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Sample Scoring Rubrics
- Anthropology Paper Rubric
- Studio Art Assignment Rubric
- Analysis Conclusions Writing Rubric AP Biology
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- UNCW History Department Elaborated Competencies
- Philosophy Paper Rubric . A very detailed rubric meant for papers at all levels.
- Psychology Assignment Rubric for a short homework assignment.
Science - Applicable to all sciences
- Science Writing Rubric
- Scientific Report Rubric
- Science Lab Rubric
Writing across disciplines
- 2 very simple writing rubrics for essays and research papers . They provide a great way to get started with rubrics.
- Rubric for Scoring Rhetorically-Effective Writing
- Teaching Analytical Writing through Rubrics . Political Science faculty action research article, including the rubric used.
Participation and Discussion Rubrics
- Class Participation Rubric
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- Design Assessment
A rubric is a learning and assessment tool that articulates the expectations for assignments and performance tasks by listing criteria, and for each criteria, describing levels of quality (Andrade, 2000; Arter & Chappuis, 2007; Stiggins, 2001). Rubrics contain four essential features (Stevens & Levi, 2013):
A description of performance quality give students a clear idea about what must be done to demonstrate a certain level of mastery, understanding, or proficiency (i.e., "excellent" does xyz, "fair" does only xy or yz, "poor" does only x or y or z). Rubrics can be used for any assignment in a course, or for any way in which you ask students to demonstrate what they've learned. They can also be used to facilitate self and peer-reviews of student work.
A rubric can be analytic or holistic. An analytic rubric articulates different dimensions of performance and provides ratings for each dimension. A holistic rubric describes the overall characteristics of a performnace and provides a single score. Here are some pros and cons:
2. Why You Should Consider Rubrics
Rubrics help instructors :
- Provide students with feedback that is clear, directed and focused on ways to improve learning.
- Demystify assignment expectations so students can focus on the work instead of guessing "what the teacher wants."
- Adapt your approach to teaching aspects of a course based on thematic gaps in student learning that are easily identified by reviewing rubrics across a class.
- Develop consistency in how you evaluate student learning across students and throughout a class.
- Reduce time spent on grading; Increase time spent on teaching.
Rubrics help students :
- Focus their efforts on completing assignments in line with clearly set expectations.
- Self and Peer-reflect on their learning, making informed changes to achieve the desired learning level.
3. Getting Started with Rubrics
STEP 1: Clarify task/performance expectations.
STEP 2: Identify the characteristics of student performances. What is it that students are supposed to demonstrate (skills, knowledge, behaviors, etc.)? [components/dimensions]
STEP 3: Identify how many mastery levels are needed for each performance component/dimension. Decide what score should be allocated for each level. [scale]
STEP 4: Describe performance characteristics of each component/dimension for each mastery level. [performance descriptor]
STEP 5: Pilot-test the rubric with a few sample papers and/or get feedback from your colleagues (and students) on the rubric. Revise the rubric.
4. Rater Training and Calibrartion
In order to provide consistent and reliable rating, those who will be rating student work or performance need to be familiar with the rubric and need to interpret and apply the rubric in the same way. To calibrate ratings among raters, a rating orientation can be useful.
Steps involved in rater training and calibration:
Step 1: Explain how to use the rubric. Familiarize faculty with the categories and levels. For each mastery level, provide one sample with annotations of the features found in student work that capture the rating criteria.
Step 2: Provide two samples of student performance/work that represents different levels of mastery (mask the ratings). Have faculty rate them independently applying the rubric.
Step 3: Gather faculty’s ratings to show the agreement on the rating.
Step 4: Discuss scoring inconsistencies and reasons behind different ratings. Revise/clarify the rubric, if necessary.
Step 5: Once consensus is made on the ratings and when faculty feel comfortable with using the rubric, proceed with individual ratings of student work/performance. Provide faculty with rating sheet and explain the procedure (e.g., two raters for one sample).
5. Rubric Examples
Sample rubrics from berkeley faculty: .
