Feminist Studies , first published in 1972, is the oldest continuing scholarly journal in the field of women's studies published in the U.S. Contents of the journal reflect its commitment to publishing an interdisciplinary body of feminist knowledge, in multiple genres (research, criticism, commentaries, creative work), that views the intersection of gender with racial identity, sexual orientation, economic means, geographical location, and physical ability as the touchstone for its intellectual analysis. Whether drawn from the complex past or the shifting present, the work that appears in Feminist Studies addresses social and political issues that intimately and significantly affect women and men in the United States and around the world.

  • No. 2 Global Intimacies: China and/in the Global South 2021 pp. 258-468
  • No. 1 BLACK FEMINIST THOUGHT 2021 pp. 7-242
  • No. 3 Feminist Analysis of COVID-19 2020 pp. 547-746
  • No. 2 2020 pp. 247-539
  • No. 1 2020 pp. 8-238

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Feminism Research Paper

Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: Gender Equality , Women's Rights , Feminism , Theory , Women , Gender , Oppression , Sociology

Words: 1100

Published: 2021/02/25

On this certain stage of the development of the contemporary society, such phenomenon as “feminism” can be followed by a very mixed namely ambiguous reaction and attitude towards it. Nevertheless, feminism becomes more meaningful and important with each year thus attracting many people’s attention, playing an important role in the society and consequently somehow influencing the course of the historical events. Taking into consideration that over time the number of women who consciously think over the fact of which social position and political position they occupy, the population that supports diverse acts and events of the feminist movements gradually increases. Turning to the basic definition of feminism, it becomes quite clear which rights exactly the representatives of all these movements defend and struggle for. Thinking of feminism as “the belief that men and women should have equal rights and opportunities as well as the theory of political, economic and social equality, the vast majority of the population imagine feminists as those who are radically concerned and ardently believe in the gender inequality of the human rights. Ritzer’s book, in fact, fully reflects the main ideas of feminist theory at the macro and micro levels, which form the worldview of the people and the vision of a problem, also focuses on the main objectives that guide the representatives of various feminist movements thus creating a modern feminist theorists debate, including but not limited to issues of gender equality, gender stereotypes and freedom of women. Turning to the feminism itself, it is possible to claim that its ideas focus on the context of the system of domination relationship with sexual, racial and class oppression of women, which makes it possible to identify the problem. The emergence of the significant feminist ideas is the result of certain social needs and expectations. Once established, these ideas are implemented in the activities of people - in this case, in one or another variety of women’s movements. This, in turn, gives rise and pushes to a meaningful development of the theory and ideology of feminism. The appearance of the term feminism was associated with the need to distinguish those people who are for the increasing of the woman’s social role as well as for the right of women to define themselves as independent human beings. However, due to the fact that in the last century, both private and public roles of women have changed and expanded, the definition of feminism also expanded to include political, cultural, economic, sexual, racial and ethnic components. Thus, strong divergence of views on feminism in its various manifestations seems to be noticeable. But still, there is one thing in common namely the desire to change the existing unequal society and create new egalitarian relations. Therefore, a summary of the various most popular ideas of feminism helps to more efficiently use these ideas in practicing women’s movement, contribute to the development of effective strategies. In order to study the phenomenon of feminism more thoroughly, it is necessary to turn to the roots of the feminist theory and the reasons which determined the existing of the feminist socio-political movements in their diversity. The following classification, in my opinion, accurately reflects the relationship that exists between the two gender groups and requirements / objectives of the representatives of this or that movement that could help to form certain criteria classifiers which delineate the whole phenomenon of feminism. Accordingly, the issues that can be listed are the following and they play a crucial role in understanding each approach, especially feminist theorists’ requirements.

What about women?

What is the status of women is what it is? What differences exist among women? Before moving directly to the theories that made me interested, I want to distinguish the theories themselves. The first theory of gender differences is directed specifically to determine the place of women in society, drawing attention to experiences that are dissimilar between the two genders. Some of them, of course, can be combined with other theories, namely women are viewed as objects that are deprived of opportunities for self-realization. From another perspective of view, the experience of women varies not only with the experience of men, but in fact these experiences are considered are unequal according to men. At this stage, patriarchy and gender discrimination in the division of labor can be considered as key points dissatisfaction representatives of feminist movements. The last two theories are characterized by more radical direction. Accordingly, women on the theory of gender oppression not only differ with men in their rights, but subordinate, and are victims of all kinds of violence by men. So with this theory, the main instrument and variable that makes discontent feminist movements in the relevant requirements of this force as a means of oppression. Proponents of the latter theory, namely the theory of structural oppression claim that the basis of oppression and inequality is patriarchy as a structure of domination. According to this theory, oppression and inequality explained based on a number of variables, including class, gender, race and age. However, it is interesting that the representatives of this feminist theory make an important observation that not all women experience depression at all. White women and black women, for example, face different forms of discrimination in the workplace. These four theories, in my opinion, lead to a logical transition from one theory to another, ie representatives of the theory of structural oppression both should be considered by the theory of gender inequality and gender oppression theory. The latest theory of structural oppression, I perceive as a snowball which contains a similar requirements for reforms and changes, and despite the fact that the causes of a theory differ, the basic ways of overcoming inequality at different levels of the relationship between gender groups are similar. The theory of modern feminism is intended not only to achieve political and legal equality of women, but also reassess priorities of Western culture itself. This transformation is due to rethinking views on the nature of society in general and the person in particular. Therefore, especially feminist thinking, if I may call it so conditionally, defined not just the attitude towards the question of a woman’s position in society and changing outlook on social aspects of women. I also want to note the impact of postmodernism on feminism. I believe that there are many points of intersection between space and expression in postmodern position, which for a certain time were occupied by representatives of feminist theories. So, the "openness" of postmodern feminism, susceptibility to a total rethinking and feminine gender roles, formed the basis of a positive interpretation of women in postmodern feminist discourse. Therefore, I believe that the requirements of the representatives of the feminist movements and feminist theorists eventually turned from the distorted reflection of today’s life into the connected discourse with “conscious” articulation, although I still do not support the requirements for revaluation of the role of women and changes in gender relations some theories because they are not founded. Despite the fact that in the field of gender there are still many unresolved and arguable issues and the development of feminist movements and the development of new feminist theories increases, which increases the likelihood of impact of movements for social and political development of the world's countries and under different societies.

Harding, S. (2004). The Feminist Standpoint Theory Reader. New York and London: Routledge. Hartsock, N. (2004). The Feminist Standpoint: Developing the Ground for a Specifically Feminist Historical Materialism. Harding. Smith, D. (2004). Women’s Perspective as a Radical Critique of Sociology. Harding Allen, A. (1999). The Power of Feminist Theory: Domination, Resistance, Solidarity. Westview Press  Marshall, B., Witz, A. (2004). Engendering the Social: Feminist Encounters with Sociological Theory. Open University Press.

