Organizing Academic Research Papers: Purpose of Guide
Purpose of guide.
- Design Flaws to Avoid
- Glossary of Research Terms
- Narrowing a Topic Idea
- Broadening a Topic Idea
- Extending the Timeliness of a Topic Idea
- Academic Writing Style
- Choosing a Title
- Making an Outline
- Paragraph Development
- Executive Summary
- Background Information
- The Research Problem/Question
- Theoretical Framework
- Citation Tracking
- Content Alert Services
- Evaluating Sources
- Primary Sources
- Secondary Sources
- Tertiary Sources
- What Is Scholarly vs. Popular?
- Qualitative Methods
- Quantitative Methods
- Using Non-Textual Elements
- Limitations of the Study
- Common Grammar Mistakes
- Avoiding Plagiarism
- Footnotes or Endnotes?
- Further Readings
- Annotated Bibliography
- Dealing with Nervousness
- Using Visual Aids
- Grading Someone Else's Paper
- How to Manage Group Projects
- Multiple Book Review Essay
- Reviewing Collected Essays
- About Informed Consent
- Writing Field Notes
- Writing a Policy Memo
- Writing a Research Proposal
This guide is intended to help you organize and write a quality academic research paper. Also included are recommendations regarding how to manage specific course assignments. Note that, if you have specific questions about how to write a research paper, you should always seek advice from your professor before you begin. Specific requirements stated by your professor will always supersede instructions provided in these general guidelines.
Thanks to Dr. Robert V. Labaree of the Von KleinSmid Center Library for International and Public Affairs, University of Southern California Libraries , for sharing the content of this guide.
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Our experts create writing masterpieces that earn our customers not only high grades but also a solid reputation from demanding professors. Although Eastasia is prevented from matching Eurasia's size, its larger populace compensates for that handicap. While citizens in each state are trained to despise the ideologies of the other two as uncivilised and barbarous, Goldstein's book explains that in fact the superstates' ideologies are practically identical and that the public's ignorance of this fact is imperative so that they might continue believing otherwise.
The only references to the exterior world for the Oceanian citizenry are propaganda and probably fake maps fabricated by the Ministry of Truth to ensure people's belief in "the war". However, due to the fact that Winston only barely remembers these events as well as the Party's constant manipulation of historical records, the continuity and accuracy of these events are unknown, and exactly how the superstates' ruling parties managed to gain their power is also left unclear. Winston notes that the Party has claimed credit for inventing helicopters and aeroplanes, while Julia theorises that the perpetual bombing of London is merely a false-flag operation designed to convince the populace that a war is occurring. If the official account was accurate, Smith's strengthening memories and the story of his family's dissolution suggest that the atomic bombings occurred first, followed by civil war featuring "confused street fighting in London itself" and the societal postwar reorganisation, which the Party retrospectively calls "the Revolution".
It is very difficult to trace the exact chronology, but most of the global societal reorganisation occurred between and the early s. Winston and Julia meet in the ruins of a church that was destroyed in a nuclear attack "thirty years" earlier, which suggests as the year of the atomic war that destabilised society and allowed the Party to seize power. It is stated in the novel that the "fourth quarter of " was "also the sixth quarter of the Ninth Three-Year Plan", which implies that the first three-year plan began in By that same year, the Party had apparently gained control of Oceania. Among other things, the Revolution completely obliterates all religion. While the underground "Brotherhood" might or might not exist, there is no suggestion of any clergy trying to keep any religion alive underground.
It is noted that, since the Party does not really care what the Proles think or do, they might have been permitted to have religious worship had they wanted to — but they show no such inclination. Among the manifestly absurd "confessions" extracted from "thought criminals" they have to admit being a religious believer — however, no one takes this seriously. Churches have been demolished or converted to other uses — St Martin-in-the-Fields had become a military museum, while Saint Clement Danes , destroyed in a WWII bombing, was in this future simply never rebuilt. The idea of a revolutionary regime totally destroying religion, with relative ease, is shared with the otherwise very different future of H.
Wells ' The Shape of Things to Come. In , there is a perpetual war between Oceania, Eurasia and Eastasia, the superstates that emerged from the global atomic war. The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism , by Emmanuel Goldstein, explains that each state is so strong that it cannot be defeated, even with the combined forces of two superstates, despite changing alliances.
