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How to Write a Research Paper

Writing a research paper is a bit more difficult that a standard high school essay. You need to site sources, use academic data and show scientific examples. Before beginning, you’ll need guidelines for how to write a research paper.

Start the Research Process

Before you begin writing the research paper, you must do your research. It is important that you understand the subject matter, formulate the ideas of your paper, create your thesis statement and learn how to speak about your given topic in an authoritative manner. You’ll be looking through online databases, encyclopedias, almanacs, periodicals, books, newspapers, government publications, reports, guides and scholarly resources. Take notes as you discover new information about your given topic. Also keep track of the references you use so you can build your bibliography later and cite your resources.

Develop Your Thesis Statement

When organizing your research paper, the thesis statement is where you explain to your readers what they can expect, present your claims, answer any questions that you were asked or explain your interpretation of the subject matter you’re researching. Therefore, the thesis statement must be strong and easy to understand. Your thesis statement must also be precise. It should answer the question you were assigned, and there should be an opportunity for your position to be opposed or disputed. The body of your manuscript should support your thesis, and it should be more than a generic fact.

Create an Outline

Many professors require outlines during the research paper writing process. You’ll find that they want outlines set up with a title page, abstract, introduction, research paper body and reference section. The title page is typically made up of the student’s name, the name of the college, the name of the class and the date of the paper. The abstract is a summary of the paper. An introduction typically consists of one or two pages and comments on the subject matter of the research paper. In the body of the research paper, you’ll be breaking it down into materials and methods, results and discussions. Your references are in your bibliography. Use a research paper example to help you with your outline if necessary.

Organize Your Notes

When writing your first draft, you’re going to have to work on organizing your notes first. During this process, you’ll be deciding which references you’ll be putting in your bibliography and which will work best as in-text citations. You’ll be working on this more as you develop your working drafts and look at more white paper examples to help guide you through the process.

Write Your Final Draft

After you’ve written a first and second draft and received corrections from your professor, it’s time to write your final copy. By now, you should have seen an example of a research paper layout and know how to put your paper together. You’ll have your title page, abstract, introduction, thesis statement, in-text citations, footnotes and bibliography complete. Be sure to check with your professor to ensure if you’re writing in APA style, or if you’re using another style guide.


home based business research paper

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The engagement of home-based businesses in the digital economy

Home-based businesses show a greater reliance on e-commerce trading for sales.

However, only a minority of home-based businesses uses online trading for sales.

The use of online marketplaces is rare, similar to other SMEs.

There is little geographical variation in using online trading for sales.

This paper explores the engagement of home-based businesses in digital trading, measured as proportion of their sales from buying and selling services and products online of all their sales. Findings are drawn from a sample of 994 Small- and Medium-Sized Businesses that are members of the Federation of Small Businesses in Scotland. Multivariate findings show that home-based businesses are associated with high proportions of online sales supporting the view of home-based businesses as ‘online’ businesses. However, quantitatively, the overall transformational effects of digital technologies on the nature and processes of entrepreneurship are rather small as the vast majority of home-based businesses, like SMEs that are not home-based, trade offline. Online business models represent a very small proportion of the home-based business sector. Home-based businesses in rural areas do not make greater use of e-commerce. The findings add to the critical literature on the transformative nature of digital entrepreneurship and the emerging home-based business literature that question whether the role of digital technologies and online marketplaces for home-based businesses are being exaggerated, particularly in rural economies.

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Journal of Media Business Studies

Andreas Veglis , George Tsourvakas

home based business research paper

25(1): 79-95. [ISSN 2304-0777]