- Sociology Department: Writing assessment rubric
- Sociology Department: Rubric for Grading an Analytical Essay , from Sociology Department
- Rubric for Evaluating Written Assignments (pdf)
- International and Area Studies: Honors Thesis Rubric
- International and Area Studies: Honors Thesis Evaluation Form
- Sample Research Paper, Annotated Bibliography, and Reflection
Other rubric samples:
- Group presentation rubric (UC Davis): http://dhc.ucdavis.edu/includes/pdf/Group_Research_Presentations_Rubric.pdf (link is external)
- Research paper rubric (George Mason University): http://ctfe.gmu.edu/teaching/grading/sample-rubric-for-grading-a-research-paper/ (link is external)
- Lab report rubric (University of Michigan): http://www.crlt.umich.edu/gsis/p7_11 (link is external)
- Dissertation proposal rubric (Purdue University): http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/ira/assess/pdf/Purdue_PhD_DissertationRubric.pdf (link is external)
- AAC&U VALUE rubrics (Rubrics on: Civic Engagement, Creative Thinking, Critical Thinking, Ethical Reasoning, Information Literacy, Inquiry Analysis, Integrative Learning, Intercultural Competence, Lifelong Learning, Oral Communication, Problem Solving, Quantitative Literacy, Global Learning, Reading, Teamwork, Written Communication): http://www.aacu.org/value/rubrics/pdf/All_Rubrics.pdf (link is external)
- University of Maryland: http://openedpractices.org/files/CT%20and%20research%20Univ.%20of%20MD%20CTE.pdf (link is external)
- Rubric for Integration of Student Learning Assessment into Program Reviews
- Rubric for Assessing the Quality of Academic Program Learning Outcomes
- Rubric for Assessing the Use of Portfolios for Assessing Program Learning Outcomes
- Rubric for Evalutating General Education Assessment Process
- The Educational Effectiveness Framework: Capacity & Effectiveness as They Relate to Student and Institutional Learning
- Rubric for Assessing the use of Capstone Experiences for Assessing Program Learning Outcomes
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- Scoring Rubrics
Scoring rubrics are descriptive scoring schemes developed to assess any student performance whether it's written or oral, online or face-to-face.Scoring rubrics are especially well suited for evaluating complex tasks or assignments such as: written work (e.g., assignments, essay tests, papers, portfolios); presentations (e.g., debates, role plays); group work; or other types of work products or performances (e.g., artistic works, portfolios). Scoring rubrics are assignment-specific; criteria are different for each assignment or test. It is a way to make your criteria and standards clear to both you and your students.
Good scoring rubrics:
- Consist of a checklist of items, each with an even number of points. For example, two-point rubrics would indicate that the student either did or did not perform the specified task. Four or more points in a rubric are common and indicate the degree to which a student performed a given task.
- Are criterion based. That is, the rubric contains descriptive criteria for acceptable performance that are meaningful, clear, concise, unambiguous, and credible--thus ensuring inter-rater reliability.
- Are used to assess only those behaviors that are directly observable.
- Require a single score based on the overall quality of the work or presentation.
- Provide a better assessment and understanding of expected or actual performance.
Rubric Template (PDF)
Sample Rubric for Quizzes and Homework (PDF)
Why Develop Scoring Rubrics?
Here are some reasons why taking the time to construct a grading rubric will be worth your time:
- Make grading more consistent and fair.
- Save you time in the grading process.
- Help identify students' strengths and weaknesses so you can teach more effectively.
- To help students understand what and how they need to improve.
Guidelines for Developing a Scoring Rubric
Step 1: Select a project/assignment for assessment.
Step 2: What performance skill(s) or competency(ies) are students demonstrating through their work on this project?
Step 3: List the traits you'll assess when evaluating the project--in other words, ask: "What counts in my assessment of this work?" Use nouns or noun phrases to name traits, and avoid evaluative language. Limit the number of traits to no more than seven. Each trait should represent a key teachable attribute of the overall skill you're assessing.
Step 4: Decide on the number of gradations of mastery you'll establish for each trait and the language you'll use to describe those levels.
Five points of gradation:
Four points of gradation:
Step 5: For each trait write statements that describe work at each level of mastery. If, for example, you have seven traits and five gradations, you'll have 35 descriptive statements in your rubric. Attempt to strike a balance between over-generalizations and task-specificity. For the trait "coherence and organization" in a four-point rubric:
Step 6: Design a format for presenting the rubric to students and for scoring student work.
Step 7: Test the rubric and fine tune it based on feedback from colleagues and students.
Source: Effective Grading: A Tool for Learning and Assessment , Barbara E. Walvoord, Virginia Johnson Anderson, Thomas A. Angelo (Foreword by) (1998).
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Examples of Rubrics
Here are some rubric examples from different colleges and universities, as well as the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AACU) VALUE rubrics. We would also like to include examples from Syracuse University faculty and staff. If you would be willing to share your rubric with us, please click here.