To hide such contradictions, the superstates' governments rewrite history to explain that the new alliance always was so; the populaces are already accustomed to doublethink and accept it. The war is not fought in Oceanian, Eurasian or Eastasian territory but in the Arctic wastes and a disputed zone comprising the sea and land from Tangiers Northern Africa to Darwin Australia. That alliance ends, and Oceania, allied with Eurasia, fights Eastasia, a change occurring on Hate Week, dedicated to creating patriotic fervour for the Party's perpetual war.
The public are blind to the change; in mid-sentence, an orator changes the name of the enemy from "Eurasia" to "Eastasia" without pause. When the public are enraged at noticing that the wrong flags and posters are displayed, they tear them down; the Party later claims to have captured the whole of Africa. Goldstein's book explains that the purpose of the unwinnable, perpetual war is to consume human labour and commodities so that the economy of a superstate cannot support economic equality, with a high standard of life for every citizen. By using up most of the produced goods, the proles are kept poor and uneducated, and the Party hopes that they will neither realise what the government is doing nor rebel.
Goldstein also details an Oceanian strategy of attacking enemy cities with atomic rockets before invasion but dismisses it as unfeasible and contrary to the war's purpose; despite the atomic bombing of cities in the s, the superstates stopped it for fear that it would imbalance the powers. The military technology in the novel differs little from that of World War II, but strategic bomber aeroplanes are replaced with rocket bombs , helicopters were heavily used as weapons of war they did not figure in World War II in any form but prototypes and surface combat units have been all but replaced by immense and unsinkable Floating Fortresses island-like contraptions concentrating the firepower of a whole naval task force in a single, semi-mobile platform; in the novel, one is said to have been anchored between Iceland and the Faroe Islands , suggesting a preference for sea lane interdiction and denial.
None of the war news in Nineteen Eighty-Four can be in any way trusted as a report of something which actually happened within the frame of the book's plot. Winston Smith himself is depicted as inventing a war hero who never existed and attributing to him various acts which never took place. The same doubts apply also to the major piece of war news in the final chapter  — a titanic battle engulfing the entire continent of Africa, won by Oceania due to a brilliant piece of strategic surprise and finally proving to Smith the genius of Big Brother.
There is no way of knowing whether any such battle "really" took place in Africa. Nor can we know if this piece of spectacular war news was broadcast all over Oceania, or whether it was an exclusive "show" broadcast solely into the telescreen in the Chestnut Tree Cafe, with the sole purpose of having on Winston Smith exactly the psychological effect which it did have. Indeed, there is the passage where Julia doubts that any war is taking place at all, and suspects that the rockets falling occasionally on London are fired by the government of Oceania itself, to keep the population on their toes — though Winston does not let his doubts of the official propaganda go that far.
And how much can we, living in a supposedly free and democratic society, objectively check the verity of what our supposedly Free press tells us? Three perpetually warring totalitarian superstates control the world in the novel: . The perpetual war is fought for control of the "disputed area" lying between the frontiers of the superstates, which forms "a rough quadrilateral with its corners at Tangier , Brazzaville , Darwin and Hong Kong ",  which includes Equatorial Africa , the Middle East , India and Indonesia. The disputed area is where the superstates capture slave labour. Ingsoc English Socialism is the predominant ideology and philosophy of Oceania, and Newspeak is the official language of official documents.
Orwell depicts the Party's ideology as an oligarchical worldview that "rejects and vilifies every principle for which the Socialist movement originally stood, and it does so in the name of Socialism. As mentioned, the ministries are deliberately named after the opposite doublethink of their true functions: "The Ministry of Peace concerns itself with war, the Ministry of Truth with lies, the Ministry of Love with torture and the Ministry of Plenty with starvation.
While a ministry is supposedly headed by a minister, the ministers heading these four ministries are never mentioned. They seem to be completely out of the public view, Big Brother being the only, ever-present public face of the government. The Ministry of Peace supports Oceania's perpetual war against either of the two other superstates:. The primary aim of modern warfare in accordance with the principles of doublethink, this aim is simultaneously recognised and not recognised by the directing brains of the Inner Party is to use up the products of the machine without raising the general standard of living.
