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The Legality and Ethics of Mandating COVID-19 Vaccination
- PMID: 34840152
- DOI: 10.1353/pbm.2021.0037
In light of ongoing concerns in the US that COVID-19 vaccine uptake is stagnating and that cases remain high amongst the unvaccinated, there is growing interest in increasing uptake by mandating vaccination. COVID-19 vaccine mandates must be understood and assessed in terms of who is requiring vaccination and who is required to be vaccinated. This essay considers the legal and ethical implications of states mandating vaccination for children and adults, as well as of employers mandating vaccines for employees. We conclude that COVID-19 vaccine mandates are legally and ethically permissible.
- A "step too far" or "perfect sense"? A qualitative study of British adults' views on mandating COVID-19 vaccination and vaccine passports. Stead M, Ford A, Eadie D, Biggs H, Elliott C, Ussher M, Bedford H, Angus K, Hunt K, MacKintosh AM, Jessop C, MacGregor A. Stead M, et al. Vaccine. 2022 Dec 5;40(51):7389-7396. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2022.05.072. Epub 2022 Jun 3. Vaccine. 2022. PMID: 35773124 Free PMC article.
- Kidney transplantation and patients who decline SARS-CoV-2 vaccination: an ethical framework. Gökmen R, Cronin A, Brown W, Cass S, Ghazanfar A, Hossain MA, Johnson J, Longdon T, Lyon S, McLean A, Motallebzadeh R, Popoola J, Samuel A, Thuraisingham R, Wood AJ, Dor FJMF. Gökmen R, et al. Transpl Int. 2021 Oct;34(10):1770-1775. doi: 10.1111/tri.13979. Epub 2021 Sep 19. Transpl Int. 2021. PMID: 34288160 Free PMC article.
- COVID-19 and Compulsory Vaccination: An Acceptable Form of Coercion? Hurford JE. Hurford JE. New Bioeth. 2022 Mar;28(1):4-26. doi: 10.1080/20502877.2021.2010441. Epub 2021 Dec 14. New Bioeth. 2022. PMID: 34906027
- COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among adults in four major US metropolitan areas and nationwide. El-Mohandes A, White TM, Wyka K, Rauh L, Rabin K, Kimball SH, Ratzan SC, Lazarus JV. El-Mohandes A, et al. Sci Rep. 2021 Nov 4;11(1):21844. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-00794-6. Sci Rep. 2021. PMID: 34737319 Free PMC article.
- SARS-CoV-2 Infections and Hospitalizations Among Persons Aged ≥16 Years, by Vaccination Status - Los Angeles County, California, May 1-July 25, 2021. Griffin JB, Haddix M, Danza P, Fisher R, Koo TH, Traub E, Gounder P, Jarashow C, Balter S. Griffin JB, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Aug 27;70(34):1170-1176. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7034e5. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021. PMID: 34437525 Free PMC article.
- The Content of COVID-19 Information Searches and Vaccination Intention: An Implication for Risk Communication. Olagoke AA, Floyd B, Adebayo CT, Owoyemi A, Hughes AM. Olagoke AA, et al. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2022 Nov 3;17:e258. doi: 10.1017/dmp.2022.257. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2022. PMID: 36325832 Free PMC article.
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Vaccines and immunization: What is vaccination?
Updated on 30 August 2021.
Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way of protecting you against harmful diseases, before you come into contact with them. It uses your body’s natural defenses to build resistance to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.
Vaccines train your immune system to create antibodies, just as it does when it’s exposed to a disease. However, because vaccines contain only killed or weakened forms of germs like viruses or bacteria, they do not cause the disease or put you at risk of its complications.
Most vaccines are given by an injection, but some are given orally (by mouth) or sprayed into the nose.
Vaccines reduce risks of getting a disease by working with your body’s natural defenses to build protection. When you get a vaccine, your immune system responds. It:
Recognizes the invading germ, such as the virus or bacteria.
Produces antibodies. Antibodies are proteins produced naturally by the immune system to fight disease.
Remembers the disease and how to fight it. If you are then exposed to the germ in the future, your immune system can quickly destroy it before you become unwell.
The vaccine is therefore a safe and clever way to produce an immune response in the body, without causing illness.
Our immune systems are designed to remember. Once exposed to one or more doses of a vaccine, we typically remain protected against a disease for years, decades or even a lifetime. This is what makes vaccines so effective. Rather than treating a disease after it occurs, vaccines prevent us in the first instance from getting sick.
Vaccines protect us throughout life and at different ages, from birth to childhood, as teenagers and into old age. In most countries you will be given a vaccination card that tells you what vaccines you or your child have had and when the next vaccines or booster doses are due. It is important to make sure that all these vaccines are up to date.
If we delay vaccination, we are at risk of getting seriously sick. If we wait until we think we may be exposed to a serious illness – like during a disease outbreak – there may not be enough time for the vaccine to work and to receive all the recommended doses.
If you have missed any recommended vaccinations for you or your child, talk to your healthcare worker about catching up.
Without vaccines, we are at risk of serious illness and disability from diseases like measles, meningitis, pneumonia, tetanus and polio. Many of these diseases can be life-threatening. WHO estimates that childhood vaccines alone save over 4 million lives every year.
Although some diseases may have become uncommon, the germs that cause them continue to circulate in some or all parts of the world. In today’s world, infectious diseases can easily cross borders, and infect anyone who is not protected
Two key reasons to get vaccinated are to protect ourselves and to protect those around us. Because not everyone can be vaccinated – including very young babies, those who are seriously ill or have certain allergies – they depend on others being vaccinated to ensure they are also safe from vaccine-preventable diseases.
- Cervical cancer
- Ebola virus disease
- Hepatitis B
- Japanese encephalitis
- Yellow fever
Some other vaccines are currently under development or being piloted, including those that protect against Zika virus or malaria, but are not yet widely available globally.
Not all of these vaccinations may be needed in your country. Some may only be given prior to travel, in areas of risk, or to people in high-risk occupations. Talk to your healthcare worker to find out what vaccinations are needed for you and your family.
Nearly everyone can get vaccinated. However, because of some medical conditions, some people should not get certain vaccines, or should wait before getting them. These conditions can include:
Chronic illnesses or treatments (like chemotherapy) that affect the immune system;
Severe and life-threatening allergies to vaccine ingredients, which are very rare;
If you have severe illness and a high fever on the day of vaccination.
These factors often vary for each vaccine. If you’re not sure if you or your child should get a particular vaccine, talk to your health worker. They can help you make an informed choice about vaccination for you or your child.
All the ingredients of a vaccine play an important role in ensuring a vaccine is safe and effective. Some of these include:
The antigen. This is a killed or weakened form of a virus or bacteria, which trains our bodies to recognize and fight the disease if we encounter it in the future.
Adjuvants, which help to boost our immune response. This means they help vaccines to work better.
Preservatives, which ensure a vaccine stays effective.
Stabilisers, which protect the vaccine during storage and transportation.
Vaccine ingredients can look unfamiliar when they are listed on a label. However, many of the components used in vaccines occur naturally in the body, in the environment, and in the foods we eat. All of the ingredients in vaccines – as well as the vaccines themselves - are thoroughly tested and monitored to ensure they are safe.
Vaccination is safe and side effects from a vaccine are usually minor and temporary, such as a sore arm or mild fever. More serious side effects are possible, but extremely rare.
Any licensed vaccine is rigorously tested across multiple phases of trials before it is approved for use, and regularly reassessed once it is introduced. Scientists are also constantly monitoring information from several sources for any sign that a vaccine may cause health risks.
Remember, you are far more likely to be seriously injured by a vaccine-preventable disease than by a vaccine. For example, tetanus can cause extreme pain, muscle spasms (lockjaw) and blood clots, measles can cause encephalitis (an infection of the brain) and blindness. Many vaccine-preventable diseases can even result in death. The benefits of vaccination greatly outweigh the risks, and many more illnesses and deaths would occur without vaccines.
More information about vaccine safety and development is available here.
Like any medicine, vaccines can cause mild side effects, such as a low-grade fever, or pain or redness at the injection site. Mild reactions go away within a few days on their own.
Severe or long-lasting side effects are extremely rare. Vaccines are continually monitored for safety, to detect rare adverse events.
Scientific evidence shows that giving several vaccines at the same time has no negative effect. Children are exposed to several hundred foreign substances that trigger an immune response every day. The simple act of eating food introduces new germs into the body, and numerous bacteria live in the mouth and nose.
When a combined vaccination is possible (e.g. for diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus), this means fewer injections and reduces discomfort for the child. It also means that your child is getting the right vaccine at the right time, to avoid the risk of contracting a potentially deadly disease.
There is no evidence of any link between vaccines and autism or autistic disorders. This has been demonstrated in many studies, conducted across very large populations.
The 1998 study which raised concerns about a possible link between measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism was later found to be seriously flawed and fraudulent. The paper was subsequently retracted by the journal that published it, and the doctor that published it lost his medical license. Unfortunately, its publication created fear that led to dropping immunization rates in some countries, and subsequent outbreaks of these diseases.
We must all ensure we are taking steps to share only credible, scientific information on vaccines, and the diseases they prevent.
Virtually all cervical cancer cases start with a sexually transmitted HPV infection. If given before exposure to the virus, vaccination offers the best protection against this disease. Following vaccination, reductions of up to 90% in HPV infections in teenage girls and young women have been demonstrated by studies conducted in Australia, Belgium, Germany, New Zealand, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America.
In studies, the HPV vaccine has been shown to be safe and effective . WHO recommends that all girls aged 9–14 years receive 2 doses of the vaccine, alongside cervical cancer screening later in life.
If you have questions about vaccines be sure to talk to your healthcare worker. He or she can provide you with science-based advice about vaccination for you and your family, including the recommended vaccination schedule in your country.
When looking online for information about vaccines, be sure to consult only trustworthy sources. To help you find them, WHO has reviewed and ‘certified’ many websites across the world that provide only information based on reliable scientific evidence and independent reviews by leading technical experts. These websites are all members of the Vaccine Safety Net .
Vaccines and immunization
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Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)
The importance of vaccinations.
Last Updated April 2022 | This article was created by familydoctor.org editorial staff and reviewed by Peter Rippey, MD, CAQSM
Childhood vaccines: what they are and why your child needs them, immunization schedules, preventive services for healthy living.
There has been confusion and misunderstandings about vaccines. But vaccinations are an important part of family and public health. Vaccines prevent the spread of contagious, dangerous, and deadly diseases. These include measles, polio, mumps, chicken pox, whooping cough, diphtheria, HPV, and COVID-19.
The first vaccine discovered was the smallpox vaccine. Smallpox was a deadly illness. It killed 300 million to 500 million people around the world in the last century. After the vaccine was given to people, the disease was eventually erased. It’s the only disease to be completely destroyed. There are now others close to that point, including polio.
What are vaccines?
A vaccine (or immunization) is a way to build your body’s natural immunity to a disease before you get sick. This keeps you from getting and spreading the disease.
For some vaccines, a weakened form of the disease germ is injected into your body. This is usually done with a shot in the leg or arm. Your body detects the invading germs (antigens) and produces antibodies to fight them. Those antibodies then stay in your body for a long time. In many cases, they stay for the rest of your life. If you’re ever exposed to the disease again, your body will fight it off without you ever getting the disease.
Some illnesses, like strains of cold viruses, are fairly mild. But some, like COVID-19, smallpox or polio, can cause life-altering changes. They can even result in death. That’s why preventing your body from contracting these illnesses is very important.
How does immunity work?
Your body builds a defense system to fight foreign germs that could make you sick or hurt you. It’s called your immune system. To build up your immune system, your body must be exposed to different germs. When your body is exposed to a germ for the first time, it produces antibodies to fight it. But that takes time, and you usually get sick before the antibodies have built up. But once you have antibodies, they stay in your body. So, the next time you’re exposed to that germ, the antibodies will attack it, and you won’t get sick.
Path to improved health
Everyone needs vaccines. They are recommended for infants, children, teenagers, and adults. There are widely accepted immunization schedules available. They list what vaccines are needed, and at what age they should be given. Most vaccines are given to children. It’s recommended they receive 12 different vaccines by their 6th birthday. Some of these come in a series of shots. Some vaccines are combined so they can be given together with fewer shots.
The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) believes that immunization is essential to preventing the spread of contagious diseases. Vaccines are especially important for at-risk populations such as young children and older adults. The AAFP offers vaccination recommendations, immunization schedules , and information on disease-specific vaccines.
Is there anyone who can’t get vaccines?
Some people with certain immune system diseases should not receive some types of vaccines and should speak with their health care providers first. There is also a small number of people who don’t respond to a particular vaccine. Because these people can’t be vaccinated, it’s very important everyone else gets vaccinated. This helps preserve the “herd immunity” for the vast majority of people. This means that if most people are immune to a disease because of vaccinations, it will stop spreading.
Are there side effects to vaccines?
There can be side effects after you or your child get a vaccine. They are usually mild. They include redness or swelling at the injection site. Sometimes children develop a low-grade fever. These symptoms usually go away in a day or two. More serious side effects have been reported but are rare.
Typically, it takes years of development and testing before a vaccine is approved as safe and effective. However, in cases affecting a global, public health crisis or pandemic, it is possible to advance research, development, and production of a vaccine for emergency needs. Scientists and doctors at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) study the research before approving a vaccine. They also inspect places where the vaccines are produced to make sure all rules are being followed. After the vaccine is released to the public, the FDA continues to monitor its use. It makes sure there are no safety issues.
The benefits of their use far outweigh any risks of side effects.
What would happen if we stopped vaccinating children and adults?
If we stopped vaccinating, the diseases would start coming back. Aside from smallpox, all other diseases are still active in some part of the world. If we don’t stay vaccinated, the diseases will come back. There would be epidemics, just like there used to be.
This happened in Japan in the 1970s. They had a good vaccination program for pertussis (whooping cough). Around 80% of Japanese children received a vaccination. In 1974, there were 393 cases of whooping cough and no deaths. Then rumors began that the vaccine was unsafe and wasn’t needed. By 1976, the vaccination rate was 10%. In 1979, there was a pertussis epidemic, with more than 13,000 cases and 41 deaths. Soon after, vaccination rates improved, and the number of cases went back down.
Things to consider
There have been many misunderstandings about vaccines. There are myths and misleading statements that spread on the internet and social media about vaccines. Here are answers to 5 of the most common questions/misconceptions about vaccines.
Vaccines do NOT cause autism.
Though multiple studies have been conducted, none have shown a link between autism and vaccines. The initial paper that started the rumor has since been discredited.
Vaccines are NOT too much for an infant’s immune system to handle.
Infants’ immune systems can handle much more than what vaccines give them. They are exposed to hundreds of bacteria and viruses every day. Adding a few more with a vaccine doesn’t add to what their immune systems are capable of handling.
Vaccines do NOT contain toxins that will harm you.
Some vaccines contain trace amounts of substances that could be harmful in a large dose. These include formaldehyde, aluminum, and mercury. But the amount used in the vaccines is so small that the vaccines are completely safe. For example, over the course of all vaccinations by the age of 2, a child will take in 4mg of aluminum. A breast-fed baby will take in 10mg in 6 months. Soy-based formula delivers 120mg in 6 months. In addition, infants have 10 times as much formaldehyde naturally occurring in their bodies than what is contained in a vaccine. And the toxic form of mercury has never been used in vaccines.
Vaccines do NOT cause the diseases they are meant to prevent.
This is a common misconception, especially about the flu vaccine. Many people think they get sick after getting a flu shot. But flu shots contain dead viruses—it’s impossible to get sick from the shot but mild symptoms can occur because the vaccine may trigger an immune response, which is normal. Even with vaccines that use weakened live viruses, you could experience mild symptoms similar to the illness. But you don’t actually have the disease.
We DO still need vaccines in the U.S., even though infection rates are low.