- Art and Design Rubric (Rhode Island University)
- Theater Arts Writing Rubric (California State University)
- Holistic Participation Rubric (University of Virginia)
- Large Lecture Courses with TAs (Carnegie Mellon University)
Doctoral Program Milestones
- Qualifying Examination (Syracuse University)
- Comprehensive Core Examination (Portland State University)
- Dissertation Proposal (Portland State University)
- Dissertation (Portland State University)
- Key Competencies in Community-Engaged Learning and Teaching (Campus Compact)
- Global Learning and Intercultural Knowledge (International Cross-Cultural Experiential Learning Evaluation Toolkit)
Humanities and Social Science
- Anthropology Paper (Carnegie Mellon University)
- Economics Paper (University of Kentucky)
- History Paper (Carnegie Mellon University)
- Literary Analysis (Minnesota State University)
- Philosophy Paper (Carnegie Mellon University)
- Psychology Paper (Loyola Marymount University)
- Sociology Paper (University of California)
Media and Design
- Media and Design Elements Rubric (Samford University)
- Physics Paper (Illinois State University)
- Chemistry Paper (Utah State University)
- Biology Research Report (Loyola Marymount University)
- Discussion Forums (Simmons College)
Syracuse University’s Shared Competencies
- Information Literacy & Technological Agility
- Journal Reflection (The State University of New Jersey)
- Reflection Writing Rubric and Research Project Writing (Carnegie Mellon University)
- Research Paper Rubric (Cornell College)
- Assessment Rubric for Student Reflections
AACU VALUE Rubrics
VALUE (Valid Assessment of Learning in Undergraduate Education) is a national assessment initiative on college student learning sponsored by AACU as part of its Liberal Education and America’s Promise (LEAP) initiative.
Intellectual and Practical Skills
- Inquiry and Analysis (*pdf)
- Critical Thinking (*pdf)
- Creative Thinking (*pdf)
- Written Communication (*pdf)
- Oral Communication (*pdf)
- Reading (*pdf)
- Quantitative Literacy (*pdf)
- Information Literacy (*pdf)
- Teamwork (*pdf)
- Problem Solving (*pdf)
Personal and Social Responsibility
- Civic Engagement (*pdf)
- Intercultural Knowledge and Competence (*pdf)
- Ethical Reasoning (*pdf)
- Foundations and Skills for Lifelong Learning (*pdf)
- Global Learning (*pdf)
Integrative and Applied Learning
- Integrative Learning (*pdf)
Assessing Institution-Wide Diversity
- Self-Assessment Rubric For the Institutionalization of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in Higher Education
- Basics for GSIs
- Advancing Your Skills
Grading Rubrics: Examples of Rubric Creation
Creating a rubric takes time and requires thought and experimentation. Here you can see the steps used to create two kinds of rubric: one for problems in a physics exam for a small, upper-division physics course, and another for an essay assignment in a large, lower-division sociology course.
Physics Exam Problems
In STEM disciplines (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics), assignments tend to be analytical and problem-based. Often holistic rubrics are the most efficient, consistent, and fair way to grade a problem set. When starting to grade a problem, it is important to think about the relevant conceptual ingredients in the solution. Then look at a sample of student work to get a feel for student mistakes. Decide what rubric you will use (e.g., holistic or analytic, and how many points). Apply the holistic rubric by marking comments and sorting the students’ assignments into stacks (e.g., five stacks if using a five-point scale). Finally, check the stacks for consistency and mark the scores. The following is a sample homework problem from a UC Berkeley Physics Department undergraduate course in quantum mechanics.
Understand Compton scattering and apply the concepts in a calculation. The discovery of Compton scattering was important in the early development of Quantum Mechanics because it illustrates the quantum nature of light and cannot be correctly described using classical electromagnetism.
Desired Traits: Conceptual Elements Needed for the Solution
- Compton scattering for photon: the relationship between the change in photon wavelength and angle of scattering (derived using energy and momentum conservation)
- Relationship between photon wavelength and energy
- How the electron recoil energy relates to the change in photon energy
- How to maximize this relationship
- Evaluate for the given photon energy
A note on analytic rubrics: If you decide you feel more comfortable grading with an analytic rubric, you can assign a point value to each concept. The drawback to this method is that it can sometimes unfairly penalize a student who has a good understanding of the problem but makes a lot of minor errors. Also, one must assign a point-value to every type of error made by your students, and the variety of mistakes can be staggering. Because the analytic method tends to have many more parts, the method can take quite a bit more time to apply. In the end, your analytic rubric should give results that agree with the common-sense assessment of how well the student understood the problem. This sense is well captured by the holistic method.
A holistic rubric, closely based on a rubric by Bruce Birkett and Andrew Elby:
[a] This policy especially makes sense on exam problems, for which students are under time pressure and are more likely to make harmless algebraic mistakes. It would also be reasonable to have stricter standards for homework problems.
Sociology Research Paper
An introductory-level, large-lecture course is a difficult setting for managing a student research assignment. With the assistance of an instructional support team that included a GSI teaching consultant and a UC Berkeley librarian [b] , sociology lecturer Mary Kelsey developed the following assignment:
This was a lengthy and complex assignment worth a substantial portion of the course grade. Since the class was very large, the instructor wanted to minimize the effort it would take her GSIs to grade the papers in a manner consistent with the assignment’s learning objectives. For these reasons Dr. Kelsey and the instructional team gave a lot of forethought to crafting a detailed grading rubric.
- Use and interpretation of data
- Reflection on personal experiences
- Application of course readings and materials
- Organization, writing, and mechanics
For this assignment, the instructional team decided to grade each trait individually because there seemed to be too many independent variables to grade holistically. They could have used a five-point scale, a three-point scale, or a descriptive analytic scale. The choice depended on the complexity of the assignment and the kind of information they wanted to convey to students about their work.
