Resources about Grants and Grant Writing

For students, faculty, or staff at UW–Madison, a great place to learn more about grants, grant proposal writing, and granting institutions is the Grants Information Collection at UW–Madison’s Memorial Library. Check out their website and our review of some of their materials as well as links to other useful grant resources here.

Considering the Audience, Purpose, and Expectations of a Grant Proposal

A grant proposal is a very clear, direct document written to a particular organization or funding agency with the purpose of persuading the reviewers to provide you with support because: (1) you have an important and fully considered plan to advance a valuable cause, and (2) you are responsible and capable of realizing that plan.

As you begin planning and drafting your grant proposal, ask yourself:

Common Elements of Grant Proposals

General tips, pay attention to the agency’s key interests..

As mentioned earlier, if there are keywords in the call for proposals—or in the funding organization’s mission or goal—be sure to use some of those terms throughout your proposal. But don’t be too heavy–handed. You want to help your readers understand the connections that exist between your project and their purpose without belaboring these connections.

Organize ideas through numbered lists.

Some grant writers use numbered lists to organize their ideas within their proposal. They set up these lists with phrases like, “This project’s three main goals are . . . ” or, “This plan will involve four stages . . . ” Using numbers in this way may not be eloquent, but it can an efficient way to present your information in a clear and skimmable manner.

Write carefully customized proposals.

Because grant funding is so competitive, you will likely be applying for several different grants from multiple funding agencies. But if you do this, make sure that you carefully design each proposal to respond to the different interests, expectations, and guidelines of each source. While you might scavenge parts of one proposal for another, never use the exact same proposal twice . Additionally when you apply to more than one source at the same time, be sure to think strategically about the kind of support you are asking from which organization. Do your research to find out, for example, which source is more likely to support a request for materials and which is more interested in covering the cost of personnel.

Go after grants of all sizes.

Pay attention to small grant opportunities as well as big grant opportunities. In fact, sometimes securing a smaller grant can make your appeal for a larger grant more attractive. Showing that one or two stakeholders have already supported your project can bolster your credibility.

Don’t give up! Keep on writing!

Writing a grant proposal is hard work. It requires you to closely analyze your vision and consider critically how your solution will effectively respond to a gap, problem, or deficiency. And often, even for seasoned grant writers, this process ends with rejection. But while grant writers don’t receive many of the grants they apply to, they find the process of carefully delineating and justifying their objectives and methods to be productive. Writing closely about your project helps you think about and assess it regardless of what the grant committee decides. And of course, if you do receive a grant, the writing won’t be over. Many grants require progress reports and updates, so be prepared to keep on writing!

Successful Sample Grant Proposals

One of the best ways to learn how to write grant proposals is to analyze successful samples. We’ve annotated and uploaded three very different kinds of successful proposals written by colleagues associated with UW–Madison. We encourage you to carefully read these samples along with the annotations we’ve provided that direct your attention to specific ways each one is doing the work of a strong proposal. But don’t stop with these! Find additional samples on your own of successful proposals like the one you’re writing to help guide and further your understanding of what has worked and been persuasive.

writing a grant proposal

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Grant Proposals (or Give me the money!)

What this handout is about.

This handout will help you write and revise grant proposals for research funding in all academic disciplines (sciences, social sciences, humanities, and the arts). It’s targeted primarily to graduate students and faculty, although it will also be helpful to undergraduate students who are seeking funding for research (e.g. for a senior thesis).

The grant writing process

A grant proposal or application is a document or set of documents that is submitted to an organization with the explicit intent of securing funding for a research project. Grant writing varies widely across the disciplines, and research intended for epistemological purposes (philosophy or the arts) rests on very different assumptions than research intended for practical applications (medicine or social policy research). Nonetheless, this handout attempts to provide a general introduction to grant writing across the disciplines.

Before you begin writing your proposal, you need to know what kind of research you will be doing and why. You may have a topic or experiment in mind, but taking the time to define what your ultimate purpose is can be essential to convincing others to fund that project. Although some scholars in the humanities and arts may not have thought about their projects in terms of research design, hypotheses, research questions, or results, reviewers and funding agencies expect you to frame your project in these terms. You may also find that thinking about your project in these terms reveals new aspects of it to you.

Writing successful grant applications is a long process that begins with an idea. Although many people think of grant writing as a linear process (from idea to proposal to award), it is a circular process. Many people start by defining their research question or questions. What knowledge or information will be gained as a direct result of your project? Why is undertaking your research important in a broader sense? You will need to explicitly communicate this purpose to the committee reviewing your application. This is easier when you know what you plan to achieve before you begin the writing process.

Diagram 1 below provides an overview of the grant writing process and may help you plan your proposal development.

A chart labeled The Grant Writing Process that provides and overview of the steps of grant writing: identifying a need, finding grants, developing a proposal and budget, submitting the proposal, accepting or declining awards, carrying out the project, and filing a report with funding agencies.

Applicants must write grant proposals, submit them, receive notice of acceptance or rejection, and then revise their proposals. Unsuccessful grant applicants must revise and resubmit their proposals during the next funding cycle. Successful grant applications and the resulting research lead to ideas for further research and new grant proposals.

Cultivating an ongoing, positive relationship with funding agencies may lead to additional grants down the road. Thus, make sure you file progress reports and final reports in a timely and professional manner. Although some successful grant applicants may fear that funding agencies will reject future proposals because they’ve already received “enough” funding, the truth is that money follows money. Individuals or projects awarded grants in the past are more competitive and thus more likely to receive funding in the future.

Some general tips

Before you start writing

Identify your needs and focus.

First, identify your needs. Answering the following questions may help you:

Next, think about the focus of your research/project. Answering the following questions may help you narrow it down:

Once you have identified your needs and focus, you can begin looking for prospective grants and funding agencies.

Finding prospective grants and funding agencies

Whether your proposal receives funding will rely in large part on whether your purpose and goals closely match the priorities of granting agencies. Locating possible grantors is a time consuming task, but in the long run it will yield the greatest benefits. Even if you have the most appealing research proposal in the world, if you don’t send it to the right institutions, then you’re unlikely to receive funding.

There are many sources of information about granting agencies and grant programs. Most universities and many schools within universities have Offices of Research, whose primary purpose is to support faculty and students in grant-seeking endeavors. These offices usually have libraries or resource centers to help people find prospective grants.

At UNC, the Research at Carolina office coordinates research support.

The GrantSource Library , located in Bynum Hall, provides grant-seeking assistance to UNC students and faculty. The GrantSource Library maintains a wide variety of resources (books, journals, and online databases) and offers workshops to help students and faculty find funding.

The UNC Medical School and School of Public Health each have their own Office of Research.

Writing your proposal

The majority of grant programs recruit academic reviewers with knowledge of the disciplines and/or program areas of the grant. Thus, when writing your grant proposals, assume that you are addressing a colleague who is knowledgeable in the general area, but who does not necessarily know the details about your research questions.

Remember that most readers are lazy and will not respond well to a poorly organized, poorly written, or confusing proposal. Be sure to give readers what they want. Follow all the guidelines for the particular grant you are applying for. This may require you to reframe your project in a different light or language. Reframing your project to fit a specific grant’s requirements is a legitimate and necessary part of the process unless it will fundamentally change your project’s goals or outcomes.