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Good Research Paper About Feminism And Women’s Liberation Movement

Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: Women , Movement , Freedom , Society , Gender Equality , Women's Rights , Feminism , Democracy

Words: 2500

Published: 03/08/2023



Nowadays, the rise of women empowerment has provided a huge lift towards the promotion of gender equality and independence. For the past several decades, men are always considered as more dominant human beings. They hold political power, provide the basic necessities for the family, and are able to handle certain issues at work with ease and confidence. They are even much stronger and tougher than women in terms of their physical attributes. Nonetheless, the mark of their liberation and equal human rights has provided each and every woman a glimpse on how to act and be equally related with men. This women’s rights movement paved the way for the present society to view each and every individual a chance to do anything, regardless of what your gender is being portrayed.

The Origin of Women’s Liberation Movement

The birth of the second feminist movement during 1960s to 1980s is due to the failed attempt of feminism on the early 1920s. During those years, women’s power weakened and many women are forced to become slaves of men. Many women were tortured and even became sex slaves of those powerful men. Most women at that time felt that there is nothing that they can do against discrimination and slavery. These particular historical events provided darkness and obscurity with regards to women’s role in the society. However, based from his article, Freeman (n.d.) mentioned that the women’s very nature of struggling for their rights and independence did not die for the next years. Every woman at that time never gave up of establishing a feminist movement that would gratify women’s rights and privileges in the society. Seemingly, the first notable event that urged every women to establish a second feminist movement was during the foundation of the Commission of Status of Women led by President Kennedy of the United States in 1961. This institution created several documents and reports claiming the inferiority of women in the current social status. These documents triggered the formation of other commissions and advisory councils that would serve women’s rights and injustices in the society. At this time frame, many women seek for independence and equality. The establishment of the National Organization of Women (NOW) in 1966 created more coalitions and alliances supporting women’s liberation and human rights. The formation of Professional Women’s Caucus (PWC), Federally Employed Women (FEW), and Women’s Equity Action League (WEAL) from 1960s to early 1970s provided the interests for women rights, job opportunities, as well as their complaints against abuse. Seemingly, the rise of women’s power and influence in many societies are already evident during which women also enjoy the same rights as that of men do. Women’s supremacy and influence also flourished in most cities in the United States. For instance, the New York Radical Women (NYRW) is a small group of women with leadership experience that seek for equal rights for both men and women of the society (Hanisch, 2001). The NYRW is considered as one of the earliest independent women’s liberation alliance that was formed in the United States. Several notable events were also related to the growth of NYRW, including their participation in women’s peace march in Washington as an act against the occurrence of Vietnam War as well as their involvement in Jeanette Rankin Brigade Action in 1968. Based from the group’s ideology, those women who have the strength and power to speak out their insights and feelings regarding the injustices of the society as well as their goal of creating women’s liberation party, are women who have their hearts intended for the goodness of the country (Hanisch, 2001). Hence, every women are called for not only to serve the men of the society, but rather to serve the country as well. These particular events were very popular in such a way that women’s rights and gender equality were now being distinguished by the society.

Women’s Liberation Movement: Its Goals and Objectives

One obvious goal of women’s liberation party is to protect the women’s rights and promote equality and justice in the society. Between the periods of 1960s to 1980s, several coalitions all over the world were formed in order to protect women’s rights against oppression and prejudices. The second wave of women’s liberation movement also created women leaders who were active participants of social justice and human welfare campaigns. It was also during the 1960s that they initiated programs for better housing, consumer rights, union representations, and the formation of women health care for their benefits (Baxandall & Gordon, 2012). Figure 1. Women’s Liberation Movement promoting gender equality for everyone. The creation of women’s liberation movement also strengthened the women’s workforce in the society. According to Baxandall & Gordon (2012), the establishment of National Organization for Women (NOW) is centered on equal rights for men and women as well as providing them with job opportunities. They are also concentrated on women issues, particularly on gender issues in labor and employment as well as on political affairs and services for the society. Several women also entered in the world of politics and hold relevant positions in the government, much the same way that men enjoyed for hundreds of years already. The right to suffrage was also given to all women and encourage everyone to be involved and participate in political matters. Overall, the society slowly recognizes the immense capabilities and skills of women not only to do things that men ought to do, but also to engage in serious responsibilities for the society such as politics and employment. At this time frame, the beginning of equality and justice slowly enters upon the context of human rights and more women became more realistic about the goals and objectives of the feminist movement.

Conflicts on Women’s Liberation Movement

The second women’s liberation movement from 1960s to 1980s is considered as one of the largest social movement in the history of the United States. It was a very successful movement that established a strong foundation for women’s rights and sexual equality in the workplace. However, the success of every alliance for women empowerment will never be as prominent if there is no conflict that occurred towards the foundation of women’s rights. Not every nation during this period enjoy women’s rights and justice. Since majority of the coalitions are situated in the United States, not every nation is being influenced by their goals and objectives. At times, there are still cases of poverty, equality, violence, and alienation in different places in the world. According to Motta, Fominaya, Eschle, & Cox (2011), demands have been raised with regards to women’s role in their struggle for neoliberalism in the United States. The range of neoliberalism exceeds from free market competition in such a way as how can they can handle this kind of governance. It is already a fact that women at this era are new to political governance. Hence, as the U.S. economy continued to grow and develop, so as the responsibilities of the leaders of the state. The question now lies on the capability of women to handle these kinds of responsibilities. Likewise, there is a need for remodeling and reconstruction of feminist theories and principles that shall provide better critical analysis of the past, present, and future endeavors of the nation. It is indeed an important aspect to understand the principles involved in the nation’s public service and governance. Furthermore, not all individuals support the liberation movement of women. There were several activist communities involving trade unions and globalization that considered such movement as a marginalized action towards promoting the nation’s struggle (Motta, Fominaya, Eschle, & Cox, 2011). They believed that gender issue has nothing to do with the nation’s struggle for progress. Instead, everything struggles for social change, whether you promote women’s movement, or by means of patriarchal terms. Hence, their principle regarding the nation’s growth and development is not rooted mainly on one’s gender and sexual preference, but rather their capabilities as effective leaders of the state. The mark of feminism in the United Sates has also been defined by two major events in their 1973 history: the legalization of abortion in all the 50 states of America, and STOP ERA’s objective of eliminating the Equal Rights Amendment (Paglia, 2010). A lot of issues have been raised regarding the government’s decision to legalize abortion in many cities in the United States, most of the concerns are to those who belonged in a conservative race. Seemingly, abortion violates the women’s reproductive rights, and in no way it can be approved by all the people. This event distorted and weakened the powers of feminism in the United States.