This study seeks to assess overall customer satisfaction and loyalty as well as sustainability of products and service quality delivered by Mobile Telecommunication Network and Vodafone to students of University for Development Studies. The problem of this study was whether customers are satisfied with Telco service delivery in Ghana. Specifically, this study sets out to figure out various Telco products and services offered to customers, examine the sustainability of the company's products and services and to look at the marketing strategies and mechanisms put in place to satisfy and maintain customers. The main research designs used for the study were survey and case study. A Structured questionnaire was used to collect data from hundred (100) individual subscribers selected from the two Telecom groups via cluster and simple random sampling procedures. Descriptive statistics and one way Analysis of Variance were used for the data analysis. The findings indicated that irrespective of mobile telecom network on University for Development Studies Tamale Campus, customer satisfaction was low; neither equal to nor better than desire and expectation of customers. Overall Customer Satisfaction ratings among subscribers of Mobile Telecommunication Network in University for Development Studies significantly differ and that relatively, customers of Mobile Telecommunication Network rated their satisfaction with service quality higher than those of Vodafone. The management of Mobile Telecommunication Network and Vodafone would need to develop strategies to deal with the customer dissatisfaction. The research contributes to the body of knowledge in the area of Customer Satisfaction in the Ghana's Telco groups and provides important managerial implications.

Uesoo Faith

ABSTRACT The use of mobile telephone services in Nigeria is mostly dependent on the reliability of services, quality of services offered by operator, and most especially the numbers of subscribers using a particular network determined the interest of mobile telephone service subscription as to reduce call rates as operators simplified call rates within operator users on the same network services. The effect of cost on the usage of mobile telephone services in Nigeria analysed and generated significant relationship between the independent variables combined while Time spent was discovered to be most significant alone in relationship with usage of mobile telephone services in Nigeria with a significant level of 0.004<0.05 of the statistical error allowed. The other variables such as Call rate, Service reliability and cost of voucher were not found to be significant alone on the use of mobile services in Nigeria. There is a great level of relationship between as a whole of all independent variables; Call rate, Time spent, Service reliability, Cost of voucher and usage of mobile telephone services in Nigeria. Time spent, when compared to other variables has the highest degree of relationship with usage of mobile telephone services in Nigeria. Call rate has no significant impact on the use of mobile telephone services in Nigeria. Service reliability most determine customers interest in choosing mobile telephone service provider but not significantly affecting the usage of mobile telephone services in Nigeria. Cost of voucher has contributed to subscribers’ complained on the operations of mobile telephone services but when tested has not significantly affected the usage of these mobile telephone services.

Mohammed Sadick

This study investigated perceptions of bank customers that determine their decision to subscribe to the mobile phone SMS alert banking services and its benefits to bank customers in Northern Ghana. Descriptive statistics with likert technique was used to assess bank customers’ perceptions of the mobile phone SMS alert services benefits, while logistic regression (logit) model was used to estimate customers’ perceptions that determine their decision to subscribe to the mobile phone SMS alert banking services. The key findings were that quality of service, value of service; customer loyalty and eagerness to get salary payment information on time were perceptions that determine customers’ decision to subscribe to the mobile phone SMS alert banking services. Also, time and cost savings from travelling as well as relief from anxiety due to lack of up-to-date information on accounts were perceived to be the main benefits of the mobile phone SMS alert banking services to customers.

mafulul anna

Cabdale Tahir

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Regional Studies

Invisible businesses: the characteristics of home-based businesses in the united kingdom.

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M ason C. M., C arter S. and T agg S. Invisible businesses: the characteristics of home-based businesses in the United Kingdom, Regional Studies . Home-based businesses comprise a significant proportion of the small business sector. But because they are invisible, their economic significance is assumed to be minor. This paper challenges this view. The majority are full-time businesses. One in ten has achieved significant scale. They create jobs for more than just the owner(s). They are concentrated in computer-related, business, and professional service sectors. They also have a distinctive geography. Rural areas and non-metropolitan parts of Southern England have the highest proportion of home-based businesses. Urban–industrial regions have the lowest proportion. This suggests a need to reconsider the role of home-based businesses in local economic development.