Ever since the end of the nineteenth century, the problem of what to do with the surplus of consumption goods has been latent in industrial society. At present, when few human beings even have enough to eat, this problem is obviously not urgent, and it might not have become so, even if no artificial processes of destruction had been at work. The Ministry of Plenty rations and controls food, goods, and domestic production; every fiscal quarter, it claims to have raised the standard of living, even during times when it has, in fact, reduced rations, availability, and production. The Ministry of Truth substantiates the Ministry of Plenty's claims by manipulating historical records to report numbers supporting the claims of "increased rations".
The Ministry of Plenty also runs the national lottery as a distraction for the proles; Party members understand it to be a sham process in which winnings are never paid out. The Ministry of Truth controls information: news, entertainment, education, and the arts. Winston Smith works in the Records Department, "rectifying" historical records to accord with Big Brother's current pronouncements so that everything the Party says appears to be true.
The Ministry of Love identifies, monitors, arrests and converts real and imagined dissidents. This is also the place where the Thought Police beat and torture dissidents, after which they are sent to Room to face "the worst thing in the world"—until love for Big Brother and the Party replaces dissension. The Big Brother is a fictional character and symbol in the novel. He is ostensibly the leader of Oceania, a totalitarian state wherein the ruling party Ingsoc wields total power "for its own sake" over the inhabitants. In the society that Orwell describes, every citizen is under constant surveillance by the authorities, mainly by telescreens with the exception of the Proles.
The people are constantly reminded of this by the slogan "Big Brother is watching you": a maxim that is ubiquitously on display. In modern culture, the term "Big Brother" has entered the lexicon as a synonym for abuse of government power, particularly in respect to civil liberties , often specifically related to mass surveillance. The keyword here is blackwhite. Like so many Newspeak words, this word has two mutually contradictory meanings.
Applied to an opponent, it means the habit of impudently claiming that black is white, in contradiction of the plain facts. Applied to a Party member, it means a loyal willingness to say that black is white when Party discipline demands this. But it means also the ability to believe that black is white, and more, to know that black is white, and to forget that one has ever believed the contrary. This demands a continuous alteration of the past, made possible by the system of thought which really embraces all the rest, and which is known in Newspeak as doublethink.
Doublethink is basically the power of holding two contradictory beliefs in one's mind simultaneously, and accepting both of them. The Principles of Newspeak is an academic essay appended to the novel. It describes the development of Newspeak, an artificial, minimalistic language designed to ideologically align thought with the principles of Ingsoc by stripping down the English language in order to make the expression of "heretical" thoughts i. The idea that a language's structure can be used to influence thought is known as linguistic relativity. Whether or not the Newspeak appendix implies a hopeful end to Nineteen Eighty-Four remains a critical debate.
Many claim that it does, citing the fact that it is in standard English and is written in the past tense : "Relative to our own, the Newspeak vocabulary was tiny, and new ways of reducing it were constantly being devised" p. Some critics Atwood,  Benstead,  Milner,  Pynchon  claim that for Orwell, Newspeak and the totalitarian governments are all in the past.
Thoughtcrime describes a person's politically unorthodox thoughts , such as unspoken beliefs and doubts that contradict the tenets of Ingsoc English Socialism , the dominant ideology of Oceania. In the official language of Newspeak, the word crimethink describes the intellectual actions of a person who entertains and holds politically unacceptable thoughts; thus the government of the Party controls the speech, the actions, and the thoughts of the citizens of Oceania.
Nineteen Eighty-Four expands upon the subjects summarised in Orwell's essay " Notes on Nationalism "  about the lack of vocabulary needed to explain the unrecognised phenomena behind certain political forces. In Nineteen Eighty-Four , the Party's artificial, minimalist language 'Newspeak' addresses the matter. O'Brien concludes: "The object of persecution is persecution. The object of torture is torture. The object of power is power. There will be no curiosity, no enjoyment of the process of life. All competing pleasures will be destroyed. But always—do not forget this, Winston—always there will be the intoxication of power, constantly increasing and constantly growing subtler. Always, at every moment, there will be the thrill of victory, the sensation of trampling on an enemy who is helpless.
If you want a picture of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face—forever. One of the most notable themes in Nineteen Eighty-Four is censorship, especially in the Ministry of Truth, where photographs and public archives are manipulated to rid them of "unpersons" people who have been erased from history by the Party. One small example of the endless censorship is Winston being charged with the task of eliminating a reference to an unperson in a newspaper article.
He also proceeds to write an article about Comrade Ogilvy, a made-up party member who allegedly "displayed great heroism by leaping into the sea from a helicopter so that the dispatches he was carrying would not fall into enemy hands. In Oceania, the upper and middle classes have very little true privacy. All of their houses and apartments are equipped with telescreens so that they may be watched or listened to at any time.