The Future of the Women’s Liberation Movement

The growth of the second feminist movement has provided a lot of change for the women of today’s generation. According to Gianoulis (2004), women of today seek for freedom and independence. They wanted to enjoy life as much as they wanted, without any distractions about their rights and obligations. They demand for respect and individual identity for everyone. They also started constructing themselves with the concepts of politics, education, entertainment, and industrial opportunities in the workplace. All they wanted is their free will to choose what is best for them, without affecting other’s opinion nor comments about their lives. As such, government democracy has flourished the idea of freedom and independence for everyone. Seemingly, Evans (2015) was worried about the future of the liberation movement with regards to those of the non-white and lower classes of women. She noted that the movement connotes a form of anti-sex, anti-motherhood, and lack policies for labor and gender discrimination. Accordingly, the mainstream of the liberation movement was focused on the whites and the middle classes. While many white women enjoy their rights freely and independently, there are lots of black women who are still suffering from gender discrimination. Many black Americans are still being oppressed by the whites. Much of the delight of everyone who wishes for equality and justice for both men and women of the society, nothing good is being mandated to those of the lower class of the society. They are still being discriminated and greatly suffer from violence. This is not what the movement wishes for in our future. What the liberation wants is to create a unifying body that would cater the interests of all, not just for women, but for any gender being recognized by the society. The overall success of the Women’s Liberation movement does not rely only on its goals and objectives. Everyone is part of its success. But, as I have evaluated the present condition of the society, success seemed to be impossible to achieve as of the moment. If there is totally no oppression, injustices, and gender and racial discrimination, then the movement is nothing but a paradigm for social change. In my opinion, discrimination will continue to flourish until such time comes that there is respect and honor for everyone. Injustices will continue to flourish until such time that there are no more individuals who are thirsty for power and fame. Seemingly, oppression will continue to flourish until such time that we value life and human existence.

Being able to understand the true purpose behind the women’s liberation movement, I can say that the world is really unfair. Yes, the main objective of this liberation is to promote equality and justice, but more than that, there are still numerous cases of inequality and oppression in different parts of the world. There are still several incidents of gender discrimination in the labor workplace and several issues against women empowerment and violation of human rights. There are still women who do not enjoy their freedom and independence. Am I satisfied with how this women’s liberation movement end? Definitely yes. I believed that this movement is a success because of how women enjoy their rights. But, am I satisfied with the present condition of the society? Definitely no. There are several reasons that I wanted to point out why I am dissatisfied with the current status of my society. First, the present society is full of corruption and hunger for power and governance. Many political leaders run for a government position for their own selfish interests. Furthermore, I am very disappointed with how the present society views the rights of women. It is a fact that men, in general, are stronger and tougher than women. However, such idea should not provide any limitations as to how women should act and respond within their capabilities. Many women are forced to accomplish lighter tasks and responsibilities because the society still believed that they do not have the capability to do such things. More than these important aspects on gender discrimination on labor force, the society is still not into human rights equality and justice. As what I have mentioned earlier, these kinds of injustices and discrimination will continue except for one thing: major social transformation and political change. I believed that we can still do something about this issue. Hence, everyone is invited to make an influence for the society’s change and transformation for a better world without any oppression and injustice.

Baxandall, R. & L. Gordon. (2002). Chapter 24: Second-Wave Feminism. 414-430. A Companion to American Women’s History. Evans, S. M. (2015). Women’s Liberation: Seeing the Revolution Clearly. 138-149. Feminist Studies, 41(1). Freeman, J. (n.d.). The Women’s Liberation Movement: It’s Origins, Structures, and Ideals. Retrieved 11 April 2016. <http://library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/wlmpc_wlmms01013/> Gianoulis, T. (2004). Women’s Liberation Movement. Retrieved 11 April 2016. <http://www.glbtqarchive.com/ssh/womens_liberation_movement_S.pdf> Hanisch, C. (2001). Struggles over Leadership in the Women’s Liberation Movement. 1-12. Leadership & Social Movements. Motta, S., Fominaya, C. F., Eschle, C., & L. Cox. (2011). Feminism, Wwomen’s Movements and Women in Movement. 1-32. Interface, 3(2). Paglia, C. (2010). Feminism Past and Present: Ideology, Action, and Reform. Retrieved 11 April 2016. <http://www.bu.edu/arion/files/2010/03/Feminism-Paglia1.pdf>

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An Analysis of The Concept of The Theory of Feminism And Historical Changing and Developments of Feminism

Profile image of Muhammed Burak  Zembat

Women have been suffering since the beginning of the history because of patriarchal order. Feminism is a clash of women against patriarchy. Suffering of women created the concept of feminism as a gender based political and social movement. In public and private sphere, women have been facing economic, political, cultural, legal, administrative and social inequalities. This problem directly hits the order of the society. So feminists struggle against every kind of gender based inequalities in everywhere of the public and private life. The historical process of feminism has started since 18th century and the movement has been growing and spreading for an indefinite number of successive days of the movement. Meanwhile the headway of the women movement in history, feminist ideology has not been stayed a fundamental, conservative theory. It has been branched in the views of different political, social and economic ideologies and it has became a complex sociological theory. As a result, today, we have different aproaches of feminism to analyse the society by the methods of feminist theory. In this study, the concept of the theory of feminism, the trends of the women movement, historical changings and developments of feminism were analysed. Key Concepts: “Feminism”, “The Women Movement”, “Theory of Feminism”, “History of Feminism”

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Gender & Development

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Introduction: Feminist values in research

Looking at research through a gendered lens

Equality, power, and ethics: the importance of self-reflection to feminist researchers, researching sensitive issues from a feminist perspective,  ‘quant. versus qual.’: feminist researchers need both, research accounts from development practitioners, introductions.

Welcome to the Feminist Values in Research issue of Gender & Development . In May 2018, Gender & Development and the Women and Development Study Group of the UK Development Studies Association (DSA) co-hosted a seminar of the same title, to celebrate the journal’s 25 th birthday. This issue includes articles initially presented there, alongside a range of others, commissioned in line with our usual practice from an open Call for Contributions.

To ensure international development supports women’s rights and gender equality, it is essential that feminist values infuse and underpin every aspect of research. Feminist values in research may be understood in a variety of ways. The overarching goal is to create spaces and opportunities to reveal lived realities of power inequalities and difference, and provide evidence that can be deployed in working towards addressing these engrained inequalities. Feminist values are most often deployed to challenge the continued marginalisation of poor women and girls from decision-making, resources and opportunities in a range of contexts. Feminist values and a related focus on ‘gender’ can also allow us to talk about sexual orientation and gender identities in all their diversity, and gendered power relations between individuals and groups. Our starting point in the curation of the workshop that inspired this issue of the journal is that the research process should reflect feminist values, empowering all who participate in it.