Below are three of the analytic rubrics they considered for the Argument trait and a holistic rubric for all the traits together. Lastly you will find the entire analytic rubric, for all five desired traits, that was finally used for the assignment. Which would you choose, and why?
Three-point scale, simplified three-point scale, numbers replaced with descriptive terms, holistic rubric.
For some assignments, you may choose to use a holistic rubric, or one scale for the whole assignment. This type of rubric is particularly useful when the variables you want to assess just cannot be usefully separated. We chose not to use a holistic rubric for this assignment because we wanted to be able to grade each trait separately, but we’ve completed a holistic version here for comparative purposes.
Final Analytic Rubric
This is the rubric the instructor finally decided to use. It rates five major traits, each on a five-point scale. This allowed for fine but clear distinctions in evaluating the students’ final papers.
[b] These materials were developed during UC Berkeley’s 2005–2006 Mellon Library/Faculty Fellowship for Undergraduate Research program. M embers of the instructional team who worked with Lecturer Kelsey in developing the grading rubric included Susan H askell-Khan, a GSI Center teaching consultant and doctoral candidate in history, and Sarah McDaniel, a teaching librarian with the Doe/Moffitt Libraries.
Center for Teaching Innovation
- AACU VALUE Rubrics
A rubric is a type of scoring guide that assesses and articulates specific components and expectations for an assignment. Rubrics can be used for a variety of assignments: research papers, group projects, portfolios, and presentations.
Why use rubrics?
Rubrics help instructors:
- Assess assignments consistently from student-to-student.
- Save time in grading, both short-term and long-term.
- Give timely, effective feedback and promote student learning in a sustainable way.
- Clarify expectations and components of an assignment for both students and course teaching assistants (TAs).
- Refine teaching methods by evaluating rubric results.
Rubrics help students:
- Understand expectations and components of an assignment.
- Become more aware of their learning process and progress.
- Improve work through timely and detailed feedback.
Considerations for using rubrics
When developing rubrics consider the following:
- Although it takes time to build a rubric, time will be saved in the long run as grading and providing feedback on student work will become more streamlined.
- A rubric can be a fillable pdf that can easily be emailed to students.
- They can be used for oral presentations.
- They are a great tool to evaluate teamwork and individual contribution to group tasks.
- Rubrics facilitate peer-review by setting evaluation standards. Have students use the rubric to provide peer assessment on various drafts.
- Students can use them for self-assessment to improve personal performance and learning. Encourage students to use the rubrics to assess their own work.
- Motivate students to improve their work by using rubric feedback to resubmit their work incorporating the feedback.
Getting Started with Rubrics
- Start small by creating one rubric for one assignment in a semester.
- Ask colleagues if they have developed rubrics for similar assignments or adapt rubrics that are available online. For example, the AACU has rubrics for topics such as written and oral communication, critical thinking, and creative thinking. RubiStar helps you to develop your rubric based on templates.
- Examine an assignment for your course. Outline the elements or critical attributes to be evaluated (these attributes must be objectively measurable).
- Create an evaluative range for performance quality under each element; for instance, “excellent,” “good,” “unsatisfactory.”
- Avoid using subjective or vague criteria such as “interesting” or “creative.” Instead, outline objective indicators that would fall under these categories.
- The criteria must clearly differentiate one performance level from another.
- Assign a numerical scale to each level.
- Give a draft of the rubric to your colleagues and/or TAs for feedback.
- Train students to use your rubric and solicit feedback. This will help you judge whether the rubric is clear to them and will identify any weaknesses.
- Rework the rubric based on the feedback.
- Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning
- Instructional Guide
- Rubrics for Assessment
A rubric is an explicit set of criteria used for assessing a particular type of work or performance (TLT Group, n.d.) and provides more details than a single grade or mark. Rubrics, therefore, will help you grade more objectively.
Have your students ever asked, “Why did you grade me that way?” or stated, “You never told us that we would be graded on grammar!” As a grading tool, rubrics can address these and other issues related to assessment: they reduce grading time; they increase objectivity and reduce subjectivity; they convey timely feedback to students and they improve students’ ability to include required elements of an assignment (Stevens & Levi, 2005). Grading rubrics can be used to assess a range of activities in any subject area
Elements of a Rubric
Typically designed as a grid-type structure, a grading rubric includes criteria, levels of performance, scores, and descriptors which become unique assessment tools for any given assignment. The table below illustrates a simple grading rubric with each of the four elements for a history research paper.
Criteria identify the trait, feature or dimension which is to be measured and include a definition and example to clarify the meaning of each trait being assessed. Each assignment or performance will determine the number of criteria to be scored. Criteria are derived from assignments, checklists, grading sheets or colleagues.