Many diseases are uncommon in the U.S. because of our high vaccination rate. But they haven’t been eliminated from other areas of the world. If a traveler from another country brings a disease to the U.S., anyone who isn’t vaccinated is at risk of getting that disease. The only way to keep infection rates low is to keep vaccinating.
Questions to ask your doctor
- Why does my child need to be vaccinated?
- What are the possible side effects of the vaccination?
- What do I do if my child experiences a side effect from the vaccine?
- What happens if my child doesn’t get all doses of the recommended vaccines? Will he or she be able to go to day care or school?
- We missed a vaccination. Can my child still get it late?
- Are there new vaccines that aren’t on the immunization schedules for kids?
- What should I do if I don’t have health insurance, or my insurance doesn’t cover vaccinations?
- What vaccinations do I need as an adult?
- American Academy of Family Physicians: Immunizations
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Vaccines & Immunizations
Last Updated: April 18, 2022
This article was contributed by familydoctor.org editorial staff.
Copyright © American Academy of Family Physicians
This information provides a general overview and may not apply to everyone. Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on this subject.
Most schools and daycares require certain childhood vaccines, but they’re also good for your child’s health.
Certain immunizations are important at every age to reduce illness, hospitalization, or death.
A preventive service might be a test, an immunization or vaccine, or advice from your doctor. These services can…
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Mandatory vaccinations: Three reasons for and against
- Published 5 December 2021
- Coronavirus pandemic
Nearly two years since Chinese doctors first observed mysterious new cases of pneumonia, Covid-19 is still with us. On top of that, what has been described as the most worrying variant yet has emerged. Could mandatory vaccinations be a way out?
Covid vaccinations are already a requirement for public life in many parts of the world.
If you are a French doctor, a New Zealand teacher or a Canadian government employee, getting your shots is essential to go to work. Indonesia can deny benefits to people who refuse jabs. Greece is making them compulsory for the over-60s.
Austria is set to go further still, with a plan to introduce mandatory vaccinations for all by February.
This would not mean Austrians being forcibly injected. There will be medical and religious exemptions. But the bulk of the remaining unvaccinated population face fines for not getting their shots.
With Germany planning a similar move it is not a debate that is going away. I spoke to public health and other experts to get a sense of what's at stake.
FOR: Vaccines save lives
There's a very simple argument in favour of mandating Covid-19 vaccinations. By getting vaccinated you reduce your risk of serious illness. Less serious illnesses mean fewer deaths, and less pressure on hospitals.
Historically, immunisation campaigns have seen huge success, eradicating smallpox and drastically reducing mortality levels in diseases such as polio and measles.
"We have really good examples that just show a direct causal relationship between requirements, getting very high vaccination rates, and protecting not just individuals but protecting communities," says Jason Schwartz, an associate professor in the History of Medicine at Yale University.
"Vaccines work, they absolutely work, we're got a large body of evidence to show that."
- Why mandatory vaccination is nothing new
Mandates softer than the one proposed by Austria have achieved their goal of raising vaccination levels. France's pass sanitaire , required to access restaurants and other public spaces, is credited with boosting rates to the extent the government hopes it can avoid compulsory vaccinations.
AGAINST: There will be resistance
Here in London, in July anti-lockdown demonstrators took to the streets to demonstrate against a lockdown that had been lifted just hours earlier.
The point is, whatever a government does, it will face opposition. Covid restrictions in particular have drawn protests around the world and mandatory vaccinations are a step beyond, say, a mask mandate.
"When it comes to vaccines, people do think very differently," says Vageesh Jain, a public health doctor at the Institute for Global Health at University College London.
"Anything that's administered to them in their body, it's not going to be thought of in the same way, even though academics and others may think theoretically it's just a restriction, people do have this kind of emotive response."
While there will always be some who will never be persuaded to get vaccinated, it is possible to be sceptical about vaccinations without being an anti-vaxxer.
An Austrian study distinguished between the 14.5% of the country's 9m population who were unprepared to get vaccinated and the 9% who were simply hesitant.
Governments must weigh whether the benefits outweigh the backlash. But as Cathleen Powell, a law professor at the University of Cape Town, argues, there is a legal case to be made.
"The right to bodily integrity as a person who doesn't want to be vaccinated, who wants to make his or her own choices about what medical treatment to get, comes up directly against the rights of other people, not to be infected with potentially fatal diseases," she says.
FOR: We've exhausted other options...
Covid has been with us for some time, but then so have vaccines.
In Europe at least, the momentum behind mandates reflects a frustration that after months of vaccinations and widespread availability there remain significant unvaccinated populations.
There's a stark difference in vaccination rates across the continent from west to east.
European Commission chief Ursula von der Leyen said it was now time to think about mandatory vaccinations, although she stressed individual governments would decide.
"We have the vaccines, the life-saving vaccines, but they are not being used adequately everywhere," she said.
AGAINST: ...or maybe not just yet
While there is a strong health argument in favour of mandatory vaccinations, it is not the only way to boost levels.
"What is quite noticeable in the past is how politicians do like the idea of mandatory vaccination because it seems to give a quick answer to the problem," says Samantha Vanderslott, a social sciences researcher at the Oxford Vaccine Group.
"I wouldn't want government to neglect other things that need to be done to make sure that people really have access to vaccines."
Austria won't be making vaccines mandatory until February and is still using other means. "For those who are afraid, who have no trust, for those whose assessment of risk is low - for them it is important that they are listened to and that their concerns are taken seriously," Barbara Juen, a health psychologist at the University of Innsbruck, told national broadcaster ORF.
In South Africa, 24% of the population is vaccinated, less than half the European average but considerably higher than the 7% average recorded across the African continent. There's no shortage of jabs and low take-up has been blamed in part on misinformation.
- South Africa battles Omicron fear and jab myths
The government has floated making vaccines compulsory in some circumstances, but the number of vaccines administered has risen rapidly since the discovery of the Omicron variant. It's not just governments that provide nudges.
FOR: End the cycle of lockdowns
Compulsory vaccinations are not the only form of mandate. Most governments have imposed some form of restrictions, from Covid passes to travel bans, that carry their own costs.
On top of the lives saved, a blanket vaccine mandate could spell the end of lockdowns.
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Experts answer your questions about the Omicron variant
"It's not just about having your liberty changed... it's about economic damage and the mental health damage the physical health damage," says Alberto Giubilini, a senior research fellow at the Oxford Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics. He favours mandates for those most vulnerable to coronavirus.
"There is no reason to impose the huge, huge costs of lockdowns on people when you have another measure available."
AGAINST: It could prove counterproductive
Some have more long-term concerns, such as whether a successful programme could build distrust of future campaigns.
"Mandatory schemes during a crisis will be counterproductive," Dr Dicky Budiman, an epidemiologist who advises the WHO on pandemic recovery, told al-Jazeera.
"When people have what we call conspiracy theories or they have misbeliefs or misunderstandings, [such schemes] will only strengthen their opinions."
Vanderslott points to the political climate: "We have witnessed, especially in Europe, parties tapping into the vaccine opposition and knowing that that might be a way to get votes from a certain section of the population," she says.
"We could see more parties, and they tend to be on the right, putting out that kind of message in their political campaign and saying that they want to remove measures for mandatory vaccination. That's a fear and then once that happens, we don't have the option anymore to use that as a policy measure."
- Coronavirus lockdown measures
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First data points to Omicron re-infection risk
- 3 December 2021
Is a million boosters a day achievable? And other questions
- 13 December 2021
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Vaccinations: do they really have health benefits?
Mandatory childhood vaccinations have been one of the controversial issues in the United States of America and worldwide. The dramatic controversy was even staged by the republicans during the 2016 presidential campaigns, with the republicans questioning the efficacy of mandatory childhood vaccinations. The campaign against vaccinations is not only an issue of concern for politicians but also other anti-vaccinationists (also known as anti-vaxxers), who include parents, clergymen, and others alike. Some of the arguments brought forward by anti-vaxers are with regard to the link between vaccinations and diseases such as autism. However, not everyone is against vaccinations. Pro-vaccinations (also known as pro-vaxxers) share a different option. The limelight argument of pro-vaxxers has been shared with evidence of eradication of diseases such as polio in the United States of America and smallpox worldwide, among other diseases. This article seeks to understand the history of vaccinations, how vaccinations work, and the link between vaccinations and some of the major diseases that have ravaged mankind.
History of vaccinations
The story of vaccinations begins with Edward Jenner, who in 1796 performed the world’s first vaccination (Markel et al., 2005). This was the time period when smallpox was a devastating epidemic. In his quest to find a cure for smallpox, Jenner made an observation that milkmaids, who had been exposed to cowpox, did not become ill from the smallpox outbreaks. Owing to this observation, it is articulated that Jenner inoculated an eight-year-old boy with pus from a cowpox lesion. After two weeks of inoculation, the eight-year-old boy was exposed to polio by variolating two sites on his arm. The boy was unaffected by smallpox during the time he was exposed to polio and in subsequent times. Subsequent experiments proved effective in addressing the polio epidemic. Jenner’s pioneering thoughts paved the way for the world of vaccinations and helped serve millions of lives. Today, vaccinations are commonly used in medical annals. There is a flu vaccine, allergy vaccinations, vaccinations against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), as well as Hepatitis A and B vaccines, just to mention a few.
How vaccinations work
When a harmful substance (also known as a pathogen) such as a bacteria or virus, is introduced into the body for the first time, the body’s immune system recognized the foreign substance on the basis of specific features the pathogen possesses (known as antigens). The body then mounts an immune response to attack the pathogen in order to protect the body. The chemicals produced by the body that attack the pathogens are known as antibodies. When this is the first time a pathogen is introduced to the body, it may take days for the antibodies to be mobilized to attack the pathogen. However, once the immune system encounters the same substance subsequent times, it is able to quickly recognize the pathogen based on the memory from the previous encounter. The immune response this time around is quicker than the first time the pathogen was introduced into the body.
Vaccinations take advantage of the body’s ability to recognize the pathogen previously introduced in the body to help protect the body against pathogens. The vaccines contain the same antigens as the pathogens but in weakened or dead form. Ideally, the vaccine is not expected to be of any harm to the host to which it is introduced despite it containing the same antigens as the deadly pathogen. The basis is to train the immune system so that when a deadly pathogen is encountered, the immune response is already mounted and ready to attack the pathogen.
Anti-vaxxers on vaccinations
A. vaccinations cause autism.
One of the critical arguments against vaccinations is that it is directly linked to autism. Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder that is characterized by three core deficits: impaired communication, impaired reciprocal social interaction, and restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behaviors or interests. ( Faras et al., 2010)2. The severity of the disorder differs from one individual to another. The fight against vaccinations, particularly the MMR, was popularized by a British surgeon named Andrew Wakefield in 1998. Wakefield published an article that linked the MMR vaccine to autism in the article which he published in the Lancet. Despite the small sample size (n=12), the uncontrolled design, and the speculative nature of the conclusions, the paper received wide publicity, and MMR vaccination rates began to drop because parents were concerned about the risk of autism after vaccination. (Rao et al., 2011)4. The obvious result of parents not vaccinating their children was exposed to such diseases and the complications thereof. After over 10 years of the publication of the article against the MMR vaccine, the Lancet retracted it on February 2, 2010.
b. Documented side effects of vaccinations
Vaccinations, like any form of medication, have their pitfalls. The concern about the negative effects of vaccination has caused for increased concern, especially for parents. Parents have questioned the need to have their children vaccinated based on what they may have heard about vaccinations from their relatives or friends. Some of these concerns are reasonable, as there are some vaccinations that are not recommended in persons who are suffering from ailments such as cancer or the HIV virus due to a weakened immune system. The Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention has clearly published that some individuals should not receive certain vaccines based on allergic responses they may have, pregnant women and those whose who are nursing, just o mention a few. The list has stipulations on who should not get vaccines against cholera, the DTaP vaccine, and hepatitis A vaccines, among others. This makes the growing concerns of some anti-vaxxers, especially parents, to be well understood.
The debate against vaccinations is an ongoing one. The alarm which resulted from people staging a protest against the MMR vaccine did not have any valid evidence and was later retracted. However, the effect of the publication of the anti-MMR vaccine goes beyond the 12 years it lasted in the Lancet. people when everyone was being made to believe that vaccinations have no added benefit. History has also attested to the effectiveness of vaccines. Immediately following the licensing of the measles vaccine in 1962, the number of measles cases in the US dropped dramatically
Everything in the medical annals has its own downfall. What is more important is analyzing the cost versus risk when staging a fight against things like vaccines. There are no vaccines which 100% effective. However, there are many that have proven to be over 90% effective in helping combat diseases. As articulated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, two doses of the varicella vaccine (chicken pox) are effective at preventing 98 % of any form of Chickenpox. The chickenpox vaccine is not the only one which has proven to be effective. Many other vaccinations are at or over a 95 % efficacy mark against diseases. These vaccinations include smallpox, yellow fever, and measles vaccinations. However, even though I do strongly believe that vaccinations should continue to be administered as they have added benefits, I do feel that further research needs to be done to help address some instances in which some adverse effects may have occurred as a result of vaccinations.
It is the duty of healthcare providers to sensitize the communities to the health benefits of vaccinations. I do feel campaigns for vaccinations are only done when one visits the hospital. However, such campaigns need to be ongoing. Media outlets, such as radio and television stations, social media, and new papers can do need to be utilized as an avenue spread the word for the benefit of the community. There is also a need to cub publications that are presented to the communities about the negative effects of vaccination if such vaccinations do not have evidence beyond any reasonable double. This will prevent the unnecessary alarming of people in communities about the supposedly negative effects of vaccinations. All-in-all, it is the duty of every citizen to seek correct information and health spread the news on the benefits of vaccinations.
- Hadeel Faris, Nahed A., Tidmarsh L., (2010). Autism Spectrum disorders. Ann Saudi Med 2010 Jul-Aug; 30(4): 295 – 300
- T.S. Rao., and C. Andrade., (2011). The MMR vaccine and autism: Sensation, refutation, retraction, and fraud. Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2011 Apr-Jun; 53(2): 95–96
Vaccinations: Major Breakthrough In Medical History
Significant role of social media in anti vaccine movement, the use of vaccination should not be mandatorily, how does receiving the flu vaccines decrease influenza in children under 5 in new south wales, ignorance of truly effect of vaccination.
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Reasons Behind Parental Refusal Of Vaccines
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Essays on Vaccination
The issues surrounding vaccination and its importance, arguments about the importance of making vaccinations mandatory, vaccination – the greatest invention of all times, my research of advantages and disadvantages of vaccination, the use of vaccination – a choice for every one, an importance of mandating vaccines, the problem of the vaccine war in the world, the ethical theories and issues surrounding vaccination in america, the effectiveness of vacciness in preventing illnesses and infectious diseases, why children should not be vaccinated, the importance of vaccines to prevent infectious diseases, advantages and disadvantages of the various types of vaccines, chickenpox: history, symptoms and treatment, the importance of increasing hpv vaccination in children, why is vaccination of human papillomavirus significant, debate on vaccination and autism, impact of media on parents' acceptance of immunization, the use of vaccines in modern medicine and the vaccination delimma, legal and ethical issues about the mmr vaccine, an argument in favor of using vaccines, the urgent need for a vaccine against zika virus, report on the measles disease and vaccination, yellow fever disease - what problems are caused by mosquitoes, chasing polio eradication: vaccine development, the examination of human sciences in connection to the effectiveness of vaccines, the different types of vaccines, vaccine types, should vaccinations be mandatory: future safety for children, feeling stressed about your essay.
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Vaccination is the administration of a vaccine to help the immune system develop immunity from a disease.