Similar telescreens are found at workstations and in public places, along with hidden microphones. Written correspondence is routinely opened and read by the government before it is delivered. The Thought Police employ undercover agents, who pose as normal citizens and report any person with subversive tendencies. Children are encouraged to report suspicious persons to the government, and some denounce their parents. Citizens are controlled, and the smallest sign of rebellion, even something as small as a suspicious facial expression, can result in immediate arrest and imprisonment. Thus, citizens are compelled to obedience. According to Goldstein's book, almost the entire world lives in poverty; hunger, thirst, disease, and filth are the norms. Ruined cities and towns are common: the consequence of wars and false flag operations.
Social decay and wrecked buildings surround Winston; aside from the ministries' pyramids, little of London was rebuilt. Middle class citizens and Proles consume synthetic foodstuffs and poor-quality "luxuries" such as oily gin and loosely-packed cigarettes, distributed under the "Victory" brand, a parody of the low-quality Indian-made "Victory" cigarettes, widely smoked in Britain and by British soldiers during World War II. Winston describes something as simple as the repair of a broken window as requiring committee approval that can take several years and so most of those living in one of the blocks usually do the repairs themselves Winston himself is called in by Mrs. Parsons to repair her blocked sink.
All upper-class and middle-class residences include telescreens that serve both as outlets for propaganda and surveillance devices that allow the Thought Police to monitor them; they can be turned down, but the ones in middle-class residences cannot be turned off. In contrast to their subordinates, the upper class of Oceanian society reside in clean and comfortable flats in their own quarters, with pantries well-stocked with foodstuffs such as wine, real coffee, real tea, real milk, and real sugar, all denied to the general populace.
All upper class citizens are attended to by slaves captured in the "disputed zone", and "The Book" suggests that many have their own cars or even helicopters. The proles live in poverty and are kept sedated with alcohol, pornography, and a national lottery whose winnings are rarely paid out; which fact is obscured by propaganda and the lack of communication within Oceania. At the same time, the proles are freer and less intimidated than the upper classes: they are not expected to be particularly patriotic and the levels of surveillance that they are subjected to are very low. They lack telescreens in their own homes and often jeer at the telescreens that they see. Winston nonetheless believes that "the future belonged to the proles".
The standard of living of the populace is extremely low overall. Nineteen Eighty-Four uses themes from life in the Soviet Union and wartime life in Great Britain as sources for many of its motifs. Some time at an unspecified date after the first American publication of the book, producer Sidney Sheldon wrote to Orwell interested in adapting the novel to the Broadway stage. Orwell sold the American stage rights to Sheldon, explaining that his basic goal with Nineteen Eighty-Four was imagining the consequences of Stalinist government ruling British society:.
According to Orwell biographer D. It's about somebody who is spied upon, and eavesdropped upon, and oppressed by vast exterior forces they can do nothing about. It makes an attempt at rebellion and then has to compromise". The slogan was seen in electric lights on Moscow house-fronts, billboards and elsewhere. The switch of Oceania's allegiance from Eastasia to Eurasia and the subsequent rewriting of history "Oceania was at war with Eastasia: Oceania had always been at war with Eastasia.
A large part of the political literature of five years was now completely obsolete"; ch 9 is evocative of the Soviet Union's changing relations with Nazi Germany. The two nations were open and frequently vehement critics of each other until the signing of the Treaty of Non-Aggression. Thereafter, and continuing until the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union in , no criticism of Germany was allowed in the Soviet press, and all references to prior party lines stopped—including in the majority of non-Russian communist parties who tended to follow the Russian line.
It was too much for many of the fellow-travellers like Gollancz [Orwell's sometime publisher] who had put their faith in a strategy of construction Popular Front governments and the peace bloc between Russia, Britain and France. The description of Emmanuel Goldstein, with a "small, goatee beard", evokes the image of Leon Trotsky. The film of Goldstein during the Two Minutes Hate is described as showing him being transformed into a bleating sheep. This image was used in a propaganda film during the Kino-eye period of Soviet film, which showed Trotsky transforming into a goat. The omnipresent images of Big Brother, a man described as having a moustache, bears resemblance to the cult of personality built up around Joseph Stalin.