Final decisions about which proposals are funded often come down to whether the proposal convinces the reviewer that the research project is well planned and feasible and whether the investigators are well qualified to execute it. Throughout the proposal, be as explicit as possible. Predict the questions that the reviewer may have and answer them. Przeworski and Salomon (1995) note that reviewers read with three questions in mind:

Be sure to answer these questions in your proposal. Keep in mind that reviewers may not read every word of your proposal. Your reviewer may only read the abstract, the sections on research design and methodology, the vitae, and the budget. Make these sections as clear and straightforward as possible.

The way you write your grant will tell the reviewers a lot about you (Reif-Lehrer 82). From reading your proposal, the reviewers will form an idea of who you are as a scholar, a researcher, and a person. They will decide whether you are creative, logical, analytical, up-to-date in the relevant literature of the field, and, most importantly, capable of executing the proposed project. Allow your discipline and its conventions to determine the general style of your writing, but allow your own voice and personality to come through. Be sure to clarify your project’s theoretical orientation.

Develop a general proposal and budget

Because most proposal writers seek funding from several different agencies or granting programs, it is a good idea to begin by developing a general grant proposal and budget. This general proposal is sometimes called a “white paper.” Your general proposal should explain your project to a general academic audience. Before you submit proposals to different grant programs, you will tailor a specific proposal to their guidelines and priorities.

Organizing your proposal

Although each funding agency will have its own (usually very specific) requirements, there are several elements of a proposal that are fairly standard, and they often come in the following order:

Literature review

Format the proposal so that it is easy to read. Use headings to break the proposal up into sections. If it is long, include a table of contents with page numbers.

The title page usually includes a brief yet explicit title for the research project, the names of the principal investigator(s), the institutional affiliation of the applicants (the department and university), name and address of the granting agency, project dates, amount of funding requested, and signatures of university personnel authorizing the proposal (when necessary). Most funding agencies have specific requirements for the title page; make sure to follow them.

The abstract provides readers with their first impression of your project. To remind themselves of your proposal, readers may glance at your abstract when making their final recommendations, so it may also serve as their last impression of your project. The abstract should explain the key elements of your research project in the future tense. Most abstracts state: (1) the general purpose, (2) specific goals, (3) research design, (4) methods, and (5) significance (contribution and rationale). Be as explicit as possible in your abstract. Use statements such as, “The objective of this study is to …”


The introduction should cover the key elements of your proposal, including a statement of the problem, the purpose of research, research goals or objectives, and significance of the research. The statement of problem should provide a background and rationale for the project and establish the need and relevance of the research. How is your project different from previous research on the same topic? Will you be using new methodologies or covering new theoretical territory? The research goals or objectives should identify the anticipated outcomes of the research and should match up to the needs identified in the statement of problem. List only the principle goal(s) or objective(s) of your research and save sub-objectives for the project narrative.

Many proposals require a literature review. Reviewers want to know whether you’ve done the necessary preliminary research to undertake your project. Literature reviews should be selective and critical, not exhaustive. Reviewers want to see your evaluation of pertinent works. For more information, see our handout on literature reviews .

Project narrative

The project narrative provides the meat of your proposal and may require several subsections. The project narrative should supply all the details of the project, including a detailed statement of problem, research objectives or goals, hypotheses, methods, procedures, outcomes or deliverables, and evaluation and dissemination of the research.

For the project narrative, pre-empt and/or answer all of the reviewers’ questions. Don’t leave them wondering about anything. For example, if you propose to conduct unstructured interviews with open-ended questions, be sure you’ve explained why this methodology is best suited to the specific research questions in your proposal. Or, if you’re using item response theory rather than classical test theory to verify the validity of your survey instrument, explain the advantages of this innovative methodology. Or, if you need to travel to Valdez, Alaska to access historical archives at the Valdez Museum, make it clear what documents you hope to find and why they are relevant to your historical novel on the ’98ers in the Alaskan Gold Rush.

Clearly and explicitly state the connections between your research objectives, research questions, hypotheses, methodologies, and outcomes. As the requirements for a strong project narrative vary widely by discipline, consult a discipline-specific guide to grant writing for some additional advice.

Explain staffing requirements in detail and make sure that staffing makes sense. Be very explicit about the skill sets of the personnel already in place (you will probably include their Curriculum Vitae as part of the proposal). Explain the necessary skill sets and functions of personnel you will recruit. To minimize expenses, phase out personnel who are not relevant to later phases of a project.

The budget spells out project costs and usually consists of a spreadsheet or table with the budget detailed as line items and a budget narrative (also known as a budget justification) that explains the various expenses. Even when proposal guidelines do not specifically mention a narrative, be sure to include a one or two page explanation of the budget. To see a sample budget, turn to Example #1 at the end of this handout.

Consider including an exhaustive budget for your project, even if it exceeds the normal grant size of a particular funding organization. Simply make it clear that you are seeking additional funding from other sources. This technique will make it easier for you to combine awards down the road should you have the good fortune of receiving multiple grants.

Make sure that all budget items meet the funding agency’s requirements. For example, all U.S. government agencies have strict requirements for airline travel. Be sure the cost of the airline travel in your budget meets their requirements. If a line item falls outside an agency’s requirements (e.g. some organizations will not cover equipment purchases or other capital expenses), explain in the budget justification that other grant sources will pay for the item.

Many universities require that indirect costs (overhead) be added to grants that they administer. Check with the appropriate offices to find out what the standard (or required) rates are for overhead. Pass a draft budget by the university officer in charge of grant administration for assistance with indirect costs and costs not directly associated with research (e.g. facilities use charges).

Furthermore, make sure you factor in the estimated taxes applicable for your case. Depending on the categories of expenses and your particular circumstances (whether you are a foreign national, for example), estimated tax rates may differ. You can consult respective departmental staff or university services, as well as professional tax assistants. For information on taxes on scholarships and fellowships, see .

Explain the timeframe for the research project in some detail. When will you begin and complete each step? It may be helpful to reviewers if you present a visual version of your timeline. For less complicated research, a table summarizing the timeline for the project will help reviewers understand and evaluate the planning and feasibility. See Example #2 at the end of this handout.

For multi-year research proposals with numerous procedures and a large staff, a time line diagram can help clarify the feasibility and planning of the study. See Example #3 at the end of this handout.

Revising your proposal

Strong grant proposals take a long time to develop. Start the process early and leave time to get feedback from several readers on different drafts. Seek out a variety of readers, both specialists in your research area and non-specialist colleagues. You may also want to request assistance from knowledgeable readers on specific areas of your proposal. For example, you may want to schedule a meeting with a statistician to help revise your methodology section. Don’t hesitate to seek out specialized assistance from the relevant research offices on your campus. At UNC, the Odum Institute provides a variety of services to graduate students and faculty in the social sciences.

In your revision and editing, ask your readers to give careful consideration to whether you’ve made explicit the connections between your research objectives and methodology. Here are some example questions:

If a granting agency lists particular criteria used for rating and evaluating proposals, be sure to share these with your own reviewers.

Example #1. Sample Budget

Jet travel $6,100 This estimate is based on the commercial high season rate for jet economy travel on Sabena Belgian Airlines. No U.S. carriers fly to Kigali, Rwanda. Sabena has student fare tickets available which will be significantly less expensive (approximately $2,000).

Maintenance allowance $22,788 Based on the Fulbright-Hays Maintenance Allowances published in the grant application guide.