Vaccines contain a microorganism or virus in a weakened, live or killed state, or proteins or toxins from the organism. In stimulating the body's adaptive immunity, they help prevent sickness from an infectious disease. When a sufficiently large percentage of a population has been vaccinated, herd immunity results. Herd immunity protects those who may be immunocompromised and cannot get a vaccine because even a weakened version would harm them.
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Vaccination Essays (Examples)
441 results for “Vaccination” .
Vaccination and Autism A Causal
Most pediatricians today hold that the manner in which the vaccine is administered is the key; while other specialists and experts maintain that it is the preservative (thimersol) in the vaccines, and still others contend that it is the vaccines themselves (Schulman, Daniel, 2005). The prevailing philosophy that governs the continued use of these vaccinations in lieu of the evidence supporting the fact that they cause neurological and other permanent damage to children is seemingly this: that the number of children who experience adverse reactions is out weighed by the number of incidents of disease prevented by the administration of the drug. In other words, we sacrifice a few so that the greater majority can live without disease. That notion might be persuasive for many; however, unfortunately, the evidence supports an increase in the number of children experiencing adverse reactions and permanent damage from the continued use of these vaccinations…
Schulman, Daniel (2005), Drug Test: Is Vaccine Preservative Linked to Autism? Politically, Scientifically, and Emotionally Complex, the Thimersol Challenges Journalism, Columbia Journalism Review, Vol. 44, November/December, pp. 44+.
James, Walene (1995), Immunization: The Reality Behind the Myth, Bergin and Garvey, New York.
Vaccination Process Is One That Dates Back
vaccination process is one that dates back as far as the 1700's; the process took place using a needle that was inserted in a smallpox blister that had ruptured and then that same needle would be inserted under the skin of an uninfected individual (Okonek & Peters, p.1). This process did not have a high success rate, but there were instances when this process did prove to be effective at protecting against smallpox outbreaks. In order to understand how a vaccine works one should know some basic terminology. The disease causing organisms contain proteins called "antigens" which stimulate the immune response. The resulting response is the production of "antibodies." These proteins bind to the disease causing organisms and lead to their eventual destruction. In addition, during the immune response "memory cells" are created, these cells remain in one's blood stream and keep the body from contracting the disease (Okonek &…
BBC Online Network. "Sci/Tech HIV vaccine breakthrough." BBC Online Network 14 Jan. 1999. 30 July 2005 .
Okonek, B.A., & Peters, P.M."Vaccines-How and Why?" The National Health Museum 2005. 30 July 2005 .
Ethics of Public Health Policies Public health concerns necessarily introduce a tension between the individual and the greater good, which may have different resolutions depending on the ethical perspective that one uses to assess them. As a society, the United States has determined that certain public health policies so promote the greater good that they should be considered even if they infringe upon private liberties, or, in some cases, pose a threat to individual health or welfare. One widely discussed example of this type of policy is universal healthcare or affordable healthcare for the impoverished; others are forced to subsidize healthcare costs for those who can least afford it because it is believed to be in the best interest of overall public health. However, some public health policies are even more controversial. Vaccinations to prevent the spread of communicable illnesses, particularly childhood vaccinations, may be one of the most controversial…
Anonymous. (2011). Ethical Theories and Principles [PowerPoint slides].
Buchanan, D. (2008). Autonomy, Paternalism, and Justice: Ethical Priorities in Public Health.
American Journal of Public Health, 98(1), 15-21. Available via ProQuest.
Selgelid, M.J. (2009). A Moderate Pluralist Approach to Public Heath Policy and Ethics. Public Health Ethics, 2(2), 195-205. Available via EBSCO.
Autism in Infants and Vaccination
Vaccines Causing Autism in Infants; Possibility of a More Appropriate Time to Vaccinate Other Than Shortly After Birth The past 20 years has seen a drastic rise in the number of individuals suffering Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), with 1 in every 88 children in the U.S. diagnosed with the condition. The standardized criteria which define ASD are qualitative impairments with regards to communication and social interaction, as well as stereotyped, restricted interests, activities and behavioral pattern (Hooker et al. 2) ASD is defined by these basic characteristics, though recent studies throw light on several co-morbid physical, behavioral and health conditions prevailing in ASD-diagnosed persons, like gastrointestinal troubles, sleeping disorders, incontinence, eating disorders, sensory processing problems and behavioral instabilities. Furthermore, initial clinical reports depict that a large percentage of children suffering from ASD lose the skills they acquire from 6 to 18 months of age, and suffer regression at an estimated…
Influenza vaccination reducing hospitalization in the elderly population
educing Hospitalization in the Elderly Population Practice Issue or Problem in Advanced Practice Nursing Immunization has been regarded as the keystone of influenza-linked mortality and morbidity prevention (Dominguez et al. 2016). Inactivated Influenza Vaccine's efficacy in elderly individuals has been studied; a majority of scholars strongly recommend immunization in individuals aged 65+ (Dawood et al. 2014). Existing vaccines are given for the purpose of inducing serum anti-hemagglutinin antibodies to avoid ailment and infection resulting from an attack of natural influenza. Administration of annual influenza shots to vulnerable persons continues to be practiced on a widespread scale, with aged persons (i.e., 65+ years of age) being the key target population. Trivalent inactivated vaccines for influenza are deemed to be efficient as well as economical. But despite extensive influenza inoculation drives, aged inpatients are increasingly seen in hospitals, for severe cardiovascular and respiratory issues, in the course of recent yearly national outbreaks…
Darvishian, M., Gefenaite, G., Turner, R. M., Pechlivanoglou, P., Van der Hoek, W., Van den Heuvel, E. R., & Hak, E. (2014). After adjusting for bias in meta-analysis seasonal influenza vaccine remains effective in community-dwelling elderly. Journal of clinical epidemiology, 67(7), 734-744.
Dawood, F. S., Prapasiri, P., Areerat, P., Ruayajin, A., Chittaganpitch, M., Muangchana, C.,... & Olsen, S. J. (2014). Effectiveness of the 2010 and 2011 Southern Hemisphere trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines against hospitalization with influenza-associated acute respiratory infection among Thai adults aged≥ 50 years. Influenza and other respiratory viruses, 8(4), 463-468.
Dominguez, A., Soldevila, N., Toledo, D., Godoy, P., Castilla, J., Force, L.,... & Martin, V. (2016). Factors Associated with Influenza Vaccination of Hospitalized Elderly Patients in Spain. Plos one, 11(1), e0147931.
Fry, A. M., Kim, I. K., Reed, C., Thompson, M., Chaves, S. S., Finelli, L., & Bresee, J. (2014). Modeling the effect of different vaccine effectiveness estimates on the number of vaccine-prevented influenza-associated hospitalizations in older adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 59(3), 406-409.
HPV Vaccination According to the
jci.org/cgi/content/full/116/5/1167. In 2006, an estimated 9,710 cases of invasive cervical cancer will be diagnosed in the United States, and an estimated 3,700 women will die from this disease. Globally, cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women, with an estimated 510,000 newly diagnosed cervical cancer cases and 288,000 deaths." Saslow et.al, 2007, at http://caonline.amcancersoc.org/cgi/content/full/57/1/7?maxtoshow=&ITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=1&title=American+Cancer+Society+Guideline+for+uman+Papillomavirus&andorexacttitle=and&andorexacttitleabs=and&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype=WCIT PV is arguably the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States, with an estimated 24 million active cases and 5.5 million new cases each year. Most people contract a strain of PV that is suppressed by the immune system with no medical intervention. Other PV strains cause troublesome genital wads. An even smaller number of PV strains lead to cervical cancer, which kills around 4,800 women a year -- more than the number of women who die of AIDS." Cheryl Wetzstein, "PV Emerging as the Next Epidemic," Insight on…
HPV Vaccines: What You Need to Know," Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 27 Nov. 2006: 4.
Hold Back Knee-Jerk Reactions on HPV Vaccine," the Washington Times 12 Jan. 2007: B02.
Saslow et.al, 2007, available online
Various Types of Vaccination
Vaccination Vaccines represent one of the most debated topics within the modern day society and the debate is far from reaching any common grounds. On the one hand, for instance, there are the researchers and the pharmaceutical companies which promote the intensive usage of vaccines across the globe in order to reduce the incidence of certain illnesses. On the other hand, there is growing concern over the secondary effects of vaccines, with more people across the globe refusing to vaccinate their children. While a conclusion has yet to be reached, there are numerous aspects of vaccination which still need attention. And one relevant example in this sense is represented by the administration of the vaccine, particularly that of administering it in one dose or in multiple doses. The mono-dose in vaccine administration refers to a situation in which the vaccine is administered one time only and it protects the individual…
Lopez, A., Guris, D., Zimmerman, L., Gladden, L., Moore, T., Haselow, D.T., Loparev, V.N., Schmid, D.S., Jumaan, A.O., Snow, S.L. 2006, One dose of varicella vaccine does not prevent school outbreaks: is it time for a second dose? Pediatrics. Vol. 117, No. 6. pp. 1070-1077
nursing ethics and vaccination debate
The Vaccination Dilemma The rights of individuals to refuse vaccinations, and the rights of parents to refuse their children vaccinations, has been increasingly called into question because of the way individual autonomy conflicts directly with the rights of the general public. For example, outbreaks of vaccine-preventable illnesses have increased, with serious outbreaks of measles in the United States being a prime example. Although the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention declared the elimination of measles in 2000 due to effective vaccine penetration, in 2014 a spike in measles cases raised the possibility of a “public health crisis” that also “reignited a historic controversy” in medical ethics (Gostin, 2015, p. 1099). Essentially, unvaccinated persons spread diseases that are preventable, as well as possibly deadly. The rights of one person to refuse a vaccination in the interests of patient autonomy might not outweigh the right of every other citizen to…
Vaccinations and Public Health
government be allowed to overrule the desires of parents when it comes to public health issues like vaccinations? Support your position We live in the 2000s not the pre- and early '50s when polio was a disease as feared then as cancer is today. It is partially thanks to a determined and crippled president as well as to the public desire to eliminate the disease -- and to the courageous and resilient Dr. Salk -- that polio was mastered. The elimination of polio was based on one simple vaccine that had been thoroughly scientifically tested before it could be administered to even one individual. The repetitive success of the vaccine makes it a valuable and reliable intervention. Vaccines, therefore, are not only helpful but also critical interventions to eliminating and preventing national, if not global, scourges. It is the argument of this essay, therefore, that government should do all that…
American Medical Association (2000). Vaccines and infectious diseases: putting risk into perspective.
A Paralyzing Fear: The Story of Polio in America
Infant and Child Vaccinations the
They may also not agree with or trust the medical professionals, because they may feel those people have an agenda that involves kickbacks from medication companies and other issues. Without that level of trust between parents and the doctors and nurses who treat their children, it is virtually impossible for those parents to simply take the advice of medical professionals when it comes to vaccinating their children. The internet has changed ethics in some ways, too, because people who were not sure how they felt about vaccinations or people who are easily impressionable may read things online that may sway them one way or the other. In other words, they may come to realize that vaccinations for their children are highly important, or they may read something that will lead them to believe that vaccinating their children could give those children autism or cause them to have serious issues such…
Vaccinations Should Vaccinations Be Mandatory
hile these are cogent points, I would argue against them on the basis of the following facts. One has in the first instance to bear in mind that the main reason for vaccinations is to prevent the spread of dangerous diseases. hile there are risks one has to "…weigh the potential risks of the vaccination against the potential risks of the diseases those vaccinations are designed to prevent." (Johns ) Vaccination has been proven to be an effective barrier to certain very virulent diseases for as long as fifteen years. (Mansfield, 25) The second and most important point follows from the above and refers to the importance of herd immunity. Herd immunity is defined as follows: "If enough people in a community are immunized against certain diseases, then it is more difficult for that disease to get passed between those who aren't immunised." (hat is herd immunity?) In other words,…
Johns A. Mandatory Vaccinations: Exploring the Pros and the Cons. 2008. December 7,
Mansfield, P. "Mindless MMR." The Ecologist. March 2002:25.
SHOULD VACCINATION BE REQUIRED? CHILDHOOD VACCINATIONS: THE
Mandatory Vaccinations Ours Is a Privileged Country
Mandatory Vaccinations Ours is a privileged country. Serious communicable diseases are largely controlled in the United States, partly because we have a comprehensive network of public health systems to address pandemic threats, ready access to supplies of vaccines and medicines, hospitals prepared to address communicable disease risks, and because our public school systems require mandatory vaccinations as a requirement of attendance. Certainly, there are exceptions. Children whose parents object to vaccinations because of religious and sometimes philosophical reasons, for instance, can file for exemptions. Vaccine supplies sometimes run short, or become obsolete as viruses mutate over the course of a disease's "season." But, by and large, U.S. citizens enjoy one of the healthiest environments with regard to the spread of disease among developed nations. ecently, however, this status has come under threat -- not from foreigners carrying exotic diseases, not from increasing pest populations in crowded urban areas. But a…
Ciolli, A. (2008). Mandatory school vaccinations: The role of tort law. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 81 (3), 129-137. PMCID: PMC2553651. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2553651/
Frompovich, C.J. (2011, October 10). Medical ethics & vaccines gone awry! Vaccine Truth, Retrieved http://vactruth.com/
Stern, A.M., and Markel, H. (2005). The history of vaccines and immunization: Familiar patterns, new challenges, Health Affairs, 24 (30), 611-621. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.24.3.611 Retrieved http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/24/3/611.full
How a Multidisciplinary Team Can Promote Vaccinations for Children
Applying Ethical Principles: To Vaccinate or Not VaccinateCase Study SummaryIn the case study, To Vaccinate or Not Vaccinate, a young, college-educated couple, Jenna and Chris Smith, are adamant that they do not want their newborn child vaccinated for what they regard as highly valid reasons. Despite the best efforts of the couples pediatrician, Dr. Angela Kerr, to convince the Smiths to have their newborn vaccinated, the couple maintains that they have reviewed the scientific evidence as well as reports from other parents and their cost-benefit analysis convinced them that vaccination was not in their childs best interests. The purpose of this paper is to apply the three components of an ethical decision-making model to this ethical dilemma, together with a proposed solution to the situation that will result in the baby being vaccinated.Stakeholders Involved or Affected by the Ethical ProblemFirst and foremost, the newborn is the principal stakeholder in this…
Odone, A. et al. (2015, January). Effectiveness of interventions that apply new media to improve vaccine uptake and vaccine coverage. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 11(1), 72–82.
To Vaccinate or Not Vaccinate. (n.d.). Capella University. Retrieved from https://media.capella.edu/CourseMedia/nhs4000element18655/wrapper.asp .
Rafi, M., Khan, A., Ahmad, K., & Khan, A. (2021). How Religious and Cultural Doctrines Affect Child Vaccination: An Analysis of Parents’ Understanding of Child Vaccination. Journal of Hospital Librarianship, 21(4), 307–318.
Immunization and the CDC
The CDC and Vaccine Schedules The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) play an important role in promoting herd immunity and vaccine schedules for US citizens, as they are the ones who have the organization capabilities and visibility to push for vaccination. The CDC publishes information for health care professionals regarding vaccination and immunization literature. It offers material for ordinary citizens and patients who want to know more about the subject (“Immunization Schedules”, 2018). On its website, it also offers answers to common questions that people can use to feel more confident about getting vaccinated (“Why Immunize?”, 2018). Thus, the CDC acts as an educator and a provider of vaccination information for the masses. As an advanced practice nurse, I would ensure that my patients get good information by providing them with access to the relevant literature on vaccinations and immunizations. I could have it readily available to deliver…
Connection Between Vaccinations and Autism
Vaccinations and Autism Over the last several years, the direct link between vaccinations and autism has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because some studies showed how higher amounts of mercury had an impact on if someone would contract various neurological disorders (such as: autism). The result is that numerous theories were developed about the how this contributes to the condition. According to Pallares (2010) this was based upon one two possible scenarios with him saying, "The connection between vaccines and autism rests upon two theories. On the one hand, the anti-measles fraction of the vaccine is attributed with the development of an enteropathy due to malabsorption, which would facilitate the absorption of toxic neuropeptides and the effects of this process on the brain would favor the appearance of autism. The other theory involves thimerosal (a combination of ethylmercury and thiosalicylate), which is used as a preservative in…
Gross, L. (2009). A Broken Trust: Lessons from the Vaccine -- Autism Wars. PLOS Biology, 7(5), pp. 112 -- 118.