M ason C. M., C arter S. et T agg S. Les entreprises invisibles: les caractéristiques des entrepises à domicile au Royaume-Uni, Regional Studies . Les entreprises à domicile constituent une proportion non-négligeable du parc des petites entreprises. Cependant, étant donné qu'elles sont invisibles, on suppose que leur importance économique soit mineure. Cet article fait changer l'opinion. La majorité sont des entreprises à plein temps. Une sur dix a atteint une importance non-négligeable. Elles créent des emplois non seulement pour les propriétaires. Elles se concentrent dans les secteurs liés à l'informatique, au commerce et aux services aux entreprises. Elles ont aussi une géographie particulière. Les zones rurales et non-métropolitaines du sud de l'Angleterre sont dotées de la proportion la plus élevée des entreprises à domicile. Les régions urbano-industrielles ont la proportion la moins élevée. Cela laisse supposer qu'il faut repenser le rôle des entreprises à domicile dans le développement économique local.

Travail à domicile Entreprises à domicile Petites entreprises Economie rurale Economie urbaine Développement économique local

M ason C. M., C arter S. und T agg S. Unsichtbare Unternehmen: Merkmale der von zu Hause aus geführten Unternehmen in Großbritannien, Regional Studies . Von zu Hause aus geführte Unternehmen machen einen erheblichen Anteil des Sektors der Kleinunternehmen aus. Doch da diese Unternehmen unsichtbar bleiben, wird angenommen, dass sie nur einen geringen Beitrag zur Wirtschaft leisten. In diesem Beitrag wird diese Ansicht in Frage gestellt. Die Unternehmen sind mehrheitlich Vollzeit tätig. Jedes zehnte von ihnen hat eine signifikante Größe erreicht. Die Unternehmen schaffen Arbeitsplätze für mehr Personen als nur den bzw. die Eigentümer. Sie sind konzentriert in den Sektoren der Informationstechnologie sowie der geschäftlichen und professionellen Dienste angesiedelt. Ebenso zeichnen sie sich durch eine charakteristische Geografie aus. Den höchsten Anteil an von zu Hause aus geführten Unternehmen weisen ländliche und nicht-metropolitane Gebiete in Südengland auf. In urbanen bzw. industriellen Regionen finden sich die niedrigsten Anteile. Diese Tatsache legt nahe, dass die Rolle der von zu Hause aus geführten Unternehmen bei der lokalen Wirtschaftsentwicklung überdacht werden muss.

Heimarbeit Von zu Hause aus geführte Unternehmen Kleinunternehmen Wirtschaft in ländlichen Gebieten Wirtschaft in städtischen Gebieten Lokale Wirtschaftsentwicklung

M ason C. M., C arter S. y T agg S. Negocios invisibles: las características de los negocios desde el hogar en el Reino Unido, Regional Studies . Los negocios desde el hogar representan una proporción significativa del sector de pequeños negocios. Pero como son invisibles, se da por sentado que su importancia económica es menor. En este artículos cuestionamos esta opinión. En la mayoría de los negocios se trabaja a jornada completa. Uno de cada diez ha logrado un tamaño considerable. Los negocios también dan empleo a más personas aparte de los propietarios. Se centran en sectores relacionados con la informática y los servicios para negocios y profesionales. También presentan una geografía distintiva. Las áreas rurales y zonas no metropolitanas del sur de Inglaterra tienen el porcentaje más alto de negocios desde el hogar. Las regiones urbanas industriales tienen el porcentaje más bajo. Esto indica que es necesario reconsiderar el papel de los negocios desde el hogar en el desarrollo económico local.

Trabajo desde el hogar Negocio desde el hogar Pequeño negocio Economía rural Economía urbana Desarrollo económico local

JEL classifications:


Although this paper is based on data collected for the Federation of Small Businesses' (FSB) biennial membership survey, it is an independent study and does not necessarily represent the views of the FSB. Valuable feedback was received on earlier versions of the paper presented at a Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) workshop on Home-Based Enterprises; seminars at The Centre for Knowledge, Innovation, Technology and Enterprise (KITE), University of Newcastle; the Centre for Regional Economic and Enterprise Development, University of Sheffield; and the Department of Management, University of Otago, Dunedin; and at the 53rd International Council for Small Business (ICSB) World Conference in Halifax, NS, Canada. The authors are also grateful to Mark Freel (University of Ottawa) and Paul Lynch (University of Strathclyde, Glasgow) for their comments on an earlier draft of this paper. They also wish to thank the two anonymous reviewers for their helpful suggestions. Finally, Colin Mason would like to thank the University of Otago for the award of a William Evans Visiting Fellowship, which provided the opportunity to revise this paper.