Research assistant/translator $4,800 The research assistant/translator will be a native (and primary) speaker of Kinya-rwanda with at least a four-year university degree. He/she will accompany the primary investigator during life history interviews to provide assistance in comprehension. In addition, he/she will provide commentary, explanations, and observations to facilitate the primary investigator’s participant observation. During the first phase of the project in Kigali, the research assistant will work forty hours a week and occasional overtime as needed. During phases two and three in rural Rwanda, the assistant will stay with the investigator overnight in the field when necessary. The salary of $400 per month is based on the average pay rate for individuals with similar qualifications working for international NGO’s in Rwanda.

Transportation within country, phase one $1,200 The primary investigator and research assistant will need regular transportation within Kigali by bus and taxi. The average taxi fare in Kigali is $6-8 and bus fare is $.15. This figure is based on an average of $10 per day in transportation costs during the first project phase.

Transportation within country, phases two and three $12,000 Project personnel will also require regular transportation between rural field sites. If it is not possible to remain overnight, daily trips will be necessary. The average rental rate for a 4×4 vehicle in Rwanda is $130 per day. This estimate is based on an average of $50 per day in transportation costs for the second and third project phases. These costs could be reduced if an arrangement could be made with either a government ministry or international aid agency for transportation assistance.

Email $720 The rate for email service from RwandaTel (the only service provider in Rwanda) is $60 per month. Email access is vital for receiving news reports on Rwanda and the region as well as for staying in contact with dissertation committee members and advisors in the United States.

Audiocassette tapes $400 Audiocassette tapes will be necessary for recording life history interviews, musical performances, community events, story telling, and other pertinent data.

Photographic & slide film $100 Photographic and slide film will be necessary to document visual data such as landscape, environment, marriages, funerals, community events, etc.

Laptop computer $2,895 A laptop computer will be necessary for recording observations, thoughts, and analysis during research project. Price listed is a special offer to UNC students through the Carolina Computing Initiative.

NUD*IST 4.0 software $373.00 NUD*IST, “Nonnumerical, Unstructured Data, Indexing, Searching, and Theorizing,” is necessary for cataloging, indexing, and managing field notes both during and following the field research phase. The program will assist in cataloging themes that emerge during the life history interviews.

Administrative fee $100 Fee set by Fulbright-Hays for the sponsoring institution.

Example #2: Project Timeline in Table Format

Example #3: project timeline in chart format.

A chart displaying project activities with activities listed in the left column and grant years divided into quarters in the top row with rectangles darkened to indicate in which quarter each activity in the left column occurs.

Some closing advice

Some of us may feel ashamed or embarrassed about asking for money or promoting ourselves. Often, these feelings have more to do with our own insecurities than with problems in the tone or style of our writing. If you’re having trouble because of these types of hang-ups, the most important thing to keep in mind is that it never hurts to ask. If you never ask for the money, they’ll never give you the money. Besides, the worst thing they can do is say no.

UNC resources for proposal writing

Research at Carolina

The Odum Institute for Research in the Social Sciences

UNC Medical School Office of Research

UNC School of Public Health Office of Research

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Holloway, Brian R. 2003. Proposal Writing Across the Disciplines. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Levine, S. Joseph. “Guide for Writing a Funding Proposal.” .

Locke, Lawrence F., Waneen Wyrick Spirduso, and Stephen J. Silverman. 2014. Proposals That Work . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Przeworski, Adam, and Frank Salomon. 2012. “Some Candid Suggestions on the Art of Writing Proposals.” Social Science Research Council. .

Reif-Lehrer, Liane. 1989. Writing a Successful Grant Application . Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Wiggins, Beverly. 2002. “Funding and Proposal Writing for Social Science Faculty and Graduate Student Research.” Chapel Hill: Howard W. Odum Institute for Research in Social Science. 2 Feb. 2004.

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How To Write An Effective Grant Proposal | A Nonprofit’s Guide

How To Write An Effective Grant Proposal | A Nonprofit’s Guide

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Let’s pause…

Before you go ahead and dive deep into nonprofit grant proposal writing, take a moment to ask yourself:

“Does my nonprofit need to be applying for a grant in the first place?”

For many nonprofits, grants are very appealing. They can provide the opportunity for an organization or business to make a significant impact on its community that it would otherwise be unable to fund .

On the other hand, writing effective grant proposals can seem like stepping into a confusing, long labyrinth, and one that comes with many strings attached.

Therefore, it’s important to know if applying to grants is the right decision for funding your nonprofit, amongst many other funding sources at your disposal. And if so, how much energy should you invest in the process? Now, let’s understand the basics of grants, different types of grants, and how your nonprofit can write an effective grant proposal step by step.

Table of Contents:

What are Grants?

What is grant proposal.

How do I know if I should apply for a grant? And where can I find them?

The most common myths about nonprofit grants.

Grant Proposals: The Basics

Grant Proposal Cover Letter (Format, Samples, and Tips)

A grant is a bounty, contribution, gift, or subsidy (in cash or kind) bestowed by a government or other organization (called the grantor) for specified purposes to an eligible recipient (called the grantee).

Grants are usually conditional upon certain qualifications as to the use, maintenance of specified standards, or a proportional contribution by the grantee or other grantor(s).

– Business Dictionary

Grants are typically awarded to nonprofit organizations for a distinct program or purpose.  Grantmaker generally focus their “giving” on:

A grant proposal is a request that a funder joins the nonprofit as a partner to achieve specific results. It is an appeal for money (a grant) that is sent to either a profit or non-profit grant-awarding organization. Every year, many corporations, organizations, and government agencies dispense billions of dollars in grants to companies for addressing issues these organizations are interested in. At its best, a grant proposal must be a persuasive and well-supported argument for change.

writing effective grant proposal

Different Types of Grants

Grants can provide different types of support for your organization .

For example:

Pro tip: Grant-based funding isn’t sustainable alone. It has to be part of a diversified fundraising plan. Many fundraising experts recommend that no more than 20% of your funding comes from grants. Any more than that and you risk sinking your organization if a key grant falls through.

Grants are most certainly not the answer to securing funds quickly or in a pinch.

However, they are a great solution for nonprofits looking to raise the funds necessary to carry out carefully planned programs.

Read more about where to find grants for your nonprofit here .

Check out winning grant proposals at Grantspace .

1. Foundations and corporations are like Santa Claus.

While there’s indeed a lot of money available to nonprofits out there, over 50 billion dollars to be precise, this money isn’t just sitting there waiting for you to ask for it. You’ll need to put the work in, and the requirements can be demanding.

2. Only big nonprofits can apply.

There are grants out there for all types and sizes of nonprofits. In addition to that, while many grants are project-specific, there are plenty of grants that are unrestricted and can fund some of your operating costs or capital campaigns as well.

3. Grant writing is a mysterious, strange art.

While there’s definitely a lot to learn about how to write excellent, winning grant proposals, it’s also not magic. Once you learn the basics, developing a winning nonprofit grant proposal is quite logical.

writing effective grant proposal

How to Write an Effective Grant Proposal [Step-by-Step]

1. Be Prepared

First, create a diversified fundraising plan – where grants are only one of the funding sources.

Take time to analyze if applying for a grant is really the best way to fund the desired project/campaign.

Commit yourself to apply to a grant only if you match all the foundation’s qualifications and you’re willing to research and write tailored applications for each foundation. Also, apply only for the kinds of funding you already identified you are pursuing in your fundraising plan. This will save everyone time and energy.

Additionally, make sure you have the resources and time to research foundations and grant writing opportunities for your organization. Really ask yourself if your organization has the capacity to accomplish what is asked.