Research into the gendered nature of development and analysis of its failure to recognise and/or respond to the differential needs and challenges of women and men is a critical part of feminist activism and transformation, and this is as true today as it was when Gender & Development was launched. Above all, feminist researchers in international development are interested in power: its nature, the ways it can be wielded, and by whom. We are interested in the effect powerful institutions and the elites who head them have on gender inequality, the material effects of which tend disproportionately to affect women and girls living in poverty in the global South. We want to understand how the slow progress to women’s equal rights is going, where it is encountering resistance, and how women and girls – in particular the most marginalised - are finding opportunities to negotiate with the powerful, find spaces for resistance, and organise for empowerment. The political project that we all share, to achieve gender equality by asserting full and equal rights, is about using agency – ‘power to’ and ‘power with’ – to challenge patriarchal ‘power-over’.

Feminist researchers in international development are working in a space where there are multiple intersecting relations of power operating concurrently in interlocking ways, privileging women from high-income countries, white women, and women from powerful elites and majority groups. Among the first global feminist research collectives was the pathbreaking Development with Women for a New era (DAWN) network, which in the 1980s put forward its feminist, postcolonial analysis of international development. It is this vision that underpinned the global vision forged at the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995. The challenge since has been for the feminist movement to avoid gender equality and women’s rights goals being co-opted by the ‘mainstream’ in ways that depoliticise feminist struggle, and to ensure that feminist research nurtures space for the expression of diverse, contextualised understandings of gendered power imbalances. Gender and Development has always sought to accommodate these different approaches, whilst striving ultimately to promote women’s rights and gender equality.

The writers in this issue represent a diverse group of feminists working in academia, policy research and practice – including monitoring, evaluation and learning. Each of these different contexts holds specific challenges for feminists, but the key feminist value underpinning all their research experiences is the aim of challenging and ending inequality between women and men, affirming women as expert knowers, marginalised by patriarchal power yet exercising agency in often constrained circumstances to further their interests and needs, and those of their dependents.

Both the issue, and the workshop from which it emerges, aim to provide a space where researchers can reflect upon their own experience of research – as investigators, participants, practitioners, academics and/or activists – and the challenges and contradictions they have faced in conducting feminist research, from practical and organisational barriers and struggles, to ethical and methodological dilemmas. How does embedding feminist values in research enable us to navigate and deal with difficult subjects and sensitivities in ways that might otherwise not be possible? How do feminist research practices enable us to translate our values into meaningful ways of tackling inequalities, poverty and exclusion in the global South? The articles here grapple with these issues across a wide range of different development contexts.

Historically, educated and predominantly white and Northern male elites have defined knowledge and learning, placing a high value on research involving ‘objective’ methods seen as removing the dangers of bias, and revealing ‘facts’. Feminists, however, have highlighted the unconscious bias embedded in these apparently value-free research methodologies, and the skewed findings that result from the assumption that researchers can remain neutral and external to any research process. There has also been a tendency to ignore difference, instead starting from an assumption that there is nothing distinctive and different about the experiences of women, girls and non-gender conforming groups – or that these distinctions and differences between women and men are not significant or important to analyse and include in findings; the experiences of men have been assumed to be the norm, from which others deviate.

In international development research, unconscious biases that privilege male, Western European and US ideas about women and men, and gender roles and relations, and which reproduced colonial thinking, created early international development programming that ignored the existence of very different ways of thinking about sex, gender, family and society, and different divisions of labour and responsibility in households and communities. When international development policies misfire, they can do significant harm, as feminists researching the impact of gender-blind development have shown over four decades.

International development policies of past decades have had the most devastating and damaging effects on women and girls who are most distanced from power and resources, due to other aspects of their identities. This, too, is currently being acknowledged in ‘mainstream’ international development thinking, and expressed in global policy commitments. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) reflect a global acknowledgement that complex inequalities (including but not limited to age, education, religion, ethnicity, caste, and SOGI [sexual orientation and gender identity]) need to be better understood in order to ensure they can be challenged by a new generation of development initiatives informed by intersectional feminist approaches aiming to achieve the aim of the SDGs, of ‘leaving no-one behind’.

In this issue, authors emphasise the link between who does the research, and the quality of the findings and analyses that emerge. They are also keen to emphasise how they interact with the research process, and the challenges this creates for pursuing feminist research values where they see themselves as part of, rather than separate to, the research process. Research, like all other human endeavours, needs to be instigated by individuals and teams with diverse identities and experiences, to reflect the needs and interests of all in society. Across much of the global South we see the emergence of a new generation of committed feminist scholars, and Gender and Development remains a key outlet in opening up spaces for diverse feminist voices to be heard.

Emerging researchers are building on a literature and a history – or ‘herstory’ – of activism inside and outside the academy, with University-based researchers joining forces with feminists working in women’s movements and inside government and development NGOs of all sizes. Gender inequality and women’s rights are still goals to be achieved in the future, but it is now much less acceptable to ignore the need for gender-disaggregated data in large survey research, or to make assumptions about farmers being male, or assume women will - indeed, should - perform all the unpaid care work in a community. Feminists of many different hues – post/decolonial thinkers, feminist economists, feminist anthropologists among them – have had a profound influence in how we think about research, the research agendas selected for funding, the methods used, and the way findings are disseminated. But – as the writers in this issue highlight – there is still a very long way to go to ensure international development research achieves feminist outcomes.

As we suggested above, a critical element of the feminist research process is for feminist researchers to reflect on their own position and location in relation to their research participants, in this case in the global South. Every writer whose voice is included in this issue considers this question, sharing their self-reflections on who they are and how their lives have shaped the ways they see and understand the world around them. While earlier generations of researchers in both the natural and social sciences strove to attain ‘objectivity’, seeing the idea that they may be biased as a flaw and something to be challenged – and denied – feminist researchers reject the idea that objectivity is attainable, seeing it instead as important to develop as sophisticated a sense of their own biases as is possible.

Feminists’ focus on these issues has put them at the forefront of research ethics and allied them to proponents of participatory, iconoclastic approaches to research 1 , challenging notions of development as something done by experts and highly educated professionals, to people in so-called developing countries who lack material resources and essential services. Such participatory approaches, at their best, open up the possibility of developing research that responds to, and emerges from, the needs of marginalised groups and communities, involving them in conceiving and undertaking research that they and their allies can deploy to effect meaningful change on the ground.

Feminist praxis 2 demands that we try, where possible, to equalise the relationship between researchers and the research subjects – people whose lives are being researched. Taken to its logical conclusion, these two categories should become one and the same, with participants undertaking action research into their own experiences and knowledge. There may be a role for an outsider to work with them, but this relationship is far from the traditional one familiar to formally educated, technically-trained ‘experts’, who extract data and present it in technical, often highly abstract and theoretical terms, accessible only to others with similar levels of formal education. In these projects, the role of the outsider may be to train participants in an unfamiliar technology that they will use to record the data, and to work with them to develop appropriate, context specific analytical tools to make sense of it. The outsider may also facilitate access to decision-makers – for example, government officials in charge of budgets who could change women’s lives for the better if they are exposed to the research findings.