In this study, a home-based business is defined as one where the respondent's postcode for their home address is the same as that for their business address.

However, G laister (2008) Glaister, S. 2008 . “ Alternative view: homeworking won't stem rising car use ”. In Can Homeworking Save The Planet? , Edited by: Dwelly, T. and Lake, A. 80 – 85 . London : The Smith Institute .   [Google Scholar] is not convinced that home-based businesses will reduce car usage.

In the United States, persons with disabilities are nearly twice as likely to be self-employed, and typically operate from home (A ngelicci et al. , 2008 Angelicci, R. M. , Lacho, K. J. , Lacho, K. D. and Galle, W. P. 2008 . Entrepreneurs with disabilities: the role of assistive technology, current status and future outlook . Proceedings of the Academy of Entrepreneurship , 14: 1 – 5 .   [Google Scholar] ).

One of the few local authorities in the UK that recognizes and supports home-based businesses is Horsham District Council in South East England (A BACUS I NSIGHT , 2007). In Australia, some local authorities, particularly in outer metropolitan areas where business growth is a priority, have recognized the economic and social value of home-based businesses (W alker et al. , 2002 Walker, B. , Wang, C. and Redmond, J. The role of local government in developing a home-based business strategy . Proceedings of the 2002 SEAANZ Small Business Conference, Small Enterprise Association of Australia and New Zealand (SEAANZ), Adelaide, Australia, 22–24 September 2002   [Google Scholar] , 2004 Walker, B. , Wang, C. and Redmond, J. Home-based business as a policy issue . Paper to the 17th Annual SEEANZ Conference . September 26–29 2004 , Brisbane, QLD, Australia.   [Google Scholar] ).

For example, Google has a free tool called AdSense which allows small companies to sell advertisements and display them automatically on their website (P almer , 2009a Palmer, M. 2009a . Employment trends: broadband drives digital revolution in cottage industries . Financial Times , 25 May: 3 (available at: )   [Google Scholar] ).

One example is independent remote traders – many of whom used to work in the City of London – who are now able to trade in sophisticated derivatives from home as a result of new ‘black box’ technology (O akley , 2007 Oakley, D. 2007 . Remote traders are at home with growing trend . Financial Times , 26–27 May: 3   [Google Scholar] ).

O akley (2007) Oakley, D. 2007 . Remote traders are at home with growing trend . Financial Times , 26–27 May: 3   [Google Scholar] comments that although the growth of remote trading (see note 6) has been facilitated by technology, the attraction for the individuals involved has been a better work–life balance and the avoidance of commuting-related stresses, but without compromising their potential earnings.

One recent UK survey by Axa Protection suggests that one-third of new or expectant mothers aim to set up their own business and 34% are either currently working from home or are looking to start a home-based business (see ; accessed on 12 January 2008).

The questionnaire was also available to complete on the Internet, and was available on request in six languages.

The full list of available responses to this question were: home; retail/shop unit; office; warehouse; factory, workshop, business unit; quarry, mine, brickworks, etc.; agricultural buildings; and other commercial premises.

However, this does not preclude the likelihood that a high proportion of home-based businesses make intensive use of the Internet to undertake their activities.

The actual question was ‘How many years have you owned this business?’

For example, there is a rapidly growing market for entrepreneurs with software skills to develop applications for mobile phones (P almer , 2009a Palmer, M. 2009a . Employment trends: broadband drives digital revolution in cottage industries . Financial Times , 25 May: 3 (available at: )   [Google Scholar] , 2009b Palmer, M. 2009b . Right time, right price for mobile phone applications . Financial Times , 8 April (available at: )   [Google Scholar] ).

For example, government advice to home-based business owners about the implications for capital gains tax states that ‘every business is different and the tax implications differ from one business to another’. Similarly, advice on business rates states that ‘whether your local authority charges business rates or not depends on the degree of business use … each case is considered individually’.

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