Examples of Criteria for a term paper rubric
- Grammar and punctuation
- Internal citations
Levels of performance
Levels of performance are often labeled as adjectives which describe the performance levels. Levels of performance determine the degree of performance which has been met and will provide for consistent and objective assessment and better feedback to students. These levels tell students what they are expected to do. Levels of performance can be used without descriptors but descriptors help in achieving objectivity. Words used for levels of performance could influence a student’s interpretation of performance level (such as superior, moderate, poor or above or below average).
Examples to describe levels of performance
- Excellent, Good, Fair, Poor
- Master, Apprentice, Beginner
- Exemplary, Accomplished, Developing, Beginning, Undeveloped
- Complete, Incomplete
Levels of performance determine the degree of performance which has been met and will provide for consistent and objective assessment and better feedback to students.
Scores make up the system of numbers or values used to rate each criterion and often are combined with levels of performance. Begin by asking how many points are needed to adequately describe the range of performance you expect to see in students’ work. Consider the range of possible performance level.
Example of scores for a rubric
1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 2, 4, 6, 8
Descriptors are explicit descriptions of the performance and show how the score is derived and what is expected of the students. Descriptors spell out each level (gradation) of performance for each criterion and describe what performance at a particular level looks like. Descriptors describe how well students’ work is distinguished from the work of their peers and will help you to distinguish between each student’s work. Descriptors should be detailed enough to differentiate between the different level and increase the objectivity of the rater.
Descriptors...describe what performance at a particular level looks like.
Developing a Grading Rubric
First, consider using any of a number of existing rubrics available online. Many rubrics can be used “as is.” Or, you could modify a rubric by adding or deleting elements or combining others for one that will suit your needs. Finally, you could create a completely customized rubric using specifically designed rubric software or just by creating a table with the rubric elements. The following steps will help you develop a rubric no matter which option you choose.
- Select a performance/assignment to be assessed. Begin with a performance or assignment which may be difficult to grade and where you want to reduce subjectivity. Is the performance/assignment an authentic task related to learning goals and/or objectives? Are students replicating meaningful tasks found in the real world? Are you encouraging students to problem solve and apply knowledge? Answer these questions as you begin to develop the criteria for your rubric.
Begin with a performance or assignment which may be difficult to grade and where you want to reduce subjectivity.
- List criteria. Begin by brainstorming a list of all criteria, traits or dimensions associated task. Reduce the list by chunking similar criteria and eliminating others until you produce a range of appropriate criteria. A rubric designed for formative and diagnostic assessments might have more criteria than those rubrics rating summative performances (Dodge, 2001). Keep the list of criteria manageable and reasonable.
- Write criteria descriptions. Keep criteria descriptions brief, understandable, and in a logical order for students to follow as they work on the task.
- Determine level of performance adjectives. Select words or phrases that will explain what performance looks like at each level, making sure they are discrete enough to show real differences. Levels of performance should match the related criterion.
- Develop scores. The scores will determine the ranges of performance in numerical value. Make sure the values make sense in terms of the total points possible: What is the difference between getting 10 points versus 100 points versus 1,000 points? The best and worst performance scores are placed at the ends of the continuum and the other scores are placed appropriately in between. It is suggested to start with fewer levels and to distinguish between work that does not meet the criteria. Also, it is difficult to make fine distinctions using qualitative levels such as never, sometimes, usually or limited acceptance, proficient or NA, poor, fair, good, very good, excellent. How will you make the distinctions?
It is suggested to start with fewer [score] levels and to distinguish between work that does not meet the criteria.
- Write the descriptors. As a student is judged to move up the performance continuum, previous level descriptions are considered achieved in subsequent description levels. Therefore, it is not necessary to include “beginning level” descriptors in the same box where new skills are introduced.
- Evaluate the rubric. As with any instructional tool, evaluate the rubric each time it is used to ensure it matches instructional goals and objectives. Be sure students understand each criterion and how they can use the rubric to their advantage. Consider providing more details about each of the rubric’s areas to further clarify these sections to students. Pilot test new rubrics if possible, review the rubric with a colleague, and solicit students’ feedback for further refinements.
Types of Rubrics
Determining which type of rubric to use depends on what and how you plan to evaluate. There are several types of rubrics including holistic, analytical, general, and task-specific. Each of these will be described below.
All criteria are assessed as a single score. Holistic rubrics are good for evaluating overall performance on a task. Because only one score is given, holistic rubrics tend to be easier to score. However, holistic rubrics do not provide detailed information on student performance for each criterion; the levels of performance are treated as a whole.
- “Use for simple tasks and performances such as reading fluency or response to an essay question . . .
- Getting a quick snapshot of overall quality or achievement
- Judging the impact of a product or performance” (Arter & McTighe, 2001, p 21)
Each criterion is assessed separately, using different descriptive ratings. Each criterion receives a separate score. Analytical rubrics take more time to score but provide more detailed feedback.
- “Judging complex performances . . . involving several significant [criteria] . . .