What I most enjoy about the research process is the opportunity to listen to stories, and the possibility of making a difference through active listening and witnessing. In my opinion, feminist and participatory research traditions facilitate communication and exchange, and have values that extend beyond simply expanding academic knowledge. We should therefore not treat academic work as constitutively different from activism, but rather conceptualise research processes as political practices

As a feminist researcher committed to collaborative methods and challenging the power dynamics between myself and the participants, my goal was to support participants to take ownership over the research process, giving them agency and support to identify challenges and facilitate critical reflection

These are inspiring case studies of innovative feminist research and practice. Yet these writers - and others in the issue - would be first to say that it may not be possible to ever entirely succeed in equalising the power relationship between professional researchers located in academic, policy and practice research institutions, and women and girls living in contexts deemed to be resource-poor, fragile and conflict affected, or in some other way needing the intervention of international development policymakers and practitioners. Indeed, reflecting on researchers’ own role and complicity in this global system is critical in order to try to become part of the solution, But there is always an element of double-think in this for anyone involved in research who is located in a position of relative power in a university, a large development NGO, government organisation or policy think-tank. Nevertheless, much can be achieved through respectful collaboration. While researchers continue to work with women and girls as well as non-gender conforming groups in poverty, the articles reflect the way in which feminist researchers continually challenge themselves in relation to rebalancing or softening such complex but unequal power relations.

Feminist lead researchers also have to consider similar issues in relation to the members of their research teams: local staff employed as translators, research assistants, enumerators, and translators. The knowledge and insights of these local staff are often appropriated and presented in research findings under the names of lead researchers, whose careers flourish in an international context where their prospects and their bargaining power as professionals are both starkly different from the local staff who have given so much to the work. In these relationships, feminist lead researchers need to ‘walk their talk’ on partnership and challenge the norms and conventions of research that are rooted in colonial and post-colonial racism.

In relation to this point, the article by Dashakti Reddy, Clare Hollowell, Lona Liong Charles Aresto, Nyaboi Grace, Mängu Bande Joseph, Joseph Aleu Mayen Ker, Jane Lado and Kiden Mary in this issue offers interesting insights into the need to ensure feminist research tools reflect an awareness of intersectionality – specifically, the ways that culture and race intersect with feminism. The first-named writers are two ‘expatriate’ researchers who led research into gender-based violence in South Sudan. The research relied significantly on a team of local researchers, with whom the piece is co-authored, and the two ‘expatriate’ team leaders were keen to create spaces for the research team to collectively address the possible stress induced by the experience of researching GBV in South Sudan. Yet local researchers‘ ways of dealing with this stress were very different. Instead of using the spaces created for sharing emotional responses as they were intended, local researchers saw them as valuable for building professionalism, enabling them to respond appropriately to the traumatising stories they heard. The article emphasises that feminist principles, tools and practices cannot be taken-for-granted but also need to be interrogated from a critical perspective, fully conscious that they may reflect ways of thinking that fail to respond to the realities of local researchers. Once again, we are reminded of the importance of closing the distance between researchers, research participants and research support staff, a point also taken up by Loksee Leung, Stephanie Miedema, Xian Warner, Sarah Homan, and Emma Fulu in their article in this issue. They emphasise that their feminist principles extended to tackling under-representation of women in researcher roles through prioritising the use of women local researchers, and providing extensive training to their collaborators on the ground.

Because the ‘personal is political’, and many of the issues of most critical importance to women concern issues that have historically been seen as private, and/or sources of stigma or shame, a key focus of feminist researchers is to research these topics and air them, asserting the importance of exposing them to public debate. Research into violence against women (VAWG) and gender-based violence (GBV) is an obvious example of naming and exploring the dimensions of a social issue affecting all women, whether or not they directly experience this violence themselves; knowledge that it is a possibility shapes women’s and girls’ lives in countless ways. The ramifications of researching VAWG in a fragile, conflict-affected context is discussed in this issue by Dashakti Reddy et al , who focus particularly on the impact on local researchers, as described in the last section.

Mirna Guha researches the lives of women formerly and currently involved in sex work in Kolkata, India. Mirna Guha came from a development practitioner perspective to her academic research. She considers the ways in which insider:outsider distinctions are often blurred, and the multiple, overlapping positionalities that we all occupy as researchers, a theme that cuts across all the papers in this issue. Her article begins with a discussion of the exclusion of sex workers from the mainstream feminist movement, and their marginalisation from policy discussions on VAWG. Perspectives on women selling sex are, as she says, ‘sharply divided’ in feminist movements from Anglo-American traditions – and many feminists with that heritage are currently working in international development. Some radical feminists see the act of a man purchasing the use of a woman’s body as a patriarchal act of dominance: a form of violence against women. For other feminists, sex work is just that: work undertaken by women whose right to choose to do this should not be in question. In international development, policies and programming reflect both these positions.

 … to move away from standard topics associated with sex work. It also allows women in sex work to share their accounts of the dynamism and fluidity within their lives, within and before/after sex work.

Spending time with women, ‘ethnographically “hanging out”’ ( ibid .) preceded more formal interviews, to build trust and rapport with them. Women expressed surprise that the conversations and interviews touched on subjects and came from angles that they did not expect from researchers. Many communities in the global South are well-acquainted with social science researchers scrutinising their lives, but many of the topics that feminists ask about – sex, violence, the drudgery of unpaid care work and women’s thoughts on marriage and other topics – are still unexpected topics to be expected to discuss with anyone beyond close friends and neighbours. Feminist principles of equality and reciprocity informed Mirna Guha’s decision to make the process of research questioning a two-way one. The women involved in her research quizzed her on issues of her own personal life. Teasing, cracking jokes, and smoking together created a relationship that subverted the power dynamics of traditional interviewing.

Asking questions about sensitive subjects is just one aspect of deciding how to produce research that minimises harm to respondents. Crucially, Mirna Guha also reminds us of the need to sometimes be silent as researchers, and also the importance of establishing boundaries that ensure both our participants’ and our own wellbeing. A related issue is around the use of pseudonyms and anonymity in the writing up of research. In her article, Rebecca Gordon compares the advice given to her by the authorities at her university with her own thinking about the question of anonymising the views of women she interviewed in Bihar, India. ‘Why would I want to be anonymous?’ asked one participant, wanting to have her words included together with her name. Her views would then be clearly her own.

It is about making sure that participants have a say in the ways they are represented, and how the research unfolds, but also at the same time, it is about recognising that it may not be equitable to assume that participants have the same investment or interest in research and/or its significance and value.