The news in Oceania emphasised production figures, just as it did in the Soviet Union, where record-setting in factories by " Heroes of Socialist Labour " was especially glorified. The best known of these was Alexey Stakhanov , who purportedly set a record for coal mining in The tortures of the Ministry of Love evoke the procedures used by the NKVD in their interrogations,  including the use of rubber truncheons, being forbidden to put your hands in your pockets, remaining in brightly lit rooms for days, torture through the use of their greatest fear, and the victim being shown a mirror after their physical collapse.
The random bombing of Airstrip One is based on the Buzz bombs and the V-2 rocket , which struck England at random in — The confessions of the "Thought Criminals" Rutherford, Aaronson, and Jones are based on the show trials of the s, which included fabricated confessions by prominent Bolsheviks Nikolai Bukharin , Grigory Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev to the effect that they were being paid by the Nazi government to undermine the Soviet regime under Leon Trotsky 's direction. The song " Under the Spreading Chestnut Tree " "Under the spreading chestnut tree, I sold you, and you sold me" was based on an old English song called "Go no more a-rushing" "Under the spreading chestnut tree, Where I knelt upon my knee, We were as happy as could be, 'Neath the spreading chestnut tree.
The song was published as early as The song was a popular camp song in the s, sung with corresponding movements like touching one's chest when singing "chest", and touching one's head when singing "nut". Glenn Miller recorded the song in The "Hates" Two Minutes Hate and Hate Week were inspired by the constant rallies sponsored by party organs throughout the Stalinist period. These were often short pep-talks given to workers before their shifts began Two Minutes Hate , but could also last for days, as in the annual celebrations of the anniversary of the October revolution Hate Week.
Orwell fictionalised "newspeak", "doublethink", and "Ministry of Truth" based on the Soviet press. In particular, he adapted Soviet ideological discourse constructed to ensure that public statements could not be questioned. Winston Smith's job, "revising history" and the "unperson" motif are based on censorship of images in the Soviet Union , which airbrushed images of "fallen" people from group photographs and removed references to them in books and newspapers. When he fell in , and was subsequently executed, institutes that had the encyclopaedia were sent an article about the Bering Strait, with instructions to paste it over the article about Beria.
Big Brother's "Orders of the Day" were inspired by Stalin's regular wartime orders, called by the same name. A small collection of the more political of these have been published together with his wartime speeches in English as "On the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union" By Joseph Stalin. The Ingsoc slogan "Our new, happy life", repeated from telescreens, evokes Stalin's statement, which became a CPSU slogan, "Life has become better, Comrades; life has become more cheerful.
The story concludes with an appendix describing the success of the project. Borges' story addresses similar themes of epistemology , language and history to Nineteen Eighty-Four and Animal Farm share themes of the betrayed revolution, the individual's subordination to the collective, rigorously enforced class distinctions Inner Party, Outer Party, Proles , the cult of personality , concentration camps , Thought Police , compulsory regimented daily exercise, and youth leagues. It is a naval power whose militarism venerates the sailors of the floating fortresses, from which battle is given to recapturing India, the "Jewel in the Crown" of the British Empire.
Altered photographs and newspaper articles create unpersons deleted from the national historical record, including even founding members of the regime Jones, Aaronson, and Rutherford in the s purges viz the Soviet Purges of the s, in which leaders of the Bolshevik Revolution were similarly treated. A similar thing also happened during the French Revolution 's Reign of Terror in which many of the original leaders of the Revolution were later put to death, for example Danton who was put to death by Robespierre , and then later Robespierre himself met the same fate. In his essay " Why I Write ", Orwell explains that the serious works he wrote since the Spanish Civil War —39 were "written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for democratic socialism ".
Biographer Michael Shelden notes Orwell's Edwardian childhood at Henley-on-Thames as the golden country; being bullied at St Cyprian's School as his empathy with victims; his life in the Indian Imperial Police in Burma and the techniques of violence and censorship in the BBC as capricious authority. Extrapolating from World War II, the novel's pastiche parallels the politics and rhetoric at war's end—the changed alliances at the " Cold War 's" —91 beginning; the Ministry of Truth derives from the BBC's overseas service, controlled by the Ministry of Information ; Room derives from a conference room at BBC Broadcasting House ;  the Senate House of the University of London, containing the Ministry of Information is the architectural inspiration for the Minitrue; the post-war decrepitude derives from the socio-political life of the UK and the US, i.