Honey, K. (2008). Attention Focuses on Autism. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 118 (5), pp. 1586 -- 1593.
Hviid, A. (2003). Association Between Thimerosal-Containing Vaccine and Autism. JAMA, 290 (13), pp. 1763 -- 1766.
Jick, H. (2003). Epidemiology and Possible Causes of Autism. Pharmacotherapy, 23 (12), pp. 1524 -- 1530.
Vaccine and Austism Parents Have Every Right
Vaccine and Austism Parents have every right to be concerned about their child's health and well- being and for this reason; it's not very hard to fathom why they got seriously worried over an important research study that established a link between MMR vaccine and autism. The research was not ordinary. It was published in one of the most prestigious medical journals of Britain, The Lancet, and was written by a well-respected name in the field, Dr. Wakefield. The research established a link between vaccine and autism after eight children had allegedly developed autism symptoms after MMR vaccine. The research came out more than a decade ago and was soon followed by series of studies on the subject that mostly rejected the original finding and found no link between the vaccine and autism symptoms. Interestingly after so many rejections, British medical community got involved in discovering the veracity of claims…
IRB's add a certain and authentic stamp of approval for research and clinical trials. This system is by no means perfect, as there are countless examples of how IRB's failed, but in this particular instance where a Central African country may be exposed to a vaccine, this oversight is deemed necessary. The IRB needs to understand what is the purpose of these tests and how the population of this vulnerable nation may benefit from this research. Historically, this region of the world has been used as a virtual Petri dish for Western scientists wishing to test their new medical breakthrough. Caution is necessary. The ethical conflicts are obvious. There are profit motives in mind for the vaccine, as they are valuable commodities in many parts of the world. The IRB can act as an ethical buffer by creating a circumstance where the research can be done humanely, and with a…
Progress of Vaccine Development Particularly the Challenges
progress of vaccine development, particularly the challenges. There is also a discussion of funding and its impact on HIV research. Ever since HIV / AIDS made the evolutionary jump from chimpanzees to humans, it has infected approximately one percent of the global population; in 2005 it killed almost three million people alone. HIV's continued spread is due to its ability to evade the human immune system and vaccines (Understanding Evolution, 2007). Even with recent advances in scientists' understanding of HIV origination, development and immunology, there are still major scientific obstacles. Several prototype HIV vaccine candidates have failed so far to protect against HIV infection or to reduce viral loads, that is, the concentration of HIV virus in the blood after infection during clinical studies of effectiveness. Therefore there must be a renewed, well-coordinated commitment to conducting basic discovery research as well as preclinical studies and clinical trials (Barouch, 2008). In…
Barouch, DH (2008 October 2). Challenges in the development of an HIV-1 vaccine. Nature, 455(7213): 613-619. doi: 10.1038/nature07352
Cohen, J. (2008 July 25). The great funding surge. Science. 321(5888), 512-519. doi: 10.1126/science.321.5888.512
Koff, W.C. & Berkley, S.F. (2010 July 29). The Renaissance in HIV vaccine development -- Future directions. The New England Journal of Medicine. 363:e7 Retrieved February 15, 2012 from: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1007629
National Institutes of Health. (2010 November 17). Global HIV vaccine development. Retrieved February 15, 2012 from: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/hivaids/research/vaccines/research/pages/globalvaccinedev.aspx
MMR Vaccine Autism MMR Vaccine
This dramatic event followed the revelation that Wakefield had accepted money from lawyers representing parents who had filed lawsuits claiming that the MM vaccines had caused autism in their children. Some of these children were even part of Wakefield's original study. (Schreibman, 2005) This disclosure may have laid some doubts to rest but is still not enough to answer the question whether there is actually a link between MM and autism. Firstly, there is a doubt amongst parents and scientists whether MM may cause measles, encephalitis or a depression of the immune system in general. However, numerous studies have looked into this possibility and have concluded that the chance is extremely less at the rate of
Bauman, Margaret L; Kemper, Thomas L. (2005) "The neurobiology of autism"
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008) "Measles, Mumps, and Rubella
(MMR) Vaccine" Retrieved 25 March, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/concerns/mmr_vaccine.htm
Nursing Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Cervical
Preferably, females should be vaccinated before onset of sexual activity. Sexually active females may also benefit from vaccination since there are very few young women are infected with all four HPV types that are targeted by the vaccine. Females who already have been infected with one or more HPV types would still get protection from the vaccine types they have not yet been exposed to. At the present time there is no test available for clinical use to determine whether a female has had any or all of the four HPV types targeted by the vaccine (HPV Vaccine Information for Clinicians, 2008). The only way to prevent the spread of HPV and reduce the amount of cervical cancer cases that exist is to make the HPV vaccination mandatory. Those who argue against making the vaccination mandatory often claim that providing the vaccine will encourage promiscuity. This was the same argument…
Boskey, Elizabeth. (2007). Should States Be Allowed to Mandate the HPV Vaccine? Retrieved
November 2, 2009, from About.com Web site:
HPV Vaccine Information for Clinicians. (2008). Retrieved November 2, 2009, from Center for Disease Control and Prevention Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/STDFact-HPV-vaccine-hcp.htm
MMR Vaccine and Autistic-Spectrum Disorders
Controversy with vaccines, adverse reactions of the MM vaccine and the negative publicity surrounding it SHAPE Measles, Mumps and ubella Vaccine: Absence of Evidence for Link to Autistic-Spectrum Disorders Henry K. Nguyen, MD Candidate Increased incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella is directly due to controversies regarding the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine despite the absence of data supporting a correlation between this combined vaccine and development of autism. Correspondence to: Mentor: Dr. Anshu Kacker 5650 including Abstracts Increased incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella is directly due to controversies regarding the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine despite the absence of data supporting a correlation between this combined vaccine and development of autism. Methods and materials: A literature search was performed using key phrases, including the search-requisite abbreviation 'MM' (measles, mumps, rubella), such as: 'autism mmr vaccine', 'colitis mmr vaccine', 'controversy mmr', 'mmr adverse results', 'vaccines autism-spectrum disorders', 'vaccine effects…
Anderberg, D. (2009). Anatomy of a Health Scare: Education, Income and the MMR Controversy in the UK. Wrong source cited -- found article ===> Journal of Health Economics 03/2011; 30(3):515-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.01.009
Andrews, N.,Miller, E., Taylor, B., Lingam, R., Simmons, A., Stowe, J., Waight, P. (2002). Recall bias, MMR, and autism. Arch Dis Child, 87, 493-4.
Autism Watch (2015) http://www.autism-watch.org/news/lancet.shtml
An Argument in Support of Vaccination
Pro-Vaccination: An Argument in Support of Vaccination Introduction In the past, there has been marked increase in the number of vaccinations recommended as more vaccines are developed in an attempt to rein in various diseases. Accompanying this increase has been parental concerns regarding the relevance and safety of the said vaccines. Apart from parents, various anti-vaccine proponents have also presented numerous and diverse arguments against vaccines. It should, however, be noted that the various concerns as well as arguments against vaccines have been countered by medical professionals who are of the opinion that the relevance of vaccines cannot be overstated in seeking to avert vaccine-preventable diseases. This text revisits this debate in an attempt to highlight not only the need, but also the significance and value of vaccines. Discussion To begin with, it is important to note that over time, developments in medicine and medical sciences have made it possible…
Why is the COVID Vaccine Being Rushed to Market
Are Vaccines Safe or is There a Link to Autism Introduction The rapidity with which the novel coronavirus believed to cause COVID-19 overtook the world caused alarm among leaders and media leading to an urgent demand for an emergency vaccine. Because vaccines typically take years if not decades to develop, manufacture and test, the rollout of a COVID vaccine seemed dubious at best. But as Arnold (2020) points out, scientists had no choice—they had to implement atypical methods to speed up the process: it would be the first time in history that a new disease was identified and a vaccine for it was developed at the same time that the initial outbreak persisted. Scientists quickly began rolling out a variety of vaccines that worked differently in the body—but not without cutting corners here and there (Arnold, 2020). The fact of the matter is that creating and testing vaccines safely takes…
Immunization of Vaccine Hepatitis B Vaccine
Immunization Vaccine # 1 Name of Vaccine Rotavirus vaccine Trade Name RotaTeq® Type of vaccination Attenuated Contraindications · The previous dose of the Rotavirus vaccine was suspected of having a life-threatening allergic reaction. · Any component of the rotavirus vaccine was suspected of having a severe allergic effect. · Rotavirus vaccine was suspected of having Severe immunodeficiency (SCID). Precautions Anyone taking the Rotavirus vaccine should take several precautions, which include: pre-existing acute gastrointestinal conditions such as short gut syndrome or Hirschsprung’s disease and congenital malabsorption syndrome. Another precaution to take is chronic gastroenteritis. (Salvadori & Saux, 2010). Adverse Drug Reactions Some of the reactions that might be triggered by the vaccine include swelling on both throat and face, increased heartbeat, drowsiness, and breathing complications (CDC, 2019). Minimum Age to Receive Vaccine All Rotavirus vaccine doses should be given to children between 15 weeks and 8 months. (CDC, 2019). Routine Recommended…
Transgenic Plants and Oral Vaccine Development
Kumar, G.B.S., Ganapathi, TR. Bapat, V.A. Revathi, C.J. & K.S.N. Prasad. (2002). Expression of Hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic banana plants and NT- I cell line of tobacco. BARC. Retrieved from: http://barc.gov.in/publications/nl/2003/200310-12.pdf ne of the most difficult and intractable health issues worldwide is that of Hepatitis B The disease is difficult to treat and potentially deadly. "There are about 350 million chronic carriers in the world and it is estimated that 75- 100 million of them will die of liver cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma" (Kumar, Ganapathi, Bapat, Revathi, Prasad 2002:85). Although vaccinations do exist, the injectable form of the vaccine is expensive and has been difficult to distribute throughout the developing world where Hepatitis B is most prevalent. Injectable vaccines also require trained healthcare professionals to disseminate. There is also the risk of needle contamination in unsanitary conditions, again, making vaccines in the developing world potentially more dangerous. Cold…
One possible solution is the development of oral vaccines. This proved to be a great advantage in the treatment of polio. Unlike injectable vaccines, "they can activate the mucosal immune system against many pathogens by oral delivery" and also because they do not contain whole pathogens, there is no risk of actually transmitting the disease by accident through the vaccination process (Kumar et al. 2002: 86). Plant-based vaccines have proven to be particularly effective in the developing world through the use of transgenic banana plants. At present, the surface antigen of Hepatitis B (HBsAg) has been successfully found to be expressed in transgenic tobacco plants as well. "The HBsAg derived from transgenic tobacco plants is physically, biochemically and immunologically similar to yeast derived rHBsAg" but is cheaper to produce (Kumar et al. 2002: 87). Both transgenic tobacco and banana plants, it is hoped, hold the potential to develop an effective oral vaccine.
The series of experiments conducted by the study's authors to support their exploratory research to find plant-based vaccines were promising. For the transgenic tobacco plants, "Western analysis confirmed the presence of HBsAg specific band corresponding to yeast derived rHBsAg in pHBs100 and pHER100 transformed tobacco cells whereas in the control non-transformed cells the same was absent…the denatured HBsAg expressed in plant cells showed 4 kDa peptides similar to yeast derived rHBsAg" (Kumar et al. 2002: 91). This antigen is not naturally occurring in tobacco plants, it should be noted: transgenic manipulation would be required for the vaccine to be generated, thus there still would be considerable expense in generating the vaccine initially. The hope would be, however, that once it was developed, it would be useful in the context of the developing world to provide treatment.
The most desirable and promising potential vaccine source, however, would still be to derive the vaccine from a banana plant, given the proliferation of the fruit in the tropics and also its palatability. "Expression of HBsAg in bananas may be advantageous as they are grown in most of the tropical and subtropical countries, where cost effective vaccines are required and their digestibility and palatability by infants makes it an attractive choice" (Kumar et al. 2002: 93). It must be noted that the development of the vaccine in any plant form is still very much in its nascent stages. At present, the closest to an oral vaccine that has been derived in a lab is an HBsAg prototype from a transgenic potato plant tested in mice. Still, the research indicates potentially promising developments in this area which should not be ignored.
Scientific Research on Coronavirus Vaccine
Connection Between Class Learning and an Article The development of a COVID-19 vaccine is considered critical in curbing the spread of this virus and dealing with the global pandemic. Companies like Moderna have embarked on efforts to develop an effective coronavirus vaccine. The development process involves conducting extensive research through clinical trials. These clinical trials involves using different concepts of scientific research to ensure the effectiveness of the vaccines. Grady (2020) published an article on the effectiveness of Moderna’s coronavirus vaccine based on early data. One of the connections between the article and lessons learnt in the classroom is the use of two groups of study participants i.e. an experimental group and a control group. In this regard, the study employed a between-participants design for the experimentation to determine the difference between conditions among people who contracted the virus. The experimental group of five people were vaccinated while the control…
The Spread of Hiv and the Flu Globally
Vaccines have all but eliminated some diseases that were once pandemics or epidemics like polio and smallpox. The power of vaccines to control infectious diseases cannot be underestimated, and can promote public health worldwide. However, new strains of existing diseases like influenza and potent viruses like HIV continue to plague researchers. Of the various epidemics and pandemics currently facing the international community, all are concerns but it is possible that influenza will become the gravest threat to humanity because of its continual mutations and changes. The international research community needs to respond to influenza by more aggressive programs in vaccine development, designing new vaccines using methods like those described by Berkeley in his Ted talk. Every few years, a new type of infectious disease becomes a pandemic, according to Berkeley, and this means that the research community around the world must work tirelessly to target new expressions of the same…
Berkeley, Seth. "HIV and Flu: The Vaccine Strategy." TED Talks. Retrieved online: https://www.ted.com/talks/seth_berkley_hiv_and_flu_the_vaccine_strategy?language=en#t-35482
Campbell, Patricia J., MacKinnon, Aran and Stevens, Christy R. An Introduction to Global Studies. Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
Why Vaccinations'should be Compulsory
Vaccination Should be Made Compulsory for Children 1. Universal vaccinations should be made compulsory for children because they are essential for the maintenance of public health and the prevention of future epidemics. Example: The eradication of polio is a good example of a disease that harmed or killed tens of thousands of Americans within living memory (Five important reasons to vaccinate your child, 2018). Statistics: According to the U.S. government, during the first half of the 20th century, polio represented one of the most feared diseases in the country, accounting for tens of thousands of cases of paralysis and accelerated death (Five reasons to vaccinate your child, 2018). Result: Since the introduction of vaccinations, however, there have been no reports of polio in the United States in recent years (Five important reasons to vaccinate your child, 2018). In some other countries such as Pakistan, the picture is not so bright…
Children Putting to a Test
Partial vaccination was not effective on children 6-23 months. This meant that full vaccination is necessary to optimally protect children of this age group from Influenza (Shueler et al.). The results are consistent with those of other evaluative studies on children through randomized, controlled trials for efficacy and observational studies for effectiveness (Shueler et al., 2007). Vaccine effectiveness depends on the characteristics of the study population, specificity of the outcome, and the Influenza season. It was dissimilar to the findings of Ritzwoller and his team in that Shueler and team's subjects had more exposure to Influenza. The more specific outcome of laboratory-confirmed Influenza made the detection possible. And Shueler and his team's findings were similar to Ritzwoller and his team's in that the findings of both teams offered assurance that vaccination of young children would be beneficial, even in a year with sub-optimal match (Shueler et al.). Vaccination Efficacy not…
Ambrose, C.S., et al. (2008). Current status of live attenuated influenza vaccine in the United States for seasonal and pandemic influenza. Influenza Respiratory Viruses:
Blackwell Publishing. Retrieved on April 26, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/588302
Eisenberg K.W., et al. (2004). Vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed
Influenza on children 6 to 59 months of age during the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005
Gardasil an Analysis of the
Perhaps the latter sentiment may be regarded as baseless speculation, but as we shall see after this section, there are a number of researchers whose view supports such a sentiment. Nonetheless, here is the report made available by the mainstream media in 2009: CDC and FDA researchers wrote in the Journal of the American Medical Association that problems such as fainting and nausea remained rare among females who received Gardasil and the vaccine did not appear to be causing unusual side effects. The researchers said 32 deaths were listed in a government database that collects reports of health problems seen in people after vaccination. The reports show only that a patient became ill or died after receiving a vaccine, not that a vaccine was the cause. The FDA and CDC statement said 'concerns have been raised about' the reports of deaths of people who received Gardasil. 'There was not a…
Amiya, N. "Va Vaccines for human papillomavirus infection: A critical analysis." Publikationsansicht. 2009. Web. 15 Oct 2011.