Qualitative research methods – including case studies, life histories, participant observation and focus group discussions, as well as innovative digital and arts-based methods used by Elsa Oliviera and Leva Rouhani (both in this issue) – have the ability to generate rich and nuanced data, often allowing data collection to evolve over time, as the researcher interacts with participants. Such approaches enable the gradual revelation of experiences, and the elicitation of data that both foregrounds the diversity of individual experience and also allows the researcher to develop an understanding of a collective or typical experience amongst a particular group. In short, qualitative research keeps the attention on individual human experiences, with the similarities and differences between them in sharp focus.

This is not, however, to undermine the strategic value of employing quantitative methods. This is also valuable, but in a different way. In their article in this issue, Loksee Leung et al. provide an antidote to any argument that good feminist research is only qualitative. Theirs is a compelling account of the worth and many uses of quantitative research when placed in feminist hands, with methods selected for a particular reason, and augmented with equally carefully-selected qualitative methods. Both ‘quant’ and ‘qual’ have unique contributions to make.

An example is the widely-used ‘one in three’ statistic on global VAWG. This is discussed by Loksee Leung et al. in their account of the gradual progress of VAWG up global policy agendas. Yet the one in three figure is frequently pilloried for failing to reveal the variety of different forms of VAWG, and failing to inform about the causes. Quantitative data is also often critiqued by feminists because whilst it is seen by many to be objective and reliable, there is still subjectivity involved in its creation, and it can over-simplify what are often complex social problems.

Whilst this interpretation reflects, in our view, a failure to understand the limitations of quantitative data and use it appropriately, it is still useful and necessary, particularly in establishing the intensity and scale of pressing gender inequalities, and communicating these to diverse audiences, as Loksee Leung et al . demonstrate. The rather simplistic and polarised ‘quant. versus qual.’ debate appears increasingly out of date to feminists, who are innovating and piloting mixed-method research. Qualitative and quantitative research can be used alongside and integrated with each other: qualitative data can now be transformed into quantitative data (with varying degrees of success, say feminists), and qualitative methods used to illuminate issues raised by quantitative findings.

In just the same way that quantitative research can be criticised for failing to reveal difference and nuance, qualitative research is criticised often for failing to create data that suggest ways of addressing a concern like VAWG. Yet this criticism, too, presents a partial picture. Qualitative research does not only focus on difference, variation and nuance, but also reveals the commonalities between participants’ experiences. The fundamental cause of VAWG is patriarchal power and gender inequality, and research into all contexts reveals this. If patriarchal social norms permit – even encourage – VAWG, then feminist approaches to deal with the global pandemic of VAWG need to be developed and funded. Quantitative methods are used by feminist researchers whose findings underpin significant shifts in thinking about issues of critical importance to millions of women. With quantitative statistics on prevalence and case studies from qualitative research both influencing decision-makers, action is possible, as Loksee Leung et al . demonstrate.

Several of the articles in this issue come from feminist development practitioners, providing valuable critical insight into how it feels to be a feminist researcher in an organisation that delivers a programme of planned interventions aiming to have a positive and empowering effect on the lives of women and girls, often accompanied by advocacy and influencing work that aims to dismantle structural inequality to realise human development worthy of the name.

Alejandra Pineda and Sophie Purdue’s article explores how the International Women’s Development Agency (IWDA) and its partner organisations have aimed to embed feminist values in the research they undertake. It provides two case studies of research projects in Asia Pacific, focusing on the enablers and barriers to women’s leadership. In true feminist style, the projects focus on the ‘private’ factors that affect women would-be leaders, as well as ‘public’ factors. While women’s leadership is not a conventionally ‘sensitive’ subject, since it is about public participation in community and society, the range of gender-specific factors that affect women’s ability to take on these leadership roles cross the public-private divide.

…builds the skills and capabilities of these individuals and organisations to produce their own knowledge and baseline evidence to inform their work and future programming.

Critically, these local co-researchers were involved in, and consulted on, the research design, but the analysis (which is still to be done, at the time of writing,) will also be a collaborative effort, involving all the co-researchers. One organisation involved, United Sisterhood in Cambodia, has identified the research as feminist for these reasons. This evaluation from a feminist women’s organisation is probably the best accolade such a project can hope for.

Also included here is an article from Michelle Lokot, who was formerly a humanitarian worker who is currently undertaking academic research into humanitarian practice. Her article focuses on the issue of power. She argues that while humanitarian practitioners have begun to focus much more than previously on the power hierarchies that shape women’s lives before, during and after humanitarian crises, they have reflected less than they need to on the power relations they themselves perpetuate through monitoring and evaluating the impact of their work on refugee populations.

Michelle Lokot suggests that feminist analysis can offer insights into power imbalances between researchers and refugee communities, and research informed by feminist values can offer potential to address them. She notes that the concerns she raises are not unique to feminist approaches, however, and this is an important point to make as we near the end of our introduction to this issue. Literature has long criticised the power hierarchies within humanitarian – and international development – agencies, and between them and the communities they exist to serve. Yet Michelle Lokot highlights the ways the sector has evolved, and the pressures on monitoring and evaluation teams. It is particularly hard to work in empowering and participatory ways with urgent pressures to demonstrate positive impact in short time-frames, defined by funding availability rather than need on the ground over the long term.

These issues are familiar to all feminist development practitioners, and also come to the fore in Andrea Azevedo, Alexia Pretari and Rosa Wilson Garwood’s article reflecting on their experiences as feminists working in Oxfam. Theirs is an account of personal and professional commitment to real change for women and girls directly coming into contact with Oxfam programmes and projects. They offer an honest and revealing insight into programming planning, monitoring, and evaluations, using feminist methods to reflect on complex realities and unexpected outcomes. Their article reveals the challenges of embedding feminist values in research across a large organisation. Their emphasis on revealing what is, rather than what was hoped for, is critical – not only for the women and girls involved in development programming, but for improving Oxfam’s future programming, creating a virtuous circle. This article - like the other by Loksee Leung et al ., both show specific challenges facing feminist researchers in the programme monitoring, evaluation and learning teams of development organisations. Adequate time and resources are critical if we are to comprehensively embed feminist values in research.

Can we offer a summary of the key characteristics of feminist values in research to conclude this introduction to the issue? Perhaps the most important are goals of social transformation; an emphasis on recognising researcher positionality and subjectivity as integral to feminist research; involvement of ‘the researched’ in the process that calls for self-reflexive and participatory approaches; and an emphasis on the importance of research methods that reveal complexity and nuance, with a focus on valuing individuals and ensuring that both the researcher and the research participants retain their human faces and voices, rather than being subsumed by numerical averages and statistics at a level of abstraction where human experience is rendered invisible.