Furthermore, find a qualified writer who has experience writing grants, or invest in grant writing training for an existing staff member.

Pro tip: Create a grant calendar that includes all the important dates and deadlines for grants you wish to apply for in the next year or two.

2. Don’t Be Generic

If you want to have any chance at all at getting your grant application approved, you can’t write one generic application and send off duplicates to different foundations. This makes it appear to a reviewer that your application is an afterthought, and that’s not a good thing.

The most essential guidelines of them all: you need to tailor your application to whichever organization you’re submitting it to.

To do that, you’ll need to do some intense research. Carefully examine the call for proposals and the organization’s website. This can help you draw connections that may then aid you in preparing your application.

Grantmakers are usually looking for a specific cause or subject to fund, so always make sure to thoroughly read what the grantmaker is interested in understanding. Ensure that it’s relevant to your organization’s mission before applying.

Pro tip: Never compromise your mission or beliefs in order to get any kind of funding.

3. Data Yet Again

Data is what wins grants.

Even if you hire the most experienced grant writer , messy data that are sprinkled throughout the organization will prevent grant-writing from ever even getting started.

If you don’t collect relevant data, as well as manage and update it, there’s not much that can be done.

A warm story  might get someone to give you $20 out of their pocket. But a foundation with $50,000 grants can’t give based on heart-warming stories alone.

Successful grant applications focus on the impact. The best grant proposals distill into clear and plain language the need that the grant will address and the unique approach that the organization’s proposed initiative takes to do so.

Pro tip: Search the Internet for previously funded grant applications that have been posted online by organizations that received grant awards. Learn from a mixture of grant applications that were funded by the federal government, foundations, and corporations.

tips to write nonprofit grant

Before Submitting the Grant Proposal:

1. review and get a fresh perspective.

When we’ve been reading, speaking, living, and breathing our nonprofit – we can become a bit blind to the language we’re using.

Assume that the funder isn’t familiar at all with the work that you do. Write as if the funder will be hearing about your nonprofit for the first time.

Avoid jargon and abbreviations. If you’re struggling to take a step back, it can be helpful to ask for someone who’s less familiar with the work that you do to take a look and give you their feedback (e.g. a friend or a willing acquaintance).

2. Get Clear And Concise

Funders will lose interest if your application is too difficult to understand or takes too much of their time.

No one should be trying to figure out what you’re trying to say or what you’re asking for the money for. Be clear and straightforward in your request.

3. Double-Check the Grant Application

Before sending over a full, long grant proposal, you’d typically first send a letter of inquiry.

Many trusts and foundations require a letter of inquiry or request of an application prior to submitting your application.

The letter of inquiry serves as an introduction to your project and a way to gauge interest from the funding committee. If they want additional information, they will respond with a request for a more in-depth proposal.

The letter should be no longer than two pages.

In the letter of inquiry, be as specific as possible. Add examples in a concise, succinct manner. Keep language simple and avoid ambiguous or general generic statements.

Following the letter of inquiry, if you’re invited to send a more in-depth proposal, you’d typically send a 7-10-page document providing more information about your organization, the project, the needs, and the outcomes. This proposal typically includes a cover letter and appendices, as well.

Note that some grant foundations prefer a concise proposal of about 3-5 pages instead of this typical longer proposal. This one is sometimes referred to as a letter of proposal.

tips to write nonprofit grant

9 Essential Components of a Good Grant Proposal [Template Included]

Note that different foundations and grantmakers might require a different format. Always carefully read the call for proposals before embarking on the writing process.

The grant proposal writing process consists of the following stages:

1. Proposal Summary

Provide a short overview of the entire proposal. Include the funds you’re requesting through the grant, as well as the resources that others will contribute.

2. Introduction to the Applicant

Describe your nonprofit organization and make a case for your credibility. Explain why you can be trusted to steward the funds responsibly. Also share your organization’s history, your success record, and why you’re the right fit for the project.

3. The Need/The Problem Statement

Establish the need for your project. Demonstrate who will benefit and how will they benefit. State the consequences of not funding the project and the needs not being addressed. This should be a factual, well-documented description of the situation. Share about what concerns you and why it matters.

Pro tip: Incorporate a case study of a real beneficiary your organization has served. Show a real need of a real person (of course – change the name for confidentiality reasons). Explain your time frame, and why securing funding is critical now.

4. The Objectives and Outcomes

What are the desired outcomes? Define the goals and state how you will measure whether you’ve achieved them.   Lay down the specific, measurable outcomes you expect your project activities to produce. Objectives should be consistent with your statement of need.

5. Program Plan

How are you going to execute the project? Describe the ways in which you will achieve the objectives. What will be your key activities? Provide thorough details about them. Who will do what? When and how will they do it?

6. The Capacity

You also need to explain how your organization is preparing for the project. For example, do you have adequate, trained staff and a supportive board and community? Connect this to the time frame – how will you execute your program plan in time?

7. Evaluation Plan

Describe how you’ll evaluate that the objectives have been reached. How will you track and measure whether activities are rolling out as planned? How will you know you’re succeeding and what will tell you that?

8. Program Budget

Provide a thorough and realistic budget. You must try to include details of expenses as well as other sources of anticipated revenue. For instance, such as by the applicant organization or the resources that other partners will contribute.

9. Sustained Impact

Talk about the long-term.   Does your project need continuous funds or is it a one-time undertaking? How will you continue to produce impact  beyond the period of grant funding?

Note:   Some funders may require that you attach specific documents to your proposals, such as your organization’s 501(c)(3) letter from the Internal Revenue Service, a list of your board directors and their affiliations, your current operating budget, or letters from partner organizations.

nonprofit grant proposals

Your Grant Proposal Cover Letter Must Include:

Cover Letter Format

Find Cover Letter Format here.

A sample cover letter and sample grant proposal can be found here .

Key Tips & Strategies for Grant Proposal Cover Letter

Examples of Grant Proposals for Nonprofit Organizations (Sample):

Take inspiration from some of the most successful grant proposals:

Over To You

Winning a grant is almost like completing a long-distance run. Grant applications are often rejected the first time.

It’s important to have an existing relationship with the grant-giving organization to improve the likelihood of acceptance. Like all fundraising , no might mean “no for now” and much of it boils down to relationships.

For that reason, if your grant proposal is rejected, respond graciously. Contact the funder to ask if you might try to submit again with appropriate changes or if they might still be interested later in a different project. However, don’t become a pest or turn sour – don’t burn the bridge!

You may not be able to control everything that influences the decisions of grant-givers. However, you can increase your chances of approval by clearly communicating your organization’s mission and credibility, stating the need for the project and how you’ll be meeting that need, and your passion for what you are trying to accomplish.

Choose Donorbox as your donation system and check out our Nonprofit blog  for more nonprofit resources and tips.

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Raviraj heads the sales and marketing team at Donorbox. His growth-hacking abilities have helped Donorbox boost fundraising efforts for thousands of nonprofit organizations.

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writing a grant proposal

What is a Grant Proposal: Grant Writing 101

As a nonprofit organization, you are familiar with the role of grant funding in your operations. However, receiving grant funding is something that continues to elude even the most veteran of grant writers more often than one might think. The best tactic for seeing award letters in your inbox is understanding what a grant proposal really is.

This article will give you a great start at understanding what a grant proposal is, it will cover the common sections of a proposal, and it will showcase a few samples to get your writing off on a solid path.

If you are ready to dig into proposal writing, keep reading!

What is a Grant Proposal?