Brinkman, S. "Gardasil Researcher Drops a Bombshell." The Bulletin. 2009. Web. 15
"Gardasil Vaccine Safety." FDA. 2009. Web. 15 Oct 2011.
Community Coalition for Improving Child
The children's information was controlled for Medicaid, ethnicity, and other factors. Once those things were adjusted for, children in the Right Start program were fifty-three percent more likely to have been immunized on time and thoroughly than the control children who were not part of the Right Start initiative. The main conclusion reached was that children have a much better chance of being immunized if their parents are educated regarding their options and the importance of the vaccinations that their children will be receiving. 5. What were the limitations of this study in regards to its applicability to the general population? Even though this study had a lot of great information regarding immunizations and how programs to educate parents can improve the number of children who are properly immunized and therefore reduce disease, this was targeted to a very specific group of people in specific zip codes in one community.…
6. Examine the details of this research study and propose an alternative research study design that would address the same research goals of this study and explain how the alternative study design would answer the research questions.
While this study worked well, there are other ways to address the issue. If a large sample population or a more generalized one was needed, the study could have looked at past literature. The rationale for the study at that point would be to look at a very large sample to see whether the people who live in this country in all kinds of age, ethnic, and income groups are having their children immunized, or whether there are specific factors that keep people from having their children cared for in this way. The downside to doing this is that the methodology would have been a bit more subjective because there might not have been statistics that could have been collected so easily. There would have been a certain amount of guesswork when it came to why certain people did or did not immunize their children, which could have skewed the study.
Findley et. al. (2008). Effectiveness of a community coalition for improving child vaccination rates in New York city. American Journal of Public Health, 98(11), 1959.
Health Immunizing Your Baby Protecting or Harming
Health Immunizing Your Baby, Protecting or Harming? Positives for Vaccinations Recommended and Minimum Ages for Early Childhood Vaccinations Negatives for Vaccinations Ethical Issues Vaccines against diphtheria, polio, pertussis, measles, mumps and rubella, hepatitis B and chicken pox, have given humans powerful immune guards to ward off unwelcome disease and sickness. Because of this the CDC works closely with public health agencies and private partners in order to improve and sustain immunization coverage and to monitor the safety of vaccines so that public health can be maintained and expanded in the future. Despite the good that vaccines appear to do there is a debate stirring in regards to the safety of vaccines and whether or not they are link to disorders such as autism. There are some studies that appear to link childhood vaccinations to autism but the evidence is very weak at best. But because of these types of studies…
Carolyn Drews-Botsch, et al. "Timeliness of Childhood Immunizations: A State-
Analysis." American Journal Of Public Health 95.8 (2005): 1367-1374. Business
Tennessee H1N1 Issues in Healthcare
While it is important in such widespread and far-reaching networks to ensure that individual elements within the network are empowered to make decisions as they see fit, it is even more important that each node in the network is given access to all relevant information in a current and comprehensive manner (Porche, 2004). A plan needs to be in place for dealing with these health issues that takes the potentials of each entity's position in the public healthcare network into account, such that there is greater consistency and efficiency in the decisions made by each of these individual entities (Porche, 2004). If all counties or health districts/departments had similarly understood the potentials of the mist-form vaccine, as one key example, the vaccine shortages for the population at large would not have been as severe even though certain high priority could not have utilized this vaccine (Giles & Howitt, 2011). Furthermore,…
CDC. (2010). 2009 H1N1 Flu. Accessed 15 October 2012. http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/
Gilbert, G., Sawyer, R. & McNeill, E. (2010). Health Education. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Porche, D. (2004). Public and Community Health. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
WHO. (2010). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Accessed 15 October 2012. http://www.who.int/csr/disease/swineflu/en/index.html
How Best to Prevent Cancer
HPV Case Study The author of this report has been asked to assess and reflect upon a public health dilemma. In particular, the issue is whether HPV vaccination should be mandated or at least widely encouraged on a wide-spread or targeted basis. Unlike other vaccines such as those for polio, the measles, mumps, rubella and pneumonia, HPV cannot be contracted through casual contact. Indeed, sexual contact is really the only way to get it. At the same time, not being protected against HPV can cause cervical cancer in women. While there are certainly detractors when it comes to vaccines, the efficacy and importance of those vaccines cannot be understated or under sold. The main dilemma cited is that HPV is not transmittable through anything other than sexual contact. While this may lessen the chances of it being passed from person to person, most everyone will engage in sexual contact at…
Bohlin, R. (2016). The Epidemic of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Leaderu.com. Retrieved 17 March 2016, from http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/probe/docs/epid-std.html
CDC. (2016). CDC Press Releases. CDC. Retrieved 17 March 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2014/p0424-immunization-program.html
Thornicroft, G., Brohan, E., Kassam, A., & Lewis-Holmes, E. (2008). Reducing stigma and discrimination: candidate interventions. Int J Ment Health Syst, 2(1), 3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1752-4458-2-3
Weissmann, J. (2014). For Millennials, Out-of-Wedlock Childbirth Is the Norm. Now What?. Slate Magazine. Retrieved 17 March 2016, from http://www.slate.com/articles/business/moneybox/2014/06/for_millennials_out_of_wedlock_childbirth_is_the_norm_now_what.html
H1N1 Briefing Case Briefing This
nalysis Though the impact of H1N1 on the population of Tennessee was relatively mild, especially in light of initial fears about the dangers the virus posed, there were still significant problems in the state's handling of the public health issue that warrant examination. Response times to specific incidents were excellent, and despite changing recommendations from the CDC state officials responded well to the lack of certainty and clarity and managed to keep the public fairly well informed about the risks they faced and the steps that were being taken to address these risks, however more complete communication with media outlets and other means of providing information to the broader population might have alleviated some concerns and limited confusion in the early weeks of the virus' appearance. Initial success can also be seen in the design and implementation of a pre-registration system that allowed relevant parties to place orders for vaccines…
All of the problems in this case can be traced in some measure to communication issues. Communications with the public, between governmental agencies, and with physicians and pharmacies providing vaccines all took place with a fair amount of efficacy but with key gaps or missteps. Though practical issues of the virus itself and the lack of an appropriate vaccine created the problem, it could have been more effectively dealt with had there been a more established and tested means of communication amongst Tennessee's public health entities. Greater transparency and immediacy in communications would also have been desirable.
Tennessee and the relevant officials/authorities in the state clearly learned from the 2009 H1N1 outbreak, given their comments in the case, and the lessons of this case can also be used to generate broader recommendations regarding the handling of public health issues and communication issues in complex systems on a more general basis. It is highly recommended that current communication protocols and hierarchies be examined and tested as applicable to ensure that an event with rapidly changing information and a need for comprehensive knowledge can be properly addressed. Ensuring that a clear system of communication that includes all relevant parties is in place before an emergency event is the only real means of ensuring that it will adequately operate during an emergency event. It is also recommended that even loosely organized and laterally extended networks, such as Tennessee's public health network, be given some degree of centrality when it comes to communication in order to facilitate the more effective and efficient spread of knowledge.
Thimersal Does Not Cause Autism
Autism is one of the most severe and disruptive of all childhood disorders - with a high level of disruption that of course lasts well into adulthood. With both genetic and environmental elements at work in it, autism (which affects boys at least three times more often than girls and is found in all races and throughout the world) is a communicative disorder that interferes with an individual's ability to form social relationships as well as to communicate with others. As might well be expected to be the case with any severe condition the etiology of which is understood a number of "folk" explanations for the condition have developed, including the idea that childhood vaccinations (and especially the mercury-based preservative Thimerosal that is used in the formulation of many vaccines) is responsible for triggering the condition. This paper argues against any connection between Thimerosal and autism (or rather argues that…
Barak, Y., etal. (Spring 1998). "Autistic subjects with comorbid epilepsy: a possible association with viral infections." Child Psychiatry and Human Development 29 (3): 245-51
Comi, A.M. et al. (June 1999). "Familial clustering of autoimmune disorders and evaluation of medical risk factors in autism." Journal of Child Neurology 14 (6): 388-94. http://www.fda.gov/cber/vaccine/thimerosal.htm#thi
Kiln, M.R. (May 1998), "Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine." Lancet 351 (9112): 1358.
Paluszny, M. (1979). Autism: A Practical Guide for Parents and Professionals. NY: Syracuse University Press.
Protecting Public From Misinformation
Program Planning The author of this report has been asked to create a program based on one of three overall types, those being prevention programs, disease management programs and quality management programs. The author has chosen the first of those three. Specifically, the author will be focusing in vaccinations and how important they are for children and even adults on some occasions. There is a ton of misinformation and lies that abound out there and the truth needs to be made clear. Narrative Description The author of this report, as noted above, will be championing an enhanced measles vaccination campaign. This campaign has become necessary due to many people not getting vaccinated and this is thus causing outbreaks to occur when the disease should really be as eradicated as polio at this point. The author of this report plans a three prong plan: Find resources and funds to offer measles…
Anderson, M. (2015). Young adults more likely to say vaccinating kids should be a parental choice. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 15 June 2015, from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/02/02/young-adults-more-likely-to-say-vaccinating-kids-should-be-a-parental-choice/
CDC. (2015). Vaccines: Vac-Gen/Side Effects. Cdc.gov. Retrieved 15 June 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/side-effects.htm
Harris, G. (2010). British Journal Retracts Paper Linking Autism and Vaccines. Nytimes.com. Retrieved 15 June 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/03/health/research/03lancet.html
Designing Qualitative and Quantitative Studies
Designing a eseach study: Two scenaios Lewisville Health Sevices, a family health clinic, has seen few people coming in to eceive the influenza vaccine. The bochue advocating getting the vaccine that is distibuted to clinic uses seems to be ineffective. The goal of the eseach is to encouage moe clients to eceive the vaccine. Reseach method and souces of infomation This quantitative study will distibute a suvey to clinic uses, asking them if they intend to get the vaccine, if they eceived the vaccine in the past and ask them vaious questions about why they did o did not eceive the vaccine. Thei peceptions of the clinic's cuent maketing of the vaccine will also be assessed. Natue of data to be gatheed and analyzed The data gatheed and analyzed will be quantitative in natue, as it will be based upon a distibuted suvey to all clinic paticipants. Client's demogaphic infomation…
references and given sample pizzas to taste-test. Then, they will answer a quantitative survey on their buying habits.
Nature of data to be gathered and analyzed
A mixed method approach will be used: testers will be interviewed and observed in a qualitative fashion. They will also answer a quantitatively analyzed questionnaire about their tastes, eating habits, and frozen food consumption.
Hypothesis or hypotheses to be proved or disproved
The new frozen pizzas will be popular amongst teenagers and working couples who need to put a hot meal quickly on the table every night.
Lyme Disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
What the Tick? Tick Born Diseases in America Introduction Part predator, part parasite, the tick is considered by many as America’s most harmful bug. Living in humid and overgrown areas, these critters make rural America more prone to acquiring the various diseases these ticks carry. From Lyme disease to Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, ticks are the proliferators of zoonotic diseases in North America (Edlow, 2004). These diseases do not have vaccines and are difficult to manage once the person is infected. This essay will cover tick-borne diseases, why they became such a major issue in recent times, existing treatment for the infections, and predictions of epidemics. Background There are 20+ tick borne diseases in the U.S.A. Of the most reported, Lyme disease infects an estimated 300,000 people annually (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Health and Medicine Division, Board on Global Health, Forum on Microbial Threats, 2016). In fact,…
Herpes An Insidious Disease of Modern Times
Herpes: An Insidious Disease of Modern Times Herpes is considered one of the most insidious and pervasive viral diseases to affect the world population today. Conservative studies suggest that as many as 39% of men and nearly 1/2 of all women are expected to contract herpes in the U.S. alone by the year 2025 (Wetstein, 2002). Already nearly 1 in 5 people will have some form of herpes by the time they reach adolescence or early adulthood (Herpes, 2004). In light of such dire statistics and information, it is important to examine the disease and its implications for the future. esearchers and scientists are working diligently to uncover new avenues for treatment of this incurable disease, and studies are underway for uncovering potential and promising vaccines to halt the spread of this increasingly common problem affecting millions. There are many different forms of therapy that have been introduced in recent…
ASHA. "National Herpes Resource Center." (2001). American Social Health
Association. 27, October 2004, http://www.ashastd.org/hrc/index.html
CDC. "Epstein Barr Virus." (October 26, 2002). National Center for Infectious Diseases.
28, October 2004, http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/ebv.htm
Healthcare Ethics - Gardasil Healthcare
Assuming all those issues are addressed, mandatory HPV vaccination may be a good idea for all children and the option should be made available to adults and funded, at least in part, by government funds and profit limitations on vaccine sales. EFEENCES Allen, Terry, J. Merck's Murky Dealings: HPV Vaccine Lobby Backfires; Corpwatch (March 7, 2008). etrieved March 26, 2008, from Corpwatch: Holding Corporations Accountable website, at http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=14401 Pharmaceutical News (March 5, 2008) Safety of Merck's HPV Vaccine Gardasil 'Lost' in Debate. etrieved March 26, 2008, from News-Medical.net…
Allen, Terry, J. Merck's Murky Dealings: HPV Vaccine Lobby Backfires; Corpwatch (March 7, 2008). Retrieved March 26, 2008, from Corpwatch: Holding Corporations Accountable website, at http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=14401
Pharmaceutical News (March 5, 2008) Safety of Merck's HPV Vaccine Gardasil 'Lost' in Debate. Retrieved March 26, 2008, from News-Medical.net website, at http://www.news-medical.net/?id=22415 .