Taken together, the articles in this issue also exemplify the work that feminist researchers must do as ‘translators’, translating our feminist values across cultures, contexts, institutions and languages. Doing this effectively, and sensitively, is essential to the success of feminist research and its ability to make a difference to the lives of marginalised women, girls and gender non-conforming groups in the global South. Above all, we argue for the importance of recognising and unpacking the challenges and tensions around embedding feminist values in our research processes and outcomes, from organisational challenges to ethical ‘messiness’. However, we also embrace such challenges as part and parcel of what it means to do feminist research well, rather than seeing these as problems to be ‘solved’.

Katy Jenkins is Associate Professor of International Development, Centre for International Development, Northumbria University, UK. She is co-convenor of the Women in Development Study Group of the UK Development Studies Association. Email: [email protected] . Postal address: Centre for International Development, Squires Building, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST.

Lata Narayanaswamy is Lecturer in International Development at the Centre for Politics and International Studies (POLIS), and Co-Deputy Director of the Centre for Global Development (CGD) at the University of Leeds, UK. She is co-convenor of the Women in Development Study Group of the UK Development Studies Association. Email: [email protected]

Caroline Sweetman is Editor of Gender & Development.

1 For more information, see Robert Chambers’ Citation 1994 article reviewing the motivations and approaches of ‘participatory development’. His ( Citation 1997 ) book Whose reality counts? Putting the Last First is a classic source on his own thinking about power, international development, knowledge and research.

2 Feminist praxis can be summarised as follows: praxis (that is, the performance of an action) inspired by a belief system drawing on principles of mutual nurturing and care, non-violence, and collective action where small groups work for change, paying attention to the importance of community, reciprocity, self-reflection, and personal development over time.

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Understanding Feminist Research Methodology in Social Sciences

15 Pages Posted: 15 Jun 2019

Ramandeep Kaur

Punjabi University, Department of Economics

Sangeeta Nagaich

Punjabi University-Department of Economics

Date Written: March 15, 2019

For the purpose of analysis and assessment of the great literary and non-literary argumentations, the research methodology has always been a vital concern in today’s scenario. Women’s perspective has been always taken into account in feminist research as the base of the research. The commencement of feminist research is emerging from the viewpoint that values women’s experience, needs, and perception of the social world. Feminist research also aims at bringing transformation and phasing out the gender asymmetry in the world. The deliberate discrimination of women at household level which results in a higher level of unhappiness and morbidity among women can be easily understood and unpacked from the perspective feminist lens. This research is prerequisite and essential for achieving the goal of equitable social and economic development. The present piece of work tried to give the backdrop on understanding the meaning of feminist research and the origin of feminist research methodology for conducting the research from the gender perspective. This paper also envelopes the pivotal standpoints on how feminist research is differentiated from social science research. Since, the social science research generally omits and overlooks the manifold aspects of gender relations resulting in incomplete and biased research, which in turn leads to the construction of incomplete development policies and programs. So, this work will also try to scrutinize the approaches that feminist methodologies have been used in the development of gender-sensitive indicators and measurements of change. The focus has also been given to highlight the use of feminism in the indigenous Indian context for addressing Indian issues. It suggests that before the onset of feminist studies, social scientists had not engaged critically with patriarchal and androcentric structures which oppress and dominate women. Lastly, an attempt has been made to discuss various methods used for feminist research and the main focus has been given on the understanding of feminist action research and its emergence.

Keywords: Feminism, Feminist Research, Feminist Research Methodology, Indian Primitive Feminism, Feminist Action Research, Social Transformation, Gender Inequality

JEL Classification: B00, B5, B54

Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation

Ramandeep Kaur (Contact Author)

Punjabi university, department of economics ( email ).

Patiala India

Punjabi University-Department of Economics ( email )

Patiala India Patiala, IN Punjab 147002 India

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Feminist Research Paper Topics

Table of Contents

75 Best Feminist Research Paper Topics

Feminist topics are becoming even more common in research papers. The main reason is the increasing importance of discussing such issues in colleges and other educational institutions. Research paper on the feminist topic is not the most sophisticated task as you may think. There is sufficient information on this subject. The only challenge is to choose a suitable theme.

3 Tips on How to Select the Best Feminist Research Paper Topics

To select an appropriate topic, you should adhere to a few basic principles. Following them, your paper will make sense and become interesting to read. The perfectly chosen subject is a crucial component of a stellar research paper. So, if you follow up on the guidelines below, you will enjoy A+ work.

It is better when a topic is not too broad and covers just relevant aspects. It implies that the issue “What is feminism?” is not the best idea. Professor may tell you nothing about your poor choice, but you can face difficulties revealing the main message. Very often broadness of the topic may be the reason for saying about everything but nothing. That’s because you should try to find one specific question, look for answers to it, and write a concise research paper.

Have you ever think of the citation of captain Vrungler, who said, “As you name the boat, so shall it float”? When it is told about a research paper and its topic, matters are the same. The stunning and eye-catching your topic looks time, the more the chances you have to get a perfect mark for your work. The defective formulation of the issue may be the main reason for failure.

For college students, there is no point in choosing highly complex issues. In such a case, you may face a lack of information or skills to conduct in-depth research. Try to find something relevant and interesting to yourself.

List of Feminist Research Paper Topics For College Students

15 Feminist Sociology Research Paper Topics

15 Topics For Feminist Philosophy Research Paper

15 Interesting Research Paper Topics About Feminist

15 Feminist Research Paper Ideas

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Feminist Research Paper Topics

Table of contents

Persuasive Essay Topics About Feminist

Informative essay topics about feminist, feminist essay topics for college students.

Feminism is a movement that seeks equality between men and women. It seeks to address the inequalities in society that have been built up over time, and it’s also about creating a new worldview where everyone has the opportunity to live their lives with dignity, respect and love.

In the United States, we’ve been fighting for equal rights for women since 1848. That’s when Elizabeth Cady Stanton first went to Seneca Falls, New York to gather signatures for the Declaration of Sentiments—a document that outlined all of the ways women were being treated unfairly by laws at the time. This document was one of the first formal statements about feminism as a movement, and it helped inspire many others who wanted to fight for equality as well.

Today we’re still fighting for these same rights—but we’ve come a long way! There are now more than 1 million women serving in Congress alone; there are more than half-a-million female business leaders across industries; there are countless examples of strong female leaders throughout history who have broken into traditionally male fields; and we’ve made tremendous progress toward equal pay for equal work (although there is still much more work left to do).

How to Choose Essay Topic on Feminism?

Feminism is a topic that can be very controversial. It is important to choose a topic that you are passionate about and will help you write a great essay. If you are not sure what feminist topics to choose, here are some tips on how to pick the right topic:

Tips on How to Write Feminist Essay

Writing feminist essays can be a little intimidating. But if you want to learn how to write feminist essays, it’s not that hard!

✒️ Good Essay Topics About Feminist

What are some good topics to write about feminism?