Before you start researching funding opportunities, you should know what a grant proposal is. A grant proposal is a document outlining a project or program with the intent to justify your need for support and map out your plan of action against that need.

This document will make the case that you have a compelling need for funding and that you are uniquely positioned to utilize those requested funds to realize positive outcomes.

What are the Most Common Sections of a Grant Proposal?

Writing a grant proposal may seem overwhelming or complicated. There is also a lot riding on writing the proposal well. However, if you divide a grant proposal into its most common sections, it gives you the opportunity to write in shorter spurts.

Thinking of the proposal as a sum of its parts gives you smaller benchmarks to write toward. The following is a list of the most common sections of a grant proposal and things to keep in mind as you write.

Executive Summary

Grant proposals typically lead with an executive summary ; however, you may want to write this section last. Just as its title suggests, this is a summary of your proposal.

An executive summary is your first impression, high-level overview of your project. Whether the funder finds your project in alignment and interesting may lie in only reading your executive summary.

Writing the remainder of your proposal first makes the most sense. You are more likely to accurately and succinctly summarize your proposal after you have already written the other sections.

Needs Statement

A needs statement is what really drives the entirety of your proposal. This is the section that will lead your narrative outlining why you have submitted your funding request. Your needs statement should outline the fundamental problem or gap that exists that you are uniquely qualified to solve with the requested support.

A needs statement is a statement, so think in terms of writing a few sentences, not multiple paragraphs. Finally, your needs statement should align with the goal or intent of the funding opportunity as presented by the grantmaker.

Need to see more specifics on what a needs statement is and how to write one? You can dive deeper in our post on how to write a needs statement here .

Goals and Objectives

The intent of a proposal is to very clearly articulate your plan of action if you were to be awarded funding. The goals and objectives portion of your proposal is where your reviewers will be able to better understand your intended outcomes.

One highly-regarded strategy for writing goals is to follow the SMART framework. In this framework, goals should be: specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time bound. The University of California put out a paper detailing how to write SMART goals . You may want to check it out if this sounds unfamiliar to you.

After outlining your project goals, you will also be presenting your aligned objectives. Think of your objectives as your action steps for achieving your goals. The goals are the end outcomes and your objectives break down how you are going to get there.

Check out the Instrumentl Partner Webinar with Dr. Beverly Browning (Dr. Bev), author of Grant Writing for Dummies , to learn more about goals and objectives.

Method and Strategies

While the objectives outline action steps to meet goals, you will still need to describe your method and strategies for taking these action steps.

If your proposal is a funnel, the goals are the widest part of that funnel. As you become more specific, you describe your objectives. Carrying down further in specificity, you will provide the method and strategies you intend to use to achieve the objectives.

The method section is where you will really tell the reviewer how you intend to meet the stated need at the outset of your proposal. This is your plan of action. Your strategies will tell how you will execute your methodology.

Some proposals use these two terms interchangeably or ask for one or the other. They both speak to how you intend to act on solving the problem you outlined in your need statement.

Grant reviewers want to know how you (and they) will know you have hit the goals of your proposed project. Proposals should have an evaluation section that tells exactly how and when achievement will be measured. This evaluation should tie back to the stated project goals.

If you intend to utilize specific tools or rubrics to measure your project, call those out specifically and include them if the page count and appendice rules allow.

Information About Your Organization

When you write a proposal, you need to describe who you are for your reviewers. This isn’t the place to narrate your organization’s entire history and daily work efforts. Rather, briefly provide the most important details about your nonprofit that are connected to your current funding request.

Some details you may want to include in the information about your organization section:

Project Budget

It is expected that in a request for funding you would want to include how you propose that funding will be spent. Your proposal should include a section dedicated to your project budget.

Often, your project budget section will have two parts.

Budget Spreadsheet- A budget template resembles a standard spreadsheet. Unless the application specifies exactly what they want to see in your budget, there are innumerable ways to craft your budget. Most commonly, budgets are built on categories of spending. Some of the most common categories are:

If you want to have a visual starting point to draft your own proposal budget, we wrote a blog that provides more insight on the proposal budget and budget templates as a starting point.

Budget Narrative- In a budget narrative, you will describe the elements of your project that the funds will support. This is not a time for descriptive or superfluous language. It is a place to articulate your budget items a bit more specifically than a line item or budget category allows. The budget narrative should directly correlate with the budget table you included.

One method for writing a budget narrative is to write in sections that align with each of your budget categories. Call out your categories and describe in more detail what each category will entail at the individual activity level. A budget narrative is an opportunity to have the typical budget spreadsheet expanded for more meaning and understanding of your project.

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Common Types of Grant Proposals

A grant proposal is a relatively universal way to access support funding. The format is basically the same whether the proposal is solicited via an application process, a request for proposals, or as a communication tool between a single organization and potential funder.

Capital Grants

It is challenging to build in capital expenditures to a nonprofit budget. Margins are tight and funds tend to be short in accomplishing all that you set out to do. The inability to set aside large amounts of money for capital projects means that nonprofits often rely on capital grants to fund capital projects.

Capital grants are a relatively common type of grant proposal due to the pressing need for capital funding options. Capital projects tend to have big price tags.

Coinciding with capital grant proposals, nonprofit organizations often engage in capital campaigns. These campaigns provide opportunities for stakeholders to contribute their support for these large-scale projects. Additionally, a capital campaign can help address any match that may be required by the grantmaker.

We will discuss matching grants in more detail in another section.

Program / Project Grants

The most common grant proposal is one requesting support for a program or project. In a program grant, the funds will be used for a specific purpose referenced in the grant proposal. These proposals typically articulate a funding need that is somewhat entirely encompassed by the grant funds requested.

These proposals request funds that will not be used outside of the project presented. No ongoing overhead is typically included in a program/project proposal. Think of these funds as stand alone. While the grant funding is available, the project can be completed. Without the grant, the work would tend to cease to exist.

Many program or project grant applications will ask that you speak to your ability to sustain the program beyond the term of the grant. So, although it is common to request funds for a project that otherwise couldn’t exist, keep in mind ways you might be able to sustain outcomes you realize during the funding period.

General Operating Grants

While capital and project grants have tangible and exact intended uses of funds, there is often a need for less specific funding to support ongoing operations. This is what is called an operating grant.

In the past few years, grantmakers have expanded their funding scope to include more operating grant opportunities. These grants have historically been less represented as it is hard for a foundation to attach their mission to something as ambiguous as ongoing operation efforts for a nonprofit.

Matching / In-Kind Grants

In order to stretch their resources, grantmakers will often offer matching or in-kind grant opportunities.

These grants require funding from the applicant. They will specify where these match funds can come from. This is an important detail to pay attention to, as some matching grants allow you to use other grant funds for your match while some require these to come from your general operating budget.

Each grant will specify the required match amount. As an example, if you were applying for a $100,000 grant that required a 20% match, you would be asked to contribute $20,000 to the project.

Tips for Writing Grant Proposals in Different Fields

As a nonprofit, you know that not all industries function exactly the same. Similarly, not all fields approach grant funds the same way. There are three main sources for grant funding:

You can utilize Instrumentl’s funder search capabilities to identify grants provided by each of these different funding sources.

Within each of those main funding sources, there are also different fields of focus. Different fields may have slightly different expectations for what should be included in a grant proposal. We have put together a list of some of the more common fields open for grant funding and specific tips on writing for each of them.