- Providing more specific information or feedback to students . . .” (Arter & McTighe, 2001, p 22)
A generic rubric contains criteria that are general across tasks and can be used for similar tasks or performances. Criteria are assessed separately, as in an analytical rubric.
- “[Use] when students will not all be doing exactly the same task; when students have a choice as to what evidence will be chosen to show competence on a particular skill or product.
- [Use] when instructors are trying to judge consistently in different course sections” (Arter & McTighe, 2001, p 30)
Assesses a specific task. Unique criteria are assessed separately. However, it may not be possible to account for each and every criterion involved in a particular task which could overlook a student’s unique solution (Arter & McTighe, 2001).
- “It’s easier and faster to get consistent scoring
- [Use] in large-scale and “high-stakes” contexts, such as state-level accountability assessments
- [Use when] you want to know whether students know particular facts, equations, methods, or procedures” (Arter & McTighe, 2001, p 28)
Grading rubrics are effective and efficient tools which allow for objective and consistent assessment of a range of performances, assignments, and activities. Rubrics can help clarify your expectations and will show students how to meet them, making students accountable for their performance in an easy-to-follow format. The feedback that students receive through a grading rubric can help them improve their performance on revised or subsequent work. Rubrics can help to rationalize grades when students ask about your method of assessment. Rubrics also allow for consistency in grading for those who team teach the same course, for TAs assigned to the task of grading, and serve as good documentation for accreditation purposes. Several online sources exist which can be used in the creation of customized grading rubrics; a few of these are listed below.
Arter, J., & McTighe, J. (2001). Scoring rubrics in the classroom: Using performance criteria for assessing and improving student performance. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.
Stevens, D. D., & Levi, A. J. (2005). Introduction to rubrics: An assessment tool to save grading time, convey effective feedback, and promote student learning. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
The Teaching, Learning, and Technology Group (n.d.). Rubrics: Definition, tools, examples, references. http://www.tltgroup.org/resources/flashlight/rubrics.htm
Dodge, B. (2001). Creating a rubric on a given task. http://webquest.sdsu.edu/rubrics/rubrics.html
Wilson, M. (2006). Rethinking rubrics in writing assessment. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Rubric Builders and Generators
eMints.org (2011). Rubric/scoring guide. http://www.emints.org/webquest/rubric.shtml
General Rubric Generator. http://www.teach-nology.com/web_tools/rubrics/general/
RubiStar (2008). Create rubrics for your project-based learning activities. http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php
Northern Illinois University Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning. (2012). Rubrics for assessment. In Instructional guide for university faculty and teaching assistants. Retrieved from https://www.niu.edu/citl/resources/guides/instructional-guide
- Active Learning Activities
- Assessing Student Learning
- Direct vs. Indirect Assessment
- Examples of Classroom Assessment Techniques
- Formative and Summative Assessment
- Peer and Self-Assessment
- Reflective Journals and Learning Logs
- The Process of Grading
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Teaching excellence & educational innovation, grading and performance rubrics, what are rubrics.
A rubric is a scoring tool that explicitly represents the performance expectations for an assignment or piece of work. A rubric divides the assigned work into component parts and provides clear descriptions of the characteristics of the work associated with each component, at varying levels of mastery. Rubrics can be used for a wide array of assignments: papers, projects, oral presentations, artistic performances, group projects, etc. Rubrics can be used as scoring or grading guides, to provide formative feedback to support and guide ongoing learning efforts, or both.
Advantages of Using Rubrics
Using a rubric provides several advantages to both instructors and students. Grading according to an explicit and descriptive set of criteria that is designed to reflect the weighted importance of the objectives of the assignment helps ensure that the instructor’s grading standards don’t change over time. Grading consistency is difficult to maintain over time because of fatigue, shifting standards based on prior experience, or intrusion of other criteria. Furthermore, rubrics can reduce the time spent grading by reducing uncertainty and by allowing instructors to refer to the rubric description associated with a score rather than having to write long comments. Finally, grading rubrics are invaluable in large courses that have multiple graders (other instructors, teaching assistants, etc.) because they can help ensure consistency across graders and reduce the systematic bias that can be introduced between graders.
Used more formatively, rubrics can help instructors get a clearer picture of the strengths and weaknesses of their class. By recording the component scores and tallying up the number of students scoring below an acceptable level on each component, instructors can identify those skills or concepts that need more instructional time and student effort.
Grading rubrics are also valuable to students. A rubric can help instructors communicate to students the specific requirements and acceptable performance standards of an assignment. When rubrics are given to students with the assignment description, they can help students monitor and assess their progress as they work toward clearly indicated goals. When assignments are scored and returned with the rubric, students can more easily recognize the strengths and weaknesses of their work and direct their efforts accordingly.
Examples of Rubrics
Here are links to a diverse set of rubrics designed by Carnegie Mellon faculty and faculty at other institutions. Although your particular field of study and type of assessment activity may not be represented currently, viewing a rubric that is designed for a similar activity may provide you with ideas on how to divide your task into components and how to describe the varying levels of mastery.