The term "English Socialism" has precedents in Orwell's wartime writings; in the essay " The Lion and the Unicorn: Socialism and the English Genius " , he said that "the war and the revolution are inseparable Given the middle class's grasping this, they too would abide socialist revolution and that only reactionary Britons would oppose it, thus limiting the force revolutionaries would need to take power. Read "Repent, Harlequin! Said the Ticktockman".
Liz lives in a society where citizens are closely monitored and ordered to report each other for suspicious behavior. She has been matched with Greg to reproduce. Disease control workers hand out pills and masks, warning people of a dangerous contagion. John Anderton is the head of the pre-crime division—a division that can determine in advance who is going to commit a crime. The nucleus of the operation is the three precogs, mutant-like humans who get flashes of the future and are attached to extensive analytical machinery.
The names of the future criminals are generated on a card; one day, Anderton is stunned by a name that appears. Read "Minority Report ". The three gibbering, fumbling creatures with their enlarged head and wasted bodies, were contemplating the future. The analytical machinery was recording prophecies, and as the three precog idiots talked, the machinery carefully listened. Alex Monroe interviews for a job at CraveTech, a company in chemical advertising— advertising that is shot into people which makes them crave a particular product. She has an ulterior motive for wanting the job. You are in charge of a civilization. You get to make important decisions that affect the whole population in a Choose Your Own Adventure style story. Read "Civilization ".
Stanuel helps a mercenary gain access to a restricted building. They try to avoid detection by Pan, the leader, who has extensive monitoring systems in place. The doctor on a Mars station hears that a young boy, Orlando, has caused trouble again, hitting his sister. Everyone on the station is happy except for Orlando. His parents are worried and in denial about his behavior.
They fear Orlando will be culled. Read "The Cull ". Orlando has a well-earned reputation. But stealing and lying are lesser crimes compared to physical violence, particularly violence towards a small and very pretty three-year-old girl. She claims that Tilly tells people what to like and what to do, which gets Sai thinking. Read "The Perfect Match ".
All Americans are equal—no one is allowed to be better than anyone else in any way. An exceptional fourteen-year-old, Harrison, is taken away from his parents by the government. Read "Harrison Bergeron ". The government has mandated a maximum living space of 4 square meters per person. A man, Ward, finds a place slightly larger than the legal limit which he shares with a friend. They make a discovery that changes everything. Read "Billennium ". The inhabitants of a village prepare for the lottery, an annual harvest time tradition. Everyone gathers to draw slips of paper from an old black box.
Read "The Lottery ". Sim is born on a planet close to the sun where people live only eight days. Read "Frost and Fire ". The nightmare of living was begun. Almost instantly at birth his eyes grew alert, and then, without half understanding why, filled with bright, insistent terror. Patient D, who has a terminal case of colon cancer, receives a digestive system transplant from a pig. He recovers quickly and his appetite becomes voracious and unusual. Read "We Ate the Children Last ". The narrator dines with his friends at the National Socialist Club where they discuss their goal of equality for all. He goes home thinking about how delightful a completely fair society would be.
After going to sleep, he wakes up a thousand years later in this ideal socialist state. Read "The New Utopia ". Emil kratzig lives in a society that's heavily controlled by the government, which includes many class distinctions for the citizens. All of society's ills have been cured: wars, famine, disease, and death from aging. The population is maintained at 40 million. When there is a birth, someone has to volunteer to die. Edward Wehling finds out that his wife is going to give birth to triplets. Dickie Jordan has just turned twelve, so it's time for him to take a Government mandated intelligence test. His parents don't say much about it. His mother seems to be worried about Dickie's performance, but his father says he'll do fine.
Read "Examination Day". The Jordans never spoke of the exam, not until their son, Dickie, was twelve years old. It was on his birthday that Mrs. Jordan first mentioned the subject in his presence, and the anxious manner of her speech caused her husband to answer sharply.
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A book review is a decription, critical analysis, and/or evaluation of the quality, meaning, and significance of a book. Thus, writing a book review is a two-step process: 1) developing an argument about the work under consideration
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While websites like Amazon do display the reviews right beneath the book, its still a good practice to mention the title of the book with the genre in parentheses, at least once, preferably in the beginning
You need to demonstrate in your review that you understand, andcan evaluate the author's argument and conclusions.Research Papers/Book Reviews should be 5 pages