Research Grants

Most of our innovative and cutting edge discoveries have been found under grant funded programs. Research grants are quite common in the science, technology, and medical fields. At times, these grants are highly-competitive and can result in large multi-year contracts.

So, how do you get awarded a research grant?

There are some key strategies for getting research funded. Here are our top five:

Community Grants

Another common grant field is in the community and youth program industry. There are many grants available for things like after school programs and family support. Some things to think about as you consider applying for community grants:

Health-related Grants

Our final example of field-specific grants you might see is in the health sector. Health-related grants are definitely common. You may have even seen reference to health grants throughout your life as major medical crises transpire across the globe.

The real key in ascertaining funding for health related research, projects, or programs is in your ability to identify the need. Use data and statistics to back up your claim. An example of a health-related needs statement might be:

According to {National Center}, over 60% of Our County residents do not have access to a health care provider that practices within 60 miles of their residence. This lack of immediate access results in 40% less frequency of visits for preventative care than shown in similar counties.

We covered the importance of a needs statement earlier in this article. In this field of grants, it is essential to nail that section.

Helpful Additional Resources for Preparing Grant Proposals

Preparing and writing grant proposals is a lengthy and time consuming process. Spending time familiarizing yourself with as much of the grant cycle, proposal structure, and application process as possible will help you start with confidence.

There are many ways to increase your understanding of grant proposal writing. Here are some of our favorite resources for preparing grant proposals:

Sample Grant Proposals to Check Out

Now that you have a general idea of how to write a grant proposal, you can check out our previous blog for a complete list of successful grant proposals . Below are three examples of successful proposals and why we think they are worth reviewing:

Kurzweil Education Systems - This grant proposal example is one worth sharing repeatedly. It outlines a successful grant example while also explaining each section as you go. This example serves to both support your growing knowledge and understanding of proposal structure as well as giving sample language for each section.

The Kurzweil document provides samples of more than just the proposal. You will also be able to read an example cover letter, cover page, and a sample letter format for foundation funding requests.

Boys and Girls Club of America - Youth and community based grants are a very common request in the nonprofit sector. The Boys and Girls Club of America provided a great sample proposal resource to consider if you are looking for funding.

This particular resource can be used in two different ways. For those within the Boys and Girls Club nonprofit umbrella, this template serves as a document almost read to submit for funding requests. For those outside the BGCA enterprise, you can read and glean key structure and content details from a successful proposal.

This sample proposal also points out another tip in proposal writing: You should utilize any templates or forms provided by the grantmaker or foundation.

While standardized documents are not always required when provided, using provided forms allows reviewers to more easily read your proposal. The familiar format means they can skip to making meaning of your request rather than figuring out where the pertinent information lives in an unfamiliar document.

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease - This example includes multiple successful proposals in the same space. NIAD offers many examples of successful grant applications at their grant application landing page.

When organizations and agencies offer grant funding, their hope is to find the most compelling and beneficial uses for those funds possible. To that end, it is in their best interest to share what those kinds of programs have looked like before.

For those looking to write grant proposals in the science and research sector, this resource is beneficial to read and explore similar successful project proposals.

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Wrapping Things Up: What is a Grant Proposal?

Grant proposals can feel daunting. After reading this article, you should be able to feel more confident that you know what a grant proposal is.

You should also be able to identify the most common sections of a grant proposal, find sample proposals, and have a few tips for writing across a variety of fields.

You should be set to start drafting your first grant proposal. If you would like more support across all aspects of your grant finding, writing, and tracking processes, visit Instrumentl and sign up for a 14-day free trial .

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Nonprofit Grant Writing: How to Secure Grants for Your Cause

Grant funding is crucial to the survival and success of most nonprofits. But the process of capturing grant funding can be highly competitive. It’s especially difficult when a grant writer requests support for a new program or organization for the first time.

Part of what makes grant writing so challenging is that typically every funder wants something different from a grant proposal. While most funders want to see the same core elements in a proposal, the narrative configurations, space limitations, and formats in which funders want this information can vary substantially.

To help improve your grant writing efforts, we have compiled a list of effective grant writing tips:

What Is Grant Writing?

Professional grant writing tips, nonprofit grant writing dos & don’ts, additional nonprofit grant writing resources.

When it comes to grant writing, there’s not a formulaic approach. Rather, you’ll need to customize your approach for each funder you pursue. Using the suggestions below, you’ll be well on your way to winning vital grant funding. If you’re ready to take your grant-seeking plan to the next level, let’s get started!

In this section, we define grant writing in the nonprofit sector.

Grant writing is the process of applying for funding provided by a private, corporate, or government grantmaker.  

In general, grant proposals can ask for financial or in-kind support for a nonprofit organization. While a bulk of grant writing consists of crafting a compelling grant proposal, grant writing also requires researching possible grants, connecting with funders, maintaining grant calendars, managing active grant proposals, and reporting on how accepted grants were used.

Who Should Write Grant Proposals?

In a nonprofit, a grant proposal might involve a wide-ranging team, including grant writers, development coordinators, fundraising directors, executive directors, board members, and other key stakeholders, such as staff and community members. 

Many nonprofits will also seek professional help from external grant writers and fundraising consultants . External consultants can offer grant-specific experience and expertise and allow nonprofits to better focus their time and resources. 

What Are the Parts of a Grant Proposal?

While every grant proposal will look a little (or a lot) different, most funders require that proposals contain a common set of elements. If you plan to write a grant proposal, you should familiarize yourself with the following parts:

In addition to these core components, many funders will request additional attachments. In order to make sure you’ve included everything requested, always read the grant proposal guidelines carefully before submitting.

How Do You Write a Grant Proposal?

So, ready to write a grant proposal? Before you begin typing, let’s review the grant writing process. For the best results, follow the steps below:

Ultimately, remember that the essence of what a grant funder wants to see in a proposal remains generally consistent. Funders want to know:

Throughout the process of drafting and writing your proposal, always keep your answers to these questions top of mind.

Explore these actionable nonprofit grant writing tips.

Learning how to write a grant proposal is the first step to securing funding. Put the time in now to learn the best approaches for appealing to funders. Otherwise, a poor proposal can make a bad impression on funders and weaken your chances—both present and future—of winning grant funding.

As a general rule of thumb, good grant writing is simply good writing . To create a convincing ask, you’ll need to tailor your proposal, communicate ideas clearly, convey a core compelling idea, and write to persuade.

However, simply remembering these elements is not enough. You actually need to apply these tactics when crafting your proposals in order for them to be effective. Let’s take a closer look at each of these components of successful nonprofit grant writing .

Tailor Your Grant Proposal.

There’s a common saying in the world of grant seeking: “If you’ve met one funder, you’ve met one funder.”

Requesting grant dollars can be quite intimidating, especially when you’re new to the grant-seeking process . There’s no one-size-fits-all approach to requesting grant dollars. In other words, don’t create one generic proposal and then “shop it around.” Rather, you need to tailor each proposal that you craft. To stand a chance at securing grant funding, you’ll need to do the following:

Overall, keep in mind that funders don’t exist to fund your organization’s mission. Rather, they exist to fulfill their own missions by supporting relevant projects through philanthropic initiatives. 

Ultimately, tailoring your proposal format and message is just the first step in showing a funder that your organization can be trusted, putting you one step closer to securing the grant.

Communicate Ideas Clearly.

When you’re under pressure , it can be tempting to skimp on the review and revision process to save time. Instead, take a step back and consider how clearly you’re communicating your ideas. They may make perfect sense to those who are directly involved with your organization, but you need to write for an outside party.