- Example 1: Philosophy Paper This rubric was designed for student papers in a range of philosophy courses, CMU.
- Example 2: Psychology Assignment Short, concept application homework assignment in cognitive psychology, CMU.
- Example 3: Anthropology Writing Assignments This rubric was designed for a series of short writing assignments in anthropology, CMU.
- Example 4: History Research Paper . This rubric was designed for essays and research papers in history, CMU.
- Example 1: Capstone Project in Design This rubric describes the components and standard of performance from the research phase to the final presentation for a senior capstone project in the School of Design, CMU.
- Example 2: Engineering Design Project This rubric describes performance standards on three aspects of a team project: Research and Design, Communication, and Team Work.
- Example 1: Oral Exam This rubric describes a set of components and standards for assessing performance on an oral exam in an upper-division history course, CMU.
- Example 2: Oral Communication
- Example 3: Group Presentations This rubric describes a set of components and standards for assessing group presentations in a history course, CMU.
- Example 1: Discussion Class This rubric assesses the quality of student contributions to class discussions. This is appropriate for an undergraduate-level course, CMU.
- Example 2: Advanced Seminar This rubric is designed for assessing discussion performance in an advanced undergraduate or graduate seminar.
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About the Assessment
There is no end-of-course written exam for AP Research. Instead, you’ll be assessed on performance tasks you complete that are based on your yearlong research project: an academic paper (which you’ll submit online for scoring through the AP Digital Portfolio), a presentation, and an oral defense of your research. These components all contribute to your final AP score on a scale of 1–5.
MAY 1, 2023, 11:59 PM EDT
AP Research Performance Task Due Date
You must submit your final AP Research performance task via the AP Digital Portfolio and your teacher must have scored all presentations by this time.
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75% of Score
The academic paper should be 4,000–5,000 words long. You’ll be evaluated on the content, structure, format, and conclusions of the paper as well as your ability to properly and accurately cite sources.
Presentation and Oral Defense
25% of Score
The culminating event of the AP Research course will be a presentation of your research question, research methodology, and findings, including an oral defense that addresses a set of questions about your research inquiry. The presentation and defense take 15–20 minutes. You will also be required to answer 3–4 questions from a panel of trained evaluators and your AP Research teacher.
- AP Research teachers use a scoring rubric designed by the AP Program.
- AP Research teachers also take part in mandatory training from the AP Program in how to score these components.
How We Score Your Work
Teacher Scored Components
Your in-class presentation and oral defense is scored by your AP Research teacher.
Here’s how we make sure that scoring by AP Research teachers is standardized:
College Board Scored Components
After you submit your academic paper online through the AP Digital Portfolio, it is scored by trained, experienced educators called AP readers.
Submit your work, how to submit your work, ap capstone diploma program policies, assessment timeline, assessment preparation.
AP Daily Videos
Once you join your AP class section online, you’ll be able to access AP Daily videos in AP Classroom. AP Daily videos cover every proficiency and skill outlined in the AP Research Course and Exam Description. Sign in to access them.
AP Research Performance Task Sample Student Responses and Scoring Information
Go to the Assessment Questions and Scoring Information section on AP Central to review scoring information and sample student responses for the performance tasks.
AP Research Past Performance Task Samples and Scoring Information
Go to AP Central to review student samples of the academic paper, as well as scoring information for both performance tasks, from past years.
Services for Students with Disabilities
Students with documented disabilities may be eligible for accommodations for the through-course assessment and the end-of-course exam. If you’re using assistive technology and need help accessing the PDFs in this section in another format, contact Services for Students with Disabilities at 212-713-8333 or by email at [email protected] For information about taking AP Exams—or other College Board assessments—with accommodations, visit our Services for Students with Disabilities website.
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Labels for degrees of success are descriptive ("Expert" "Proficient", etc.); by avoiding the use of letters representing grades or numbers representing points, there is no implied contract that qualities of the paper will "add up" to a specified score or grade or that all dimensions are of equal grading value.
Scoring Rubric: Research Report/Paper Organization Elements of Research Reports/Papers Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, and Spelling The report is generally confusing and hard to follow. The writing lacks any real organiza-tion and it may also lack a thesis statement. The body presents sup-port that may be re-lated to the topic but only in a general way.
Research Paper Scoring Rubric Ideas Points 1-10 Has a well-developed thesis that conveys a perspective on the subject Poses relevant and tightly drawn questions about the topic; excludes extraneous details and inappropriate information Records important ideas, concepts, and direct quotations from a variety of reliable
Scoring Rubric. Category. 0 = Poor. 2 = Fair. 4 = Good. 6 = Exceptional. Abstract. Minimal effort; multiple elements (research problem, goals, significance and outcomes) are missing or inadequately described. Elements (research problem, goals, significance and outcomes) are included but inadequately or ineffectively described.