The topic of feminism is quite broad and covers a lot of aspects to discover and write about. Thus, it may be difficult to come up with what to write about. Here are some ideas on feminism movement, covering general questions: Domestic violence and feminism. Activation of feminism in the XXI century.

What is feminism essay about?

Thus, an essay on feminism will discuss its importance and impact. Feminism is a social and political movement that advocates for the rights of women on the grounds of equality of sexes. It does not deny the biological differences between the sexes but demands equality in opportunities.

Which is the best list of feminist studies research topics?

This is exactly why the topic of feminism is not only up-to-date but also worthy of examining and highlighting. The topic of feminism is quite broad and covers a lot of aspects to discover and write about.

Is the topic of feminism up to date?

✨ Best feminist Topic Ideas & Essay Examples

✍ Argumentative Essay Topics About Feminist

How do you write a feminist essay on feminism?

In your Feminism essay, you … can outline the similarities and differences between female and male characters. The female opposition is of great importance to your conclusion. When contrasting male and female characters it is important to consider the historical era as represented in a novel.

What is the main idea of feminism?

What is feminism essay?

Persuasive Essay On Feminism 1179 Words5 Pages Feminism is about women’s right, and the basis on the equality of sexes. They praise the fact that women can do things without men or even think that that’s possible when in reality women need men and vice versa.

How do you write a research paper on feminism in America?

Once you have a general idea of what you want to work on, think of related words and phrases. For example, if our area of interest is “Feminism in America, ” some of our keywords might be women’s suffrage movement, Fifteenth Amendment, birth control. You can use them to outline your research.

What is the popular image of a feminist?

What do you mean by feminism essay?

Essay on “Feminism” for School, College Students, Long and Short English Essay, Speech for Class 9, 10 and 12 students. Feminism is a belief and aim that women should have the same rights and opportunities as men. In other words, a social movement, signifying imbalance in society because of the unequal status of man and woman is called ‘feminism’.

How can I help my students understand feminist philosophy?

One way you can help your students understand feminist philosophy is by having them write essays. When students write essays, they have to come up with a major theory and then figure out a way to back it up with evidence from their own lives, or from primary and secondary sources.

How should I write a political essay rooted in feminism?

Our students routinely write political essays rooted in feminism, and we always suggest is that they read some feminist texts that are based in personal narrative. When you read these, take note of how they voice their experiences and keep them local.

Detail of Feminist Studies Research Topics. 1 The Best List of Feminist Psychology Research Topics. Feminism and psychology are linked to each other. In fact, these are correlated areas. It is … 2 Feminist Theory. 3 Feminist Methodology. 4 Feminist Media. 5 Feminism and Gender.

⭐ Feminist Essay Topics for High School Students

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  8. Research Paper On Feminism

    Smith, D. (2004). Women's Perspective as a Radical Critique of Sociology. Harding Allen, A. (1999). The Power of Feminist Theory: Domination, Resistance, Solidarity. Westview Press Marshall, B., Witz, A. (2004). Engendering the Social: Feminist Encounters with Sociological Theory. Open University Press. Gender Equality Women's Rights Feminism

  9. Feminism is for everybody

    "To be 'feminist' in any authentic sense of the term is to want for all people, female and male, liberation from sexist role patterns, domination, and oppression." bell hooks made this clear and powerful statement in her 1981 study of sexism, racism, and the feminist and civil rights movements Ain't I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism.Almost 40 years on, the world is still reckoning ...

  10. Sample Research Papers On Feminism And Women's Liberation Movement

    The Origin of Women's Liberation Movement. The birth of the second feminist movement during 1960s to 1980s is due to the failed attempt of feminism on the early 1920s. During those years, women's power weakened and many women are forced to become slaves of men. Many women were tortured and even became sex slaves of those powerful men.


    Download Free PDF FEMINISM IN INDIA-A PERSPECTIVE International Research Journal Commerce arts science "In childhood, a woman should be under her father's control, in youth under her husband's and when her husband is dead, under her sons, she should not have independence…." (Buhler, 1992).

  12. (PDF) An Analysis of The Concept of The Theory of Feminism And

    This article explores the interlocking historical trajectories of feminisms and the social work profession in the United States. Bringing these two histories together, the article examines the ideas, practices, and people that have shaped the complicated organism that is ''feminist social work,'' from the civic involvement of 19th- and early 20th-century women to 21st-century efforts ...

  13. Final Research Paper.pdf

    Megan Peters 3B 3/8/2021 Final Research Paper Feminism is an issue that addresses all members of society. It is believed that Feminism is a movement based on the ideals that women should be superior to men. However, the true cause behind the movement is quite the opposite. My paper is going to cover the social injustices that women and others face in their everyday lives and why feminism is ...

  14. Full article: Introduction: Feminist values in research

    View PDF View EPUB Welcome to the Feminist Values in Research issue of Gender & Development. In May 2018, Gender & Development and the Women and Development Study Group of the UK Development Studies Association (DSA) co-hosted a seminar of the same title, to celebrate the journal's 25 th birthday.


    Feminist research shares some common angles . of vision that are "connected in principle to femi-nist struggle" (Joey Sprague & Mark Zimmerman, 1993, p. 266), often with the intent to change the basic structures of oppression. But there is no single feminist epistemology or methodology. Instead, multiple feminist lenses wake us up to

  16. Understanding Feminist Research Methodology in Social Sciences

    This paper also envelopes the pivotal standpoints on how feminist research is differentiated from social science research. Since, the social science research generally omits and overlooks the manifold aspects of gender relations resulting in incomplete and biased research, which in turn leads to the construction of incomplete development ...

  17. ️ 75 Best Feminist Research Paper Topics 📝

    75 Best Feminist Research Paper Topics. Feminist topics are becoming even more common in research papers. The main reason is the increasing importance of discussing such issues in colleges and other educational institutions. Research paper on the feminist topic is not the most sophisticated task as you may think.

  18. Feminist Review: SAGE Journals

    SUBMIT PAPER Feminist Review is a peer reviewed, interdisciplinary journal contributing to new agendas for feminism. The journal invites critical reflection on the relationship between materiality and representation, theory and practice, subjectivity and communities, … | View full journal description

  19. Feminist Theory: SAGE Journals

    Feminist Theory is genuinely interdisciplinary and reflects the diversity of feminism, incorporating perspectives from across the broad spectrum of the humanities and social sciences and the full range of feminist political and theoretical stances. View full journal description. This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics ...

  20. Top 200 Feminist Research Paper Topics for 2022

    Detail of Feminist Studies Research Topics. 1 The Best List of Feminist Psychology Research Topics. Feminism and psychology are linked to each other. In fact, these are correlated areas. It is … 2 Feminist Theory. 3 Feminist Methodology. 4 Feminist Media. 5 Feminism and Gender.

  21. PDF GPT-4 System Card

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