Letting clear writing fall through the cracks is not a challenge you want to create for yourself. Write your grant proposal to be clear and easy to follow.

Make it part of your grant writing discipline to communicate complex ideas simply. To communicate in a straightforward but compelling way, try the following:

Remember, one of your main goals is to make your reader’s job easy. The hard work should be on your end, not theirs. Aim to create a compelling proposal that’s clear and logical.

Convey a Core Compelling Idea.

Simply put, a core compelling idea is an overarching theme that sticks with the reader. In the case of nonprofit grant writing, it’s an idea that clarifies how your organization’s work is important, urgent, unique, and deserving of funding. While this may be simple to understand, it’s much more difficult to master.

As a first step, define a core compelling idea that is unique and will distinguish your organization from your competition. Keep it intentionally simple and memorable, while summoning the reader’s attention with powerful language. 

Most importantly, your core compelling idea should respond to what the grant funder cares about. For instance, if you’re writing to a local community foundation, orient your core compelling idea around the distinct impact that your organization or project will make in the community. After stepping away from your grant proposal, the reader should be able to understand and remember exactly what type of difference your organization proposes to make.

Knowing how to write a grant proposal means centering your writing around the idea you wish to stick with the reader. By anchoring your nonprofit grant proposal around a core compelling concept, you’ll stand a better chance of persuading the funder and cutting through the competition.

Write to Persuade.

A grant proposal must not only inform but also inspire. It’s up to you, the grant writer, to create a proposal that convinces the reader that your organization is worthy of funding. A well-written grant request should convince the reader that your organization or project addresses an urgent need, is staffed by qualified professionals, and has achievable goals.

Persuasive nonprofit grant writing begins with remembering that you’re writing for a real person who can be converted to belief and action. Consider appealing to your reader through three different modes of persuasion:

At its best, nonprofit grant writing should appeal to the reader’s gut, head, and heart. If nonprofit grant writing isn’t your strong suit, Grants Plus is here to help. The Grants Plus team can help you pinpoint potential funders and craft powerful proposals.

Before crafting your proposal, make sure you know the dos and don'ts of nonprofit grant writing.

Grant seeking is highly competitive. Educate yourself on the misconceptions surrounding grants and leverage the following dos and don’ts to rise above the competition—even if you’ve never dabbled in nonprofit grant writing before.

Don’t: Submit a Grant Application Cold.

Before submitting a grant application, cultivate a relationship with the prospective funder. Search for a pre-existing connection between a person at the foundation and a member of your board, staff, or donor circle.

If you don’t have a connection, create one! First, call the funder to introduce yourself and your organization. Outreach can go a long way to warm up the funder to receive your proposal. Starting your engagement off on the right foot can put you substantially closer to winning a grant!

Do: Get a Green Light to Apply.

Before spending the time writing your proposal, research the foundation’s current funding priorities and restrictions. For instance, they may have a specific list of the types of funding requests that are likely to be denied. Grantmakers’ areas of focus constantly change, so make sure you’re up-to-date on what they’re aiming to fund. 

It may turn out that they’re not a match for your organization. Figuring this out early on means you won’t waste time writing a tailored proposal just for it to be rejected.

Plus, this may help you determine exactly what angle to take with your grant writing. Don’t guess at the best fit or proposal strategy—get the green light to apply!

Don’t: Overlook Basic Application Instructions.

One of the biggest mistakes you can make is not adhering to a funder’s specified proposal requirements. Well before the deadline, review the foundation’s current application format, submission process, required attachments, and other instructions. This way, you won’t overlook important requirements.

Never cut corners! This will come across in your writing, indicating to the reader that you didn’t put enough thought and care into it. Ultimately, veering from the guidelines could land your proposal right in the reject pile without any further thought.

Do: Match the Foundation’s Funding Period.

Even worthy proposals will likely be disqualified if they’re not submitted within a foundation’s funding period. Just like foundations have guidelines for formatting your grant proposal, they have rules for when you can submit your requests, too.

Before submitting or even writing your grant proposal, confirm the grantmaker’s timeline specifications. This way, your efforts will not be in vain.

Don’t: Skip a Compelling Financial Narrative.

A well-designed proposal budget follows the foundation’s required format, matches the application narrative, and establishes that your funding plan is sound and achievable. To accomplish this, provide a financial outlook that’s accurate, supports a clear need, and reflects a healthy and sustainable funding strategy.

Take it a step further by demonstrating which expense(s) will be supported through the foundation’s grant. Remember, the best grant proposals evoke emotion and instill a need to take action through a compelling narrative.

Do: Prove the Last Grant Was an Investment Well Made.

Part of a smart grant-seeking strategy is demonstrating that an organization deserves a foundation’s financial support. Achieve this by providing an impressive, timely report for any previous grant awarded by the funder. If your organization has received funding from a foundation and reported successfully before, the likelihood of continued support is higher.

Foundations view grants as investments and grantors as partners. Because of this, you need to show them that their contributions to your nonprofit are smart, well-made investments. Be upfront about any shortcomings and explain how you’ve improved on them. By providing clear and honest reports , you showcase your organization as a smart bet for continued funding.

Take a look at these additional nonprofit grant writing resources.

While these tips can strengthen your organization’s grant-winning odds, even outstanding proposals sometimes get declined. As a final word of advice, instead of getting deterred when your nonprofit receives a rejection notice, turn it into a growth opportunity. Ask the foundation for feedback and listen to their advice for improvement .

Now that you know the best nonprofit grant writing tips, apply them to your grant-seeking strategy. Soon enough, you’ll be on track to winning more grants and growing your organization!

To continue your nonprofit grant writing research, explore our comprehensive resources for all your grant needs:

There’s a lot that goes into grant seeking. Whether you need assistance with pinpointing funders, crafting your proposals, or any other part of the process, Grants Plus is here to help!

Contact the professional fundraising consultants at Grants Plus to discuss improving your organization's grant strategy.

Katie Rosen

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How to write a grant proposal

Michael zlowodzki.

Division of Orthopedic Surgery, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada

Anders Jönsson

* Association Internationale Pour l' Ostéosynthèse Dynamique, Nice, France

Philip J Kregor

** Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA

Mohit Bhandari

Academic success and promotion in medicine largely depends on the quality and quantity of received grants. Grant money brings prestige and notoriety to the writer and his institution. However, writing a grant proposal can be a challenging task especially for the inexperienced researcher. As research budgets are being reduced by many funding agencies and more researches are competing for it, it is becoming increasingly important to be able to write a grant proposal of high quality.

The purpose of this article is to give the reader guidance on how to organize a research proposal in order maximize chances to obtain the desired funding. Key aspects will be highlighted and practical tips emphasized. This article will primarily focus on writing a grant for a clinical study.


Good research starts with a good idea! Once you have identified a good idea, you need to clearly define the problem that needs to be addressed and formulate a research question. Subsequently you need to ask yourself if that question is already answered [ Table 1 ]. A thorough literature review is therefore mandatory. If you have a truly good idea, you might find out that you are not the first one having it. You do not want to spend a lot of time and energy into a project only to find out later that there have been already 17 trials and a meta-analysis performed and your research question is answered.