Rotavirus Healthcare -- Rotavirus According to the
otavirus Healthcare -- otavirus According to the World Health Organization, otavirus is "the most common cause of severe diarrheal disease in infants and young children globally." (2013, p.1) There are approximately 527,000 that die each year due to otavirus and it is stated that "more than 85% of these deaths occur in Africa, Asia, and other low-income countries with more than two million annually hospitalized due to dehydration that is of a pronounced nature. It is reported as well by the World Health Organization that of the 43 countries that participated in the Global Surveillance Network for otavirus in 2009, "36% of hospitalizations for diarrhea among children aged
New and Under-Utilized Vaccines Implementation (NUVI) (2013) World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/nuvi/rotavirus/en/
Rotavirus (2013) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/rotavirus/about/transmission.html
Rotavirus (2013) eMedicinehelath. Retrieved from: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/rotavirus/page5_em.htm#self-care_at_home
Rotavirus Disease (2013) GAVI Alliance. Retrieved from: http://globalvaccinesummit.org/Resources/en/03_Fact%20Sheets/Rotavirus-Disease-Fact-Sheet -(English).pdf
Syphilis Also Known as The
(a.D.A.M., 2008) Neurosyphilis has been speculated as the cause for eccentricites among well-known figures such as Henry VIII, Vincent Van Gogh, Adolf Hitler, Oscar Wilde, and Friedrich Nietzsche (McMyne, 2008). Oddly, some dementia caused by syphilis is preceded by a phase of mania and euphoria in which patients feel excitable and "high," often with relaxed inhibitions (Hayden, 2003). In the United States today, syphilis rarely progresses beyond the first or second stage since treatment is widely available. Upon diagnosis, antibiotics such as penicillin or tetracycline are administered; follow-up tests must be performed at three, six, and twelve month intervals to ensure complete removal of the infection. Syphilis is always contagious, particularly in the first and second stages, so all sexual partners should be notified and treated as well. If treated during the primary stage, syphilis is completely curable with no risk of permanent health damage. Unfortunately, initial symptoms may be…
A.D.A.M. (2008, 08-01). Syphilis - Tertiary. Retrieved 11-26, 2010, from health.nytimes.com: http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/syphilis-tertiary/overview.html
Baseman, J., Nichols, J., & Hayes, N. (1976). Virulent Treponema pallidum: aerobe or anaerobe. Infectious Immunity, 704-711.
Bonifield, J. (2010, 11-22). Syphilis infections up; progress made on other STDs. Retrieved 11-24, 2010, from www.cnn.com: http://pagingdrgupta.blogs.cnn.com/2010/11/22/embargo-12p-1122-cdc-progress-on-stds/?iref=allsearch
Cullen, P., & Cameron, C. (2010, 01-10). Progress toward an effective syphilis vaccine: the past, present, and future. Retrieved 11-26, 2010, from www.expert-reviews.com: http://www.expert-reviews.com/doi/abs/10.1586/14760518.104.22.168
Transmission and Symptoms of the
S. inhabitants would be vaccinated and thus the spread of influenza mitigated. In regards to flu transmission, the virus can be transferred in numerous ways. First according to the CDC, influenza a is found in many different animal products. These products include, ducks, chickens, pigs, and whales. According to the CDC, "Wild birds are the primary natural reservoir for all subtypes of influenza a viruses and are thought to be the source of influenza a viruses in all other animals. Most influenza viruses cause asymptomatic or mild infection in birds; however, the range of symptoms in birds varies greatly depending on the strain of virus." These symptoms can provide wide spread fatalities among wild animals. Influenza B, circulate widely through human interaction. Symptoms include runny nose, sore throat, coughing, congestion, and nausea. More importantly, in regards to transmission, if an animal such as a pig is infected with a human…
International Transmission of Measles
Spread of Measles Globally Community Health Nursing: Environmental and Global Health Issues and How Communities Are Affected by Environmental and Global Health Issues This study intends to examine the impact of increased mobility of the human population, the spread of disease, changes in vaccination patterns and the global issues for health community health professionals. This study intends to analyze the communicable disease outbreak of measles and to discuss the route of transmission of measles. In addition, this work will create a graphic representation of the outbreak's international pattern of movement or possible movement. Measles Outbreaks In Europe It is reported that measles outbreaks in Europe served to contribute to a global rise in the number of reported measles cases between 2009 and 2010 stated at 7,499 and 30,625 cases respectively. The outbreaks in Africa over the same time period are reported as representative of a "widespread resurgence of measles that…
Global Measles and Rubella: Strategic Plan 2012-2020. World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/immunization/newsroom/Measles_Rubella_StrategicPlan_2012_2020.pdf
Prediction'so We Have to Assume That
prediction so we have to assume that the research question is nondirectional. In this case the research question is that there will be a difference in the rate of people to get the flu depending on whether or not they get the nasal spray or the shot. In terms of the null and alternative hypotheses we could state them as: H0: There will no difference in flu rates between groups that get the nasal spray and shot. H1: There will be a difference between the groups in flu rates. The Descriptions suggests the use of random assignment to the two different conditions of the study indicating that this is a variation of a true experiment (however there really is no control group). The results are significantly different as the alpha level was set at .05 and the obtained p value was .008. The results were statistically significant because there was…
Animal Testing the Use of
This is what makes drug testing on animals so very important in the pharmaceutical industry. References Cami, Jordi. (1991). Perspectives and future on testing for abuse liability in humans. British Journal of Addiction. 86(12), p1529-1531. De Boer, Bonita. (2009). IV Drugs, Vaccines and Animal Testing. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Avert Web site: http://www.avert.org/hiv-animal-testing.htm Greaves, Peter, Williams, Andrew and Eve, Malcolm. (2004). First dose of potential new medicines to humans: how animals help. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 3(3), p226- oudebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve uman ealth and Animal Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281. Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site: http://www.livescience.com/health/080212-bad-animal-testing.html
Houdebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve Human Health and Animal
Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.
Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site: http://www.livescience.com/health/080212-bad-animal-testing.html
Findley Et Al 2008 Utilize
Further, the children who participated in the Start ight program were found to have a significantly higher rate of immunization that their control counterparts as well as having completed their immunization series sooner than the control group by 11 days (Findley et al., 2008). Despite the increased prevalence of children of Latino ethnicity and who were receiving Medicaid, this factor was not found to be significant to immunization outcomes. Limitations of this study A major limitation of this study that was identified by the researchers was the provider's incomplete data reporting to the CI (Findley et al., 2008). This may have resulted in an overrepresentation of the number of children who lacked proper immunization. When compared to the parent maintained immunization cards, the researchers found that 24% of immunizations were on the cards but not entered into the CI database. This reliance on the CI database for records may have…
AllPsych and Heffner Media Group Inc., (2004). Research Methods. Retrieved from: http://allpsych.com/researchmethods/experimentaldesign.html
Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches (3rd end). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Findley et. al. (2008). Effectiveness of a community coalition for improving child vaccination rates in New York City. American Journal of Public Health, 98(11), 1959.
Gay, J. (1999). Clinical Epidemiology & Evidence-Based Medicine Glossary: Clinical Study
Video Crossing the Line the
In some countries, bed numbers began to drop before the introduction of the drugs. In others, bed numbers actually increased despite this introduction. The drugs also have been used on a variety of populations that were not deemed to be mentally ill (such as people with learning difficulties and older people). The drugs were only relevant in giving psychiatric staff more confidence in dealing with community-based patients; they do not explain the policy of deinstitutionalization. At the end of the twentieth century deinstitutionalization has become a dominant mental health policy goal in most Western democracies (Sax, 1984). Conclusion However, this formal goal has become clouded by evidence that the gradual reduction of large institutions has been replaced by a scattering of smaller ones 'in the community' (Roe, 1976). Also, most countries still have legal statutes to coercively remove madness from community set- tings. The extent of this continued coercive control…
Gale, F. 2007 A changing Aboriginal population. In F. Gale and G. Lawton (eds), Settlement and Encounter: Geographical studies presented to Sir Grenfell Price, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 65-88.
Smith, L. 2006 The Aboriginal Population, The Australian National University Press, Canberra.
CDHHS 2004, The National Aboriginal Health Strategy: an evaluation, Commonwealth Department of Health and Human Services, Canberra.
Roe, M 1976, 'The establishment of the Australian Department of Health: its background and significance', Australian Historical Studies 17(67):176-92.
Authors Used to Evaluate Their Study Rationale
authors used to evaluate their study rationale was a quasi-experimental, retrospective matching birth cohort. This study retrospectively analyzed demographic and immunization record data in 2006-2007. The data was gathered from 10,857 birth records of children born between April 1999 and September 2003. The researchers chose to study a Latino community located in New York City and sampled from four zip codes. Birth data was collected from the primary community hospital that serves these zip codes. The authors divided the birth study population into four groups, or cohorts. Each cohort represented birth data from children who were aged 19-35 months as of April 1st during 2002-2005. Each birth cohort was then divided into two groups: intervention and control. Demographic data was collected from the hospital database, and immunization data was collected from the New York Citywide Immunization egistry (CI). Outcome measures included immunization timelines such as being up-to-date for a specific…
1. Findley S, et al. Effectiveness of a Community Coalition for Improving Child Vaccination Rates in New York City. Am J. Public Health. 2008;98:1959-1962.
2. Peter J. Fos (2011). Epidemiology Foundations: The Science of Public Health. San Francisco, CA.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
3. Irigoyen MM, et al. Challenges and successes of immunization registry reminders at inner-city practices. Ambul Pediatr. 2006;6(2):100-4.
4. Smith, AD. (2000). Myths and Memories of the Nation. New York: Oxford University Press.
Corynebacterium Diphtheria The Answered The Pdf
Corynebacterium diphtheria. The answered . The pdf file attached referenced. The paper written format a scientific paper a microbiology . These textbooks great sources reference: Willey, J. Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a bacterium that is pathogenic and is the leading cause of diphtheria. Due to the resemblance in their shape and sizes, bacteria and archaea were earlier classified as one but on discovery of their metabolic and biochemical differences, it was determined that they had different evolution histories. The bacillus falls under the nonlipophilic fermentative bacteria in classification. Structurally, it possesses cell membranes formed from a combination of the hydroxyl group and fatty acids. Unlike the bacteria, the archaea has linkages that contain ether bonds (Willey, 2003). The cell wall of C.diphtheriae is made up of peptidoglycan bonds which is a great variance from that of the archaea which contains no such bonds. Another major cutting edge factor that classifies C.diphtheriae…
Lammert, J.M. (2007). Techniques in Microbiology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
McClane, B.A., & Mietzner, T.A. (1999). Microbial pathogenesis: a principles-oriented approach: Fence Creek Pub.
Willey, J.M., Sherwood, L.M., & Woolverton, C.J. (2003). Prescott's Microbiology (8 ed.). Dubuque, Iowa: McGraw Hill Higher Education.
Newspapers Frequently Feature Stories Democratic Principles Processes
Newspapers frequently feature stories democratic principles processes contribute democratic governance impact a wide variety issues ranging distribution flu vaccines legal venue terrorist trials. Public policies formulated address issues result influence application democratic principles processes. Public policy issue: Healthcare reform The issue of healthcare Healthcare is an extremely complex, bureaucratic public policy issue. However, it is also very emotional for many Americans given healthcare encompasses the 'hot button' issues of physical health and spending large amounts of money. The recent debate over the Affordable Care Act is only one of many national 'conversations' about healthcare that has resulted in partisan divisions even within families. Democratic principle 1: Autonomy Perhaps the most controversial aspect of the ACA is the individual mandate, which states that all Americans must have health insurance or pay a penalty unless this will cause them undue hardship. Many conservatives bridle at the fact that they are being 'compelled'…
Belvedere, M. (2013). Truth about Obamacare? Mandate wasn't needed. CNBC. Retrieved:
Nelson, S. (2013). Colin Powell endorses single-payer health care. U.S. News and World Report.
Rand Report Critique as Discussed
26 Yet public health continued to mean, even more than in the Clinton administration, a technological approach to national defense. In the Bush administration, pharmaceutical protection became the centerpiece of biodefense policy. On December 13, 2002, convinced of the Dark Winter-type threat of smallpox, President Bush announced his nationwide smallpox inoculation program. Publicity about Iraq's potential biological arsenal, especially in the lead-up to the 2003 invasion, and the threat of bioterrorism had convinced many in the public to participate. The states and the CDC were ready to handle the logistics. In addition, civilian participation was voluntary, which reduced legal liability for those who administered the vaccine and for the government. As might have been predicted, this smallpox vaccination campaign found it difficult to circumvent the well-known fears of vaccination as a source of bodily pollution and the mistrust engendered when vaccines appear a worse health risk than the forecast epidemic.…
Fauci, Anthony S.M.D., Bioterrorism Preparedness: NIH Smallpox Research Efforts, available at http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/t011102b.htm Accessed on October 22, 2011.
Frist, William. The Political Perspective of the Bioterrorism Threat, in Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities, 29 (Stacy L. Knobler & Adel A.F. Mahmoud & Leslie A. Pray eds., National Academy Press 2002).
Neergaard, Lauran. Postmaster: Anthrax Threatens Mail, The Washington Post, Oct. 24, 2001, available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/aponline/20011024 / aponline090115_002.html Accessed on October 21, 2011.
Tanielian, Terri. Ricci, Karen. Stoto, Michael A. David Dausey, J. Lois M. Davis, Myers, Sarah. Olmsted, Stuart. Willis, Henry H. (2005) Exemplary Practices in Public Health Preparedness. RAND Corporation. http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/technical_reports/2005/RAND_TR239.pdf Accessed on October 21, 2011.
Vaccinations and the State of Florida Identifying and Associating With Professional Coalition
Identifying and Associating With Professional Coalitions: Vaccinations and the State of Florida For school-age children, the state of Florida, according to the most recent data on its website (2018) requires a relatively standard battery of immunizations, including inoculations for diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (Tdap), measles mumps and rubella (MMR), polio (IPV), Hepatitis B, chickenpox (Varicella). Some of these vaccinations have incurred controversy over the years, including claimed links to autism. Currently, for children medically able to be vaccinated Florida only permits religious exemptions from vaccinations. In other words, parents cannot opt their children out of vaccines purely due to personal conviction and stated fears. All 50 states permit vaccine exemptions for medical reasons (“Vaccination Exemptions,” 2018). These may include children with compromised immune systems or children with allergies to ingredients in the vaccines. However, only three states—Mississippi, West Virginia, and California—only permit medical exemptions to vaccines. The other 47 states…
History of Medical Technology
Technology and the Development of Modern Medicine The 20th century saw a seismic change in the perception of the human body, and the relationship of patients to physicians and other aspects of modern medicine. With the recent coronavirus pandemic, of course, the focus upon technology and medical developments has become a matter of global importance. Vaccines and innovative drugs were not solely innovations of the past century, but they extent to which they were proven safe and effective is relatively new. The relationship between providers and patients has likewise changed, as well as expectations about treatment. Vaccination and Immunization Technology Infectious disease was once an accepted part of modern life. However, the first smallpox vaccines were developed as early as the late 18th century. Safety of vaccines could not always be guaranteed, however. Inactivation of bacteria via heat or chemical treatment to confer immunity status was developed by the very…
Idsa Lecture Finch 2006 Offers Seven Arguments
IDSA lecture, Finch (2006) offers seven arguments against mandatory influenza vaccinations for health care workers. The reasons are primarily philosophical, political, and ethical in nature. Although Finch (2006) substantiates his primary claims with references to literature and historical precedent, none of the claims refer to the ultimate goal of vaccination programs: reducing rates of serious illness or death resulting from influenza. Finch's (2006) arguments are sound and tight, but would be enhanced greatly by references to the role mandatory vaccination might play in reducing the spread of highly communicable diseases. Likewise, the author does not provide sufficient counterpoints to the core arguments and does not entertain the opposing viewpoint. There is no mention of influenza rates, the potential for disease proliferation among at-risk communities, or the role mandatory vaccinations may play in diseases other than influenza, such as Ebola. In spite of the weaknesses in the Finch (2006) argument, the…
Whether or not mandatory vaccine programs are effective in achieving health care goals is the core point. The issue of civil liberties infractions is a serious one, as health care workers do have the right to self-determination. However, it can also be said that health care workers are a special community of individuals exposed on a regular basis to infectious diseases. Given this fact, health care workers may need to occasionally sacrifice their civil liberties for the common good to which their profession is pledged: to uphold and promote public health.
Finch, M. (2006). Point: Mandatory influenza vaccination for all health care workers? Seven reasons to say no. IDSA Lecture. In Clinical Infectious Diseases 42, 1141-1143.