Microsoft Word - Research Paper Grading Rubric.doc Author: Adam Sowalsky Created Date: 9/7/2013 6:03:28 PM ...
GRADING RUBRIC FOR A RESEARCH PAPER—ANY DISCIPLINE CATEGORY 4 3 2 1 Introduction/ Thesis ____ *exceptional introduction that grabs interest of reader and states topic. **thesis is exceptionally clear, arguable, well-developed, and a definitive statement. *proficient introduction that is interesting and states topic. **thesis is clear and
A score of NR is assigned to responses that are blank. Word Count The Individual Research Report task instructions stipulate a word count of no more than 1200 words. At times, responses might exceed this limit. Students are allowed a 10% cushion. You should score these papers by discounting the words that are over 10% (or 1320 words).
Scoring Rubric: Research Report/Paper Download Add to Favorites Share The organization, elements of research report/paper writing, grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling of a written piece are scored in this rubric. Grade: 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 Subjects: Reading and Literature Language Arts and Writing Composition + show tags
Scoring Rubrics: Sample Scoring Rubrics Here are examples of rubrics designed by faculty at this and other institutions. Besides looking at rubrics created for your discipline, there is also benefit in looking at rubrics for similar assignments in other disciplines.
RECAP Scoring Rubric for Research Presentations Category Scoring Criteria Total Points Score Organization (25 points) Introduction is attention-getting, lays out the problem well, and establishes a framework for the rest of the presentation. 10 Information is presented in a logical sequence.
Individual Research Report (IRR) 30 points General Scoring Notes • When applying the rubric for each individual row, you should award the score for that row based solely upon the criteria indicated for that row, ... • You should start by reading the title and then moving to evaluate the bibliography/works cited, but read the whole report ...
Purpose - Assessment rubric often lacks rigor and is underutilized. This article reports the effectiveness of the use of several assessment rubrics for a research writing course. In particular, we examined students' perceived and observed changes in their Chapter One thesis writing as assessed by supervisors using an existing departmental
Rubrics contain four essential features (Stevens & Levi, 2013): (1) a task description or a descriptive title of the task students are expected to produce or perform; (2) a scale (and scoring) that describes the level of mastery (e.g., exceed expectation, meets expectation, doesn't meet expectation);
Scoring rubrics are assignment-specific; criteria are different for each assignment or test. It is a way to make your criteria and standards clear to both you and your students. Good scoring rubrics: Consist of a checklist of items, each with an even number of points.
Research Paper Rubric (Cornell College) Assessment Rubric for Student Reflections AACU VALUE Rubrics VALUE (Valid Assessment of Learning in Undergraduate Education) is a national assessment initiative on college student learning sponsored by AACU as part of its Liberal Education and America's Promise (LEAP) initiative.
the paper's purpose in a single sentence, which is engaging, and thought provoking. Clearly states the paper's purpose in a single sentence. States the paper's purpose in a single sentence. Incomplete and/or unfocused. Absent, no evidence Introduction The introduction is engaging, states the main topic and previews the structure of the paper.
Decide what rubric you will use (e.g., holistic or analytic, and how many points). Apply the holistic rubric by marking comments and sorting the students' assignments into stacks (e.g., five stacks if using a five-point scale). Finally, check the stacks for consistency and mark the scores.
A rubric is a type of scoring guide that assesses and articulates specific components and expectations for an assignment. Rubrics can be used for a variety of assignments: research papers, group projects, portfolios, and presentations. Why use rubrics? Rubrics help instructors: Assess assignments consistently from student-to-student.
Rubrics for Assessment A rubric is an explicit set of criteria used for assessing a particular type of work or performance (TLT Group, n.d.) and provides more details than a single grade or mark. Rubrics, therefore, will help you grade more objectively.
The mainstream research on scoring rubrics has emphasized the summative aspect of assessment. In recent years, the use of rubrics for formative purposes has gained more attention. This research has, however, not been conclusive. The aim of this study is therefore to review the research on formative use of rubrics, in order to investigate if, and how, rubrics have an impact on student learning.
Example 4: History Research Paper. This rubric was designed for essays and research papers in history (Carnegie Mellon). Projects. Example 1: Capstone Project in Design This rubric describes the components and standards of performance from the research phase to the final presentation for a senior capstone project in design (Carnegie Mellon).
Rubrics can be used for a wide array of assignments: papers, projects, oral presentations, artistic performances, group projects, etc. Rubrics can be used as scoring or grading guides, to provide formative feedback to support and guide ongoing learning efforts, or both. Advantages of Using Rubrics
The presentation and defense take 15-20 minutes. You will also be required to answer 3-4 questions from a panel of trained evaluators and your AP Research teacher. AP Research teachers use a scoring rubric designed by the AP Program. AP Research teachers also take part in mandatory training from the AP Program in how to score these components.