It is not only important to know how much was already published on that topic, but also what the quality of the current evidence is. Rarely in medicine does a question have a definitive answer. If you are trying to compare two interventions for a certain disease, after performing a thorough literature search, you have to ask yourself the following questions: 1) Are there already multiple case series published on that topic? If yes, then it might not be worth it to add another case series to the literature. However, that might be your chance for the first comparative study (cohort study or randomized controlled trial). 2) Are there already multiple comparative studies? If yes, are they cohort studies or randomized trials (RCT)? If there is no RCT maybe you should do one. 3) Are there already multiple RCTs published? If yes, what are the results and what is their sample size? Maybe they were underpowered? If yes you might consider doing a meta-analysis of the existing RCTs and subsequently a larger trial.

After you decided to perceive with your study proposal, you need to determine how many study subjects you need, how much money you need and who your collaborators will be. In order to be successful in obtaining a grant you will need convincing data, which might require several preliminary studies and you will need to prove to the granting agency that you are capable of performing the study the way you propose it. The purpose of the research plan is to describe what will be done, why it is important and how the study will be conducted.


The key elements of the study protocol are the executive summary, specific aims, background and significance, preliminary results and research design and methods [ Table 2 ]. The research design and the methodology used in the process of planning and conducting the project should be described in detail. Prior work relevant to the proposed project should be included. Also if a pilot study was conducted, the results should be included.

Elements of a study protocol

Abstract (Executive summary)

The abstract is an important part of a study protocol because it is the first page that a reviewer reads. Reviewers of granting agencies may make their opinion based on the abstract alone. It may be difficult to overcome a bad first impression and conversely there may be a lot to gain with a good first impression. The purpose of the abstract is to describe succinctly every key element of the proposed project. It is good to be complete but concise.

Specific aims

The purpose of the specific study aims is to clearly describe what research question the investigators are trying to answer by conducting the study. What is the problem to be addressed? The investigators need to describe why the study is needed now. In detail, the hypothesis of the study and the primary and secondary goals should be stated. Typically, the study question should be formulated to include the following: 1) the population to be studied, 2) the intervention, 3) any comparison group to be studied (if relevant) and 4) the study outcomes. The study outcomes should be reported as the primary (main) outcome and any secondary outcomes.

Background and significance

The purpose of the background and significance section is to lay out the rationale for the proposed research project and to summarize currently available data in the literature that is relevant to the project. If no systematic review or meta-analysis was done on the topic, you should do one. Describe the magnitude of the problem to be addressed. What is the patient population you are targeting? What is the incidence of the problem? Is the problem likely to increase in the future (e.g. geriatric fractures)? You need to describe the historic management of the problem and whether or not there is any consensus on the current management of the problem. Are there any uncertainties about the treatment that need to be resolved? If you hypothesize that intervention A is better than intervention B you need to designate your primary outcome parameter and have some baseline data for a sample size calculation. Depending on the project, you might want to survey surgeons for their treatment preferences. Also consider surveying patients to find out about what outcome they consider to be important. There might be some disagreements between the surgeons and patients perspectives. 1 The purpose of the background and significance chapter is to justify the study you are proposing. Describe how the result of your study will benefit society. You need to convince the granting agencies that it is worth their money.

Study design

In order to answer the question you need to choose an appropriate study design. The main clinical study designs are interventional studies, observational studies and diagnostic studies - some overlaps may exist [ Table 3 ]. Which study design is most likely to answer the research question, which one is most feasible and which one gives the highest quality results? The choice of the study design has a significant implication on the magnitude of the required funding. Ethical considerations also need to be taken into account e.g. in some cases a certain study design might not be ethical. A clear description of the eligibility criteria (inclusion / exclusion) is essential. Also describe how outcomes will be measured during follow-up and what the follow-up schedule will be like (frequency and duration).

Types of clinical study designs

Sample size calculation

The sample size calculation is a crucial part of the study protocol. The required sample size has major implications on your required funding and the size of the team. Before you can calculate the sample size you need to designate the primary outcome. It is advantageous to choose an objective, reliable and highly validated outcome in order to limit bias. Ultimately, you should choose the clinically most important outcome that is feasible.

The sample size calculation is different depending on the type of the outcome; if you choose a categorical dichotomous outcome parameter (e.g. nonunion rate, infection rate) the sample size requirements are much higher than if you choose a continuous outcome like a score (e.g., SF-36, DASH, SMFA, pain score). 2 , 3 In order to perform a sample size calculation for dichotomous outcomes, you must have an event rate (e.g., nonunion rate) for your gold standard treatment (e.g., treatment A) and you must hypothesize by how much treatment B is going to decrease or increase that event rate. For continuous outcomes you need to have a mean value for the gold standard treatment and hypothesize a difference for the alternative treatment. Using an alpha error rate of 0.05 (=accepting the probability of a false-positive result) and a beta error rate of 0.20 (=accepting the probability of a false-negative result), which corresponds to a power of 80% is a commonly accepted standard.

You can obtain baseline numbers either from a pilot study or reports in the literature. Ideally the “hypothesized” differences should be in the magnitude of what you consider clinically significant. You can calculate the sample size by hand 4 or use one multiple tools to help with the sample size calculations 5 [ Table 4 ]. Be aware that the sample size calculation is based on assumptions; calculate the best-case and the worst-case scenario.

Useful Books, Software and Websites

The justification of the estimated sample size should be presented as a separate section in a grant proposal. Investigators can present estimates of sample size varying across different mean differences between groups. Alternative approaches are to present the study power across varying sample sizes and mean differences or the estimated mean differences of the outcome parameter across varying study power. 4

Protecting against bias

Study results can be negatively affected by multiple types of bias, mainly selection bias and measurement bias. Investigators need to describe proposed methods for protecting against bias. The most powerful techniques for protecting against bias are 1) randomization, 2) concealment of randomization, 3) blinding and 4) the choice of an objective outcome measure.

If you are comparing the effect of multiple interventions on a specific outcome, the best method of protecting against selection bias is random treatment allocation. Randomization balances known and unknown prognostic factors between groups. Additionally, you can use techniques like blocking and stratification in order to avoid random imbalances in small randomized trials. If you do not allocate treatment options randomly, you should account for imbalances in prognostic factors between groups, by matching the patients to the different treatment groups based on the known prognostic factors upon enrollment in your study or if that is not possible, account for it in the data analysis. However, the only way to balance unknown prognostic factors is randomization.

Blinding is another important technique for protecting against bias. Investigators should blind whoever they can: the patient, the physician (not possible in surgical trials), the outcome assessor and the data analyst. Lastly it is helpful to choose an objective outcome measure like a validated functional outcome scale. If the outcome parameter is subjective (e.g., union/nonunion), you should consider to have an adjudication committee to assess the outcome.


Grants are critical for success in academic medicine. The key to a good grant is a good idea and the ability to “sell” your idea to the reviewers of the granting agency. In order to “sell” your idea, good background research, the appropriate study design and a well thought out methodology are imperative. It is also important to recognize that research is a team effort. Convincing the grant reviewer of your expertise is crucial; choosing experienced team members therefore improves the chances to obtain the desired grant. A successful pilot study and preliminary studies that serve as a justification for your study proposal can prove feasibility to the grant reviewers and be therefore a persuasive factor. You should propose an appropriate budget and a realistic timeline; otherwise failure is almost certain. Lastly, you should tailor their grant application towards the granting agency's goals and use the requested format for their application as that might differ from agency to agency. Targeting multiple government and industry-funded agencies increases the chance of getting funded.

Disclaimer: Michael Zlowodzki was funded by a clinical research fellowship grant of the Association Internationale pour l' Ostéosynthèse Dynamique (AIOD)

Source of Support: Nil



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