Democracy and Public Administration
Policy Democracy and Public Administration This report is a theoretical essay on the inevitable conflicts that consistently occur between public agencies that are managed by unelected civil servants and the political environment in which these individuals and organizations operate in. Public agencies in the healthcare environment are prime examples of successful interdepartmental cooperation in most cases, but, there are also examples where they can demonstrate both internal and external in-fighting. "The health sector workforce, which usually comprises a significant element within the total public sector workforce, may be either directly employed by the public sector health system, or work in public-funded agencies or organizations (e.g., social insurance funded). In many countries healthcare will also be delivered by organizations in the private sector and by voluntary organizations." (World Bank Group) As concerns like the nation's aging population, a rapidly depleting Medicare Trust or the many potential pandemics such as SAs, Swine…
Antos, Joseph. (2008). "Medicare's Bad News: Is Anyone Listening?" American Institute for Public Policy Research. April, No. 3.
American Public Health Association (2009). Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from American Public Health Association Web Site: http://www.apha.org aphanet. (2001). Senators' Introduce Bill to Prepare For Possibility of Biological Warfare. Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from http://www.aphanet.org
CDC. (2009). H1N1. Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from Center For Disease Control web site at
Vaccinations Making an Informed Choice
Self-Learning Handout List any topics on which this lecture / web site expanded your knowledge: Briefly describe the way in which the lecture / web site expanded your knowledge: This information will impact my decision to vaccinate because: This information will not impact my decision to vaccinate because: Please list below any questions about the information contained in this lecture/web site" eferences DeStefano, Frank, Mullooly, John, Okoro, Catherine, Chen, obert T., Marcy, S. Michael, Ward, Joel I. et a. (2001). Childhood Vaccinations, Vaccination Timing, and isk of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Pediatrics 108 (6), 112. Life-Cycle of an Immunization Program. (April 20, 2007). etrieved August 14, 2008, from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention Web Site: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/life-cycle.htm Madsen, Meldgaard, Haviid, Anders, Vestergaard, Morgens, Schendel, Diana, Wohlfahrt, Jan, Thorsen, Poul, et al. A Population-Based Study of Measles, Mumps, and ubella. The New England Journal of Medicine. 347 (19). Vaccination and…
DeStefano, Frank, Mullooly, John, Okoro, Catherine, Chen, Robert T., Marcy, S.
Michael, Ward, Joel I. et a. (2001). Childhood Vaccinations, Vaccination Timing, and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Pediatrics 108 (6), 112.
Life-Cycle of an Immunization Program. (April 20, 2007). Retrieved August 14, 2008, from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention Web Site: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/life-cycle.htm
Madsen, Meldgaard, Haviid, Anders, Vestergaard, Morgens, Schendel, Diana, Wohlfahrt,
Communicable Disease Measles Although Measles Has Been
Communicable Disease: Measles Although measles has been almost completely eradicated from the Americas, dozens of cases still occur each year in the United States due in large part to transmissions of the disease from travelers returning from abroad. Because it is highly contagious, outbreaks of measles must be addressed as quickly as possible. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to describe a communicable disease outbreak of measles, and the epidemiological indicators associated with the disease. An analysis of the epidemiological data on the outbreak is followed by a discussion of the route of transmission of the disease causing the outbreak and how the attack could affect the community. Finally, an explanation concerning the appropriate protocol for reporting a possible outbreak is followed by an assessment of a community health nurse's role in modifying care of patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases when the…
Diekmann, O., Heesterbeek, H. & Britton, T. (2013). Mathematical tools for understanding infectious diseases dynamics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Johnson, T.D. (2011, September). Measles cases abroad linked to increase of disease in U.S. The
Nation's Health, 41(7), 1-3.
Knorr, R.S., Condon, S.K. Dwyer, F.M. & Hoffman, D.F. (2004, October). Tracking pediatric asthma: The Massachusetts experience using school health records. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(14), 1424-1427.
H1N1 I chose this topic because the H1N1 virus and the swine flu have taken over the news. The Ohio Department of Health is heavily committed in getting the word out. "During the week of October 18-24, 2009, influenza activity continued to increase in the United States as reported in FluView. Flu activity is now widespread in 48 states. Nationally, visits to doctors for influenza-like-illness continue to increase steeply and are now higher than what is seen at the peak of many regular flu seasons. In addition, flu-related hospitalizations and deaths continue to go up nation-wide and are above what is expected for this time of year." (ODH). The story is both a local and national headline. The television news report '60 Minutes' lead off this week's show with a serious discussion about all aspects of the new viral spread of the H1N1 virus and issues regarding the production process…
American Society for Microbiology and (Corporate Author) Patrick R. Murray. (2003). Manual of Clinical Microbiology (Manual of Clinical Microbiology). 8th ed. American Society Microbiology.
CDC. (2009). H1N1. Retrieved on November 1, 2009, from Center For Disease Control web site at
Most pediatricians today hold that the manner in which the vaccine is administered is the key; while other specialists and experts maintain that it is the preservative (thimersol) in…
vaccination process is one that dates back as far as the 1700's; the process took place using a needle that was inserted in a smallpox blister that had ruptured…
Ethics of Public Health Policies Public health concerns necessarily introduce a tension between the individual and the greater good, which may have different resolutions depending on the ethical perspective…
Vaccines Causing Autism in Infants; Possibility of a More Appropriate Time to Vaccinate Other Than Shortly After Birth The past 20 years has seen a drastic rise in the…
educing Hospitalization in the Elderly Population Practice Issue or Problem in Advanced Practice Nursing Immunization has been regarded as the keystone of influenza-linked mortality and morbidity prevention (Dominguez et…
jci.org/cgi/content/full/116/5/1167. In 2006, an estimated 9,710 cases of invasive cervical cancer will be diagnosed in the United States, and an estimated 3,700 women will die from this disease. Globally,…
Vaccination Vaccines represent one of the most debated topics within the modern day society and the debate is far from reaching any common grounds. On the one hand, for…
The Vaccination Dilemma The rights of individuals to refuse vaccinations, and the rights of parents to refuse their children vaccinations, has been increasingly called into question because of the…
government be allowed to overrule the desires of parents when it comes to public health issues like vaccinations? Support your position We live in the 2000s not the pre-…
They may also not agree with or trust the medical professionals, because they may feel those people have an agenda that involves kickbacks from medication companies and other issues.…
hile these are cogent points, I would argue against them on the basis of the following facts. One has in the first instance to bear in mind that the…
Mandatory Vaccinations Ours is a privileged country. Serious communicable diseases are largely controlled in the United States, partly because we have a comprehensive network of public health systems to…
Health - Public Health Issues
Applying Ethical Principles: To Vaccinate or Not VaccinateCase Study SummaryIn the case study, To Vaccinate or Not Vaccinate, a young, college-educated couple, Jenna and Chris Smith, are adamant that…
The CDC and Vaccine Schedules The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) play an important role in promoting herd immunity and vaccine schedules for US citizens, as they…
Vaccinations and Autism Over the last several years, the direct link between vaccinations and autism has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because some studies showed how…
Vaccine and Austism Parents have every right to be concerned about their child's health and well- being and for this reason; it's not very hard to fathom why they…
IRB's add a certain and authentic stamp of approval for research and clinical trials. This system is by no means perfect, as there are countless examples of how IRB's…
progress of vaccine development, particularly the challenges. There is also a discussion of funding and its impact on HIV research. Ever since HIV / AIDS made the evolutionary jump…
This dramatic event followed the revelation that Wakefield had accepted money from lawyers representing parents who had filed lawsuits claiming that the MM vaccines had caused autism in their…
Preferably, females should be vaccinated before onset of sexual activity. Sexually active females may also benefit from vaccination since there are very few young women are infected with all…
Controversy with vaccines, adverse reactions of the MM vaccine and the negative publicity surrounding it SHAPE Measles, Mumps and ubella Vaccine: Absence of Evidence for Link to Autistic-Spectrum Disorders…
Health - Nursing
Pro-Vaccination: An Argument in Support of Vaccination Introduction In the past, there has been marked increase in the number of vaccinations recommended as more vaccines are developed in an…
Are Vaccines Safe or is There a Link to Autism Introduction The rapidity with which the novel coronavirus believed to cause COVID-19 overtook the world caused alarm among leaders…
Immunization Vaccine # 1 Name of Vaccine Rotavirus vaccine Trade Name RotaTeq® Type of vaccination Attenuated Contraindications · The previous dose of the Rotavirus vaccine was suspected of having…
Kumar, G.B.S., Ganapathi, TR. Bapat, V.A. Revathi, C.J. & K.S.N. Prasad. (2002). Expression of Hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic banana plants and NT- I cell line of tobacco.…
Psychology - Experimental
Connection Between Class Learning and an Article The development of a COVID-19 vaccine is considered critical in curbing the spread of this virus and dealing with the global pandemic.…
Drama - World
Vaccines have all but eliminated some diseases that were once pandemics or epidemics like polio and smallpox. The power of vaccines to control infectious diseases cannot be underestimated, and…
Vaccination Should be Made Compulsory for Children 1. Universal vaccinations should be made compulsory for children because they are essential for the maintenance of public health and the prevention…
Partial vaccination was not effective on children 6-23 months. This meant that full vaccination is necessary to optimally protect children of this age group from Influenza (Shueler et al.).…
Perhaps the latter sentiment may be regarded as baseless speculation, but as we shall see after this section, there are a number of researchers whose view supports such a…
The children's information was controlled for Medicaid, ethnicity, and other factors. Once those things were adjusted for, children in the Right Start program were fifty-three percent more likely to…
Health Immunizing Your Baby, Protecting or Harming? Positives for Vaccinations Recommended and Minimum Ages for Early Childhood Vaccinations Negatives for Vaccinations Ethical Issues Vaccines against diphtheria, polio, pertussis, measles,…
While it is important in such widespread and far-reaching networks to ensure that individual elements within the network are empowered to make decisions as they see fit, it is…
HPV Case Study The author of this report has been asked to assess and reflect upon a public health dilemma. In particular, the issue is whether HPV vaccination should…
nalysis Though the impact of H1N1 on the population of Tennessee was relatively mild, especially in light of initial fears about the dangers the virus posed, there were still…
Autism is one of the most severe and disruptive of all childhood disorders - with a high level of disruption that of course lasts well into adulthood. With both…
Program Planning The author of this report has been asked to create a program based on one of three overall types, those being prevention programs, disease management programs and…
Designing a eseach study: Two scenaios Lewisville Health Sevices, a family health clinic, has seen few people coming in to eceive the influenza vaccine. The bochue advocating getting the…
What the Tick? Tick Born Diseases in America Introduction Part predator, part parasite, the tick is considered by many as America’s most harmful bug. Living in humid and overgrown…
Herpes: An Insidious Disease of Modern Times Herpes is considered one of the most insidious and pervasive viral diseases to affect the world population today. Conservative studies suggest that…
Assuming all those issues are addressed, mandatory HPV vaccination may be a good idea for all children and the option should be made available to adults and funded, at…
otavirus Healthcare -- otavirus According to the World Health Organization, otavirus is "the most common cause of severe diarrheal disease in infants and young children globally." (2013, p.1) There…
(a.D.A.M., 2008) Neurosyphilis has been speculated as the cause for eccentricites among well-known figures such as Henry VIII, Vincent Van Gogh, Adolf Hitler, Oscar Wilde, and Friedrich Nietzsche (McMyne,…
S. inhabitants would be vaccinated and thus the spread of influenza mitigated. In regards to flu transmission, the virus can be transferred in numerous ways. First according to the…
Spread of Measles Globally Community Health Nursing: Environmental and Global Health Issues and How Communities Are Affected by Environmental and Global Health Issues This study intends to examine the…
Education - Mathematics
prediction so we have to assume that the research question is nondirectional. In this case the research question is that there will be a difference in the rate of…
This is what makes drug testing on animals so very important in the pharmaceutical industry. References Cami, Jordi. (1991). Perspectives and future on testing for abuse liability in humans.…
Further, the children who participated in the Start ight program were found to have a significantly higher rate of immunization that their control counterparts as well as having completed…
In some countries, bed numbers began to drop before the introduction of the drugs. In others, bed numbers actually increased despite this introduction. The drugs also have been used…
authors used to evaluate their study rationale was a quasi-experimental, retrospective matching birth cohort. This study retrospectively analyzed demographic and immunization record data in 2006-2007. The data was gathered…
Corynebacterium diphtheria. The answered . The pdf file attached referenced. The paper written format a scientific paper a microbiology . These textbooks great sources reference: Willey, J. Corynebacterium diphtheriae…
Newspapers frequently feature stories democratic principles processes contribute democratic governance impact a wide variety issues ranging distribution flu vaccines legal venue terrorist trials. Public policies formulated address issues result…
26 Yet public health continued to mean, even more than in the Clinton administration, a technological approach to national defense. In the Bush administration, pharmaceutical protection became the centerpiece…
Identifying and Associating With Professional Coalitions: Vaccinations and the State of Florida For school-age children, the state of Florida, according to the most recent data on its website (2018)…
Medical - Ethics
Technology and the Development of Modern Medicine The 20th century saw a seismic change in the perception of the human body, and the relationship of patients to physicians and…
IDSA lecture, Finch (2006) offers seven arguments against mandatory influenza vaccinations for health care workers. The reasons are primarily philosophical, political, and ethical in nature. Although Finch (2006) substantiates…
Policy Democracy and Public Administration This report is a theoretical essay on the inevitable conflicts that consistently occur between public agencies that are managed by unelected civil servants and…
Self-Learning Handout List any topics on which this lecture / web site expanded your knowledge: Briefly describe the way in which the lecture / web site expanded your knowledge:…
Communicable Disease: Measles Although measles has been almost completely eradicated from the Americas, dozens of cases still occur each year in the United States due in large part to…
H1N1 I chose this topic because the H1N1 virus and the swine flu have taken over the news. The Ohio Department of Health is heavily committed in getting the…
Mandatory Vaccination Argumentative Essay
Many infectious diseases that once quickly spread and easily killed have been controlled or eradicated due to vaccinations. The efficacy of vaccines in reducing morbidity and mortality, particularly in children, is undeniable. Per the World Health Organization, childhood vaccinations prevent approximately 2-3 million deaths per year worldwide (WHO, 2016). In the United States, the value of immunizations is clearly displayed by comparing pre-vaccine era morbidity/mortality rates to post-vaccine era in regards to vaccine-preventable diseases. For example, prior to the diphtheria vaccine in the 1920’s, 206,000 people annually contracted the disease resulting in 15,520 deaths (History of Vaccines, 2009). However, between 2004 and 2014, only
Childhood Vaccination Argumentative Essay
Over the past decade, the concern among parents regarding the safety and effectiveness of childhood vaccinations has become a concern in the United States and other countries around the world. A survey of physicians showed that 89% of the physicians who were surveyed reported at least one refusal of childhood vaccinations by parents each month (Gowda & Dempsey, 2013). Other researchers have noted that as many as 77% of parents have concerned about one or more of the childhood vaccinations that are recommended for children (McKee & Bohannon, 2016). However, organizations such as the World Health Organization (2017) note that not only are childhood vaccinations safe, the reduction in children receiving childhood vaccinations has brought back diseases such as measles that had been completely wiped out in the United States. It is clear that there are opposing viewpoints about childhood vaccinations that need to be understood and examined to determine which side has a better argument.
Persuasive Essay On Vaccinations
Vaccinations are one of the modern era’s most notable medical advances. They have shaped our society in ways that are easily forgotten, eradicating diseases that once posed a threat to the United States and protect the world against ruthless diseases that kill mass amounts of people. Vaccinations not only protect individuals, but also society as a whole and should be required for everyone attending school, regardless of philosophical or religious beliefs. The only exception for not receiving vaccinations should be given to those who would suffer more harm than good as a result, such as cancer patients, those with weakened immune systems, or those with allergies to the ingredients.
Vaccination For Vaccinations Should Be Mandatory
Between 1924 and 2013, vaccinations prevented 103 million cases of polio, measles, rubella, mumps, hepatitis A, diphtheria, and pertussis (Bailey). Vaccinating is “the process by which pathogenic cells are injected into a healthy person in an attempt to cause the body to develop antibodies to a particular virus or bacterium—successful creation of antibodies is referred to as immunity to the disease caused by the particular pathogen” (Introduction to Should Vaccinations be Mandatory). Popular conflicts regarding vaccination include the worry that this form of immunization isn’t natural, the idea that vaccination schedule for children in the U.S. takes away parents’ rights to make decisions for their children, and the concern that vaccinations aren’t safe for all children. Most doctors and scientists advocate for vaccinations in the name of herd immunity, protection against foreign diseases and prevention against pockets of disease outbreaks. Vaccinations should be mandatory for all children in the United States for who they are deemed safe and effective.
The Importance of Vaccination in Children
“In 2011 alone, 1.5 million children died [worldwide] from diseases preventable by currently recommended vaccines” (“Immunization” 2). The magnitude of this tragedy is in part caused by the fact that some of those children simply weren’t reached by organizations like UNICEF, which aim to vaccinate children (“Immunization” 2). However, there are other reasons for the recent deaths and epidemics—such as the whooping cough epidemic of 2012, with 48,000 cases nationally in the United States—involving vaccine preventable diseases (McClay 1).
Argumentative Argument For Vaccinations
As a parent, there are countless tough decisions to make. Parents are responsible for their child’s well-being, which is intense pressure. They are obligated to decide what they think is in the best interest of their own child. There is also pressure from the media, and other parents, on how people should raise their children and what decisions are actually in the child’s best interest. One of the tough decisions that parents must determine is whether to have their child vaccinated or not. There is excessive disagreement about whether vaccinating children is beneficial or detrimental. There are also restrictions put in place by the government that encourage vaccines, such as children must have vaccinations to attend public school. However,
Vaccination Persuasive Essay
Should people have a choice to send their children to death row or not? As a parent, choices made every day keep our children safe. Normally, a parent will not put their children in harm’s way; however, at times some parents threaten their children’s lives, and may not even know it. One of the easiest ways to protect a child against numerous life threatening, infectious diseases come in the form of infant vaccinations. Considering the infectious diseases abolished by vaccinations I remain unclear as to why anyone would choose against vaccinating their child, nevertheless, the choice to reject vaccination still remains. When making the choice to not vaccinate, additionally, makes the choice to put all children and everyone else around them at risk for infectious diseases. Please realize, even though the choice to vaccinate or not does exist, this choice should not weigh lightly. Infant vaccinations benefit not only
Vaccines Are The Best Effective Preventative Tools Against Highly Infectious Disease?
Vaccines are thought to be some of the most effective preventative tools against highly infectious disease processes and their complications. Routine vaccinations in the United States have led to drastic declines in vaccine-preventable diseases (Omer, Salmon, Orenstein, DeHart, & Halsey, 2010) such as mumps, rubella, polio, smallpox and diphtheria. These diseases are occurring at less than 1% of what they were during the pre-vaccine era, especially in higher income countries. Vaccination requirements can be traced back to 1855, when United States schools began requiring immunizations for school entry. As a result of this requirement, vaccine coverage levels have resulted in widespread immunity throughout the population, thus significantly
Vaccination Argumentative Essay
Vaccines have always been a controversial topic, to whether they are required all the way down to what they are composed of. It has been an ongoing battle since the 1970s and continues to make headlines even in this year of 2015 with the measles outbreak from Disneyland. Even now, many still believe that vaccinations can cause autism and choose not to vaccinate their children for that reason or another. Vaccinations are critical and need to be required for children before entering public schools.
Vaccine Argumentative Essay
disease to occur with numerous antigens entering the body at once and that their child will not be able to properly metabolize and excrete the mercury from their body.
Many confused parents nowadays have been choosing not to vaccinate their kids for fear of this action causing a harmful thing to happen to their child. Many parents feel that if they do nothing and their child is hurt then it is not their fault, but if they vaccinate their child and the child develops autism, they will feel guilty for causing this. What these parents simply do not understand is that no correlation has been proven to exist between a child getting vaccinated and then developing something such as autism. These parents are making the choice to face something they have never faced before, such as their child getting measles or some other easily preventable disease, than to face autism, which seems to terrify them. Now, “vaccination is one of the most potent ‘weapons’ [available] to protect [people from] the
Essay about Arguments for and Against Mandatory Vaccination
The Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the virus responsible for cervical cancer. It is one the most common viral sexually transmitted infections. A vaccine was approved in 2006 that is effective in preventing the types of HPV responsible for 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts. Proposals for routine and mandatory HPV vaccination of girls have become sources of controversy for parents of school-aged youth, legislators, members of the medical community, and the public at large (Cooper et al. 2010).
Public Health Issue Of Vaccinations
Throughout history, it has been shown that vaccines make a significant impact on the health of our communities and “administration of these vaccines led to dramatic reduction in the number of cases of, as well as deaths from smallpox, polio, diphtheria, pertussis, measles, mumps and preventable diseases” (Jacobson, 2012, p.36). Generally, those involved in campaigns for and research in these preventable diseases attribute vaccines for children as the main contributing factor to the overall decline in diseases such as measles, mumps, smallpox and pertussis (Jacobson, 2012). In the public health setting, there are many issues that threaten the health and safety of the public, not just in the local community but the nation and world-wide. One such issue, surfacing in public health, is the issue of vaccinations; those who choose to vaccinate, those who choose not to vaccinate and those who do not
Should You Vaccinate Your Child? Essay
The Center for Disease Control describes vaccines as the greatest development in public health since clean drinking water. For several decades, vaccines have saved countless lives and helped eradicate some fatal diseases. The push to do away with vaccines will not only endanger our youth, but our society as a whole. Vaccination is needed to maintain a healthy balance within our country. Vaccines provide the immunity that comes from a natural infection without the consequences of a natural infection. Vaccinations save an ever-growing amount of lives every year. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) estimated that 732,000 American children were saved from death and 322 million cases of childhood illnesses were prevented between 1994 and 2014 due to vaccination (“Vaccine ProCon”).
Argumentative Essay On Vaccines
Since this vaccine debate, “about 40 percent of American parents today has chosen to delay certain vaccines or outright refuse to allow their children’s physicians to vaccinate their children with one or more of the recommended or mandated vaccines” (Largent). As the rates of being vaccinated go down, it is putting not only that child in danger but also the whole community. Diseases that were once gone are on the rise.” A 2013 study published in the journal Pediatrics reports that California’s worst whooping-cough outbreak, which infected more than 9,000 people (Rothstein)”. Also “the CDC reports that from Jan. 1 to Feb. 28, 2014, 54 people in the U.S. have reported being infected with measles” (Sifferlin).
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How to write a vaccination research paper fast.
March 25, 2021
If you have just received your first vaccination research paper assignment, you probably don’t know what to do or where to start. This is probably why you are reading this blog, after all. Every semester, we receive hundreds of pleas for help from students in high school and college. They are struggling with writing an excellent vaccination research paper. In fact, many of these students are worrying that they might fail the class unless they get a top grade on their essay.
This is why we have decided to write this article. You will find information on how to write a paper about vaccination research. You will also get a list of interesting topics that should work great in 2022 (we also have COVID-19 vaccine topics there). Last, but not least, we will show you how to get a great example and give you a quick guide for writing a five-paragraph essay about vaccines.
Some Excellent Vaccination Research Topics
The best vaccination research paper outline, getting an example for your vaccine research paper, quick guide to write a vaccination paper, need more help.
Before you even start doing any research on vaccination, you should pick the topic of your paper. Truth be told, over 50% of all students pick the wrong topic. The problem is that you will most likely be tempted to choose a topic that’s very popular. The downside to this is that these same topics have probably already been chosen by some of your classmates. To make sure your paper is worthy of a top grade (and to make sure it stands out from the crowd), you need to find an original topic. The topic shouldn’t be too general, nor should it be too narrow. It should be about something of interest today. Also, you must find a topic that you have plenty of information about (to avoid spending days upon days writing the essay). To help you out, we have put together a short list of vaccination research topics:
- The history of the vaccine
- Are vaccines 100% effective?
- Common side effects of Covid vaccination
- Natural immunity versus vaccine immunity
- Mandatory Covid vaccination
- The impact of vaccination
- How does a vaccine work?
- Discuss the HPV vaccine
- Write a vaccination position paper on influenza
- Vaccination in African countries
- ARN-based vaccines
- The evolution of vaccination for Covid 19
- Arguments against vaccination
- Latest Ebola vaccination research
- Arguments for vaccination
- Should vaccination be mandatory for children?
- Discussing the anti-vaccination stance
- The effects of multiple vaccines
- Links between Polio vaccines and the development of cancer
- Do vaccines cause Autism?
- Is vaccination research bad?
Check out our nursing research topics . You’ll surely like them.
Now that you have some interesting vaccination research paper topics to pick from, it’s time to talk about the vaccination research paper outline. It is very important to know how to structure your paper properly. The truth is that failing to do so will get you penalized quite badly. Let’s discuss the proper vaccine research paper outline in just two minutes
No matter what topic you choose (including coronavirus vaccination), you can safely use the five paragraph essay. Here is how such an essay would look like:
- An introduction – first paragraph.
- Body paragraph – second paragraph
- Body paragraph – third paragraph
- Body paragraph – fourth paragraph
- A conclusion – fifth paragraph
It is definitely not difficult to write such a paper. However, we will provide you with a quick guide shortly. But first, let’s talk about getting you a good example; an example you can follow.
Let’s face it: finding good examples for a vaccine research paper can be difficult. Nowadays, the Internet is full of useless or poorly written content. In other words, you simply cannot trust anything you find online. Yes, it’s true that you may get a few hints on some website. Maybe get some interesting tips and ideas from online forums or blogs. However you will not be able to get a perfect example simply by searching on Google for it.
And no, reading vaccination research articles is not enough. You need a great example; an example you can actually use. The best way to get such a sample is to get in touch with us. Our professional academic writers can write a sample for you in no time. And the best part is that the example will be written from scratch just for you. We can even write an example paper about the vaccine for coronavirus, if you need one. You can, of course, use some parts of our sample in your own essay. After all, our sample will be 100 percent original.
It’s not enough to research a certain vaccination research term or to watch a few videos on YouTube. Writing an academic paper about vaccination can take days, even weeks if you don’t have anyone to help you. To make things a bit easier for you, we have put together a quick guide that you should follow. It outlines the basic steps you need to take to write the paper in record time. Here goes:
- The first part of your paper is the introduction . In this section, you will have to provide a bit of background information about the topic. If you are talking about the coronavirus vaccine, it’s a great idea to talk about how it appeared, where it appeared, and what its peculiarities are. Also, remember to include the thesis statement towards the beginning of the intro.
- Write three body paragraphs . Of course, you can write more, but 3 is the minimum for the five paragraph essay. Each body paragraph in your vaccination paper will discuss one single main idea or talking point. It’s a good idea to begin the paragraph with the statement and then use the rest of the paragraph to support it. Don’t forget to cite and reference works or students you use to support the statement.
- Write a conclusion . This conclusion is the part where you basically wrap everything up and write the call to action. Provide a short summary of the most important ideas and show your readers how your research or analysis supports your thesis statement. If you want to include a call to action (for example, “my research shows that more research is needed to establish the exact cause of side effects A, B and C”), do so at the end of the conclusion.
- Edit your vaccination essay . It’s very important to make sure that it is written logically and that the information is presented in an unbiased, objective way. Also, make sure you use connector sentences to transition from one paragraph to the next.
- Proofread and then proofread some more . Did you know that over 80% of students lose points due to minor mistakes, grammar errors or simple typos? Why would you want to lose points when it takes you just 10 minutes to proofread your work?
We realize that writing a vaccination argumentative essay is not easy. We know that even finding a great topic can take hours of research. And the sad truth is that most students simply can’t rely on their professors for clarifications or any kind of help. Professors are too busy, so don’t expect any help. The great news is that our professional writer service with seasoned ENL writers, professional editors and expert proofreaders can help you with anything you need. Here are some examples of what we do for students each and every day:
- Our writers can write a vaccination research paper in no time, even overnight. Instead of submitting the essay late and getting penalized, get in touch with us.
- We can create a vaccination research paper outline for you, so all you have left to do is fill each section with great content.
- Our experts can put together a new list of vaccination research paper topics just for you. This means you can pick any topic you like, knowing it will be unique.
- We can edit and proofread your essay. In fact, our editors and proofreaders have extensive experience proofing academic papers about vaccination.
- We can put you in touch with a medical expert, in case you need in-depth, well-researched medical information. It can make the difference between a B and an A+.
- We can write you a paper about the coronavirus vaccine. Our experts are up to date with the latest news and information about the COVID-19 virus.
- You can get tips and advice on how to improve your academic writing skills. One of our professional writers can take a look at your paper and suggest some improvements.
Bottom line, if you are tasked with writing a vaccine research paper and want to make sure your essay is worthy of a top grade, you should get assistance from a team of experts. We are here to help at any time of day or night. Get in touch with us now!
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As Putin continues killing civilians, bombing kindergartens, and threatening WWIII, Ukraine fights for the world's peaceful future.
This essay considers the legal and ethical implications of states mandating vaccination for children and adults, as well as of employers mandating vaccines for employees. We conclude that COVID-19 vaccine mandates are legally and ethically permissible. MeSH terms Adult COVID-19 Vaccines COVID-19* Child Humans SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination Vaccines*
Vaccination is safe and side effects from a vaccine are usually minor and temporary, such as a sore arm or mild fever. More serious side effects are possible, but extremely rare. Any licensed vaccine is rigorously tested across multiple phases of trials before it is approved for use, and regularly reassessed once it is introduced.
Vaccines prevent the spread of contagious, dangerous, and deadly diseases. These include measles, polio, mumps, chicken pox, whooping cough, diphtheria, HPV, and COVID-19. The first vaccine discovered was the smallpox vaccine. Smallpox was a deadly illness. It killed 300 million to 500 million people around the world in the last century.
By getting vaccinated you reduce your risk of serious illness. Less serious illnesses mean fewer deaths, and less pressure on hospitals. Historically, immunisation campaigns have seen huge success,...
A vaccination is “the injection of a killed or weakened organism that produces immunity in the body against that organism” (vaccines.gov). Vaccines are designed to provide immunization to certain illnesses. People of all ages are encouraged to get vaccinations not only to protect themselves but also for the safety of the public.
Vaccinations, or immunizations, work by stimulating the immune system, the natural disease-fighting system of the body. The healthy immune system can recognize invading bacteria and viruses and produce substances (antibodies) to destroy or disable them. Immunizations prepare the immune system to ward off disease.
Vaccination has helped to eradicate some of the deadliest infections such as smallpox. For this reason, works on vaccination essay topics are important. However, finding the right sources for writing these essays can be challenging. That is why it is important for students to view sample papers before writing vaccination essays.
Read Full Paper vaccination process is one that dates back as far as the 1700's; the process took place using a needle that was inserted in a smallpox blister that had ruptured and then that same needle would be inserted under the skin of an uninfected individual (Okonek & Peters, p.1).
In the late 1700’s, the first vaccination was created which helped pave the way for modern medicine. This medical triumph has saved millions of lives. Because it has helped prevent individuals from contracting specific diseases, doctors from around the world recommend and encourage immunization (BE2).
No matter what topic you choose (including coronavirus vaccination), you can safely use the five paragraph essay. Here is how such an essay would look like: An introduction – first paragraph. Body paragraph – second paragraph Body paragraph – third paragraph Body paragraph – fourth paragraph A conclusion – fifth paragraph