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- Types of Variables in Research & Statistics | Examples

## Types of Variables in Research & Statistics | Examples

Published on September 19, 2022 by Rebecca Bevans . Revised on December 2, 2022.

You can usually identify the type of variable by asking two questions:

- What type of data does the variable contain?
- What part of the experiment does the variable represent?

## Table of contents

## Quantitative variables

## Categorical variables

There are three types of categorical variables: binary , nominal , and ordinal variables .

## Example data sheet

In this experiment, we have one independent and three dependent variables.

## What about correlational research?

## What can proofreading do for your paper?

- The independent variable is the amount of nutrients added to the crop field.
- The dependent variable is the biomass of the crops at harvest time.

Discrete and continuous variables are two types of quantitative variables :

- Discrete variables represent counts (e.g. the number of objects in a collection).
- Continuous variables represent measurable amounts (e.g. water volume or weight).

## Cite this Scribbr article

Bevans, R. (2022, December 02). Types of Variables in Research & Statistics | Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved March 4, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/types-of-variables/

## Is this article helpful?

## Rebecca Bevans

## Statistics Research Paper Writing Guide + Examples

## How to write a statistics research paper

You can learn them by following this short guide:

## Start by proper research:

It can also serve as a springboard for later argumentation or present the central idea.

## Finding journal articles on statistics research paper

## Writing body paragraphs

What are some common criticisms/counterpoints?

## Write your paper

And there you have it: statistics research paper.

## Write perfect conclusion

- Introduction – this section is often called the “literature review” and it contains a brief overview of your topic, including noteworthy definitions and facts. This discussion usually includes information regarding the shortcomings of prior research in this area, if there are any..
- Methodology – this section includes a description of how you obtained (gathered) your data; examples would include surveys, interviews or usage logs..
- Data – if you did not collect data yourself, then consider presenting a chart from an existing source that will help readers understand your results..
- Summary & Discussion – here you’ll present the most important numerical findings related to your study..
- Conclusions & Recommendations – be sure to make recommendations based on your findings.
- References – provide a list of pertinent sources from which you obtained information and ideas..
- Data Analysis – this section is usually presented as a subsection of the data section. Here you’ll report how you analyzed your data, including all calculations and inferences..
- Appendices – this is an optional section in which to place tables that provide detailed information about your study..
- Acknowledgments – it’s always nice to thank someone for their help (in this case, by providing a list of everyone who contributed to the project)..
- Related Reading – refer interested parties to other journal articles, books or websites related to this material for further reading..
- Tables – these are necessary in order to present your results. They also summarize large amounts of information in a small amount of space..
- Figures – Graphs and charts provide data in an easy to understand manner.
- Graphs – A graph is a visual representation of data..
- Charts – A chart is a graphical display of numerical comparisons. It can be useful for showing the relationship between two or more things, such as trends over time.
- List Of Participants – this is a list of everyone who helped you with the project.
- Certificate Of Approval – every department or institute has its own rules about what must be included here: usually some statement saying that your research followed ethical standards and was approved by the proper authorities..

## Statistics research paper outline template

As you begin each portion make sure to refer back to this outline.

- Problem statement
- Introduction/background
- Materials and methods discussion & results
- Data analysis plan/approach
- Discussion (use subheadings if necessary)
- Conclusion and recommendations

- Introduction – background information about the topic, relevance of particular issue, significance of data to the problem; 1-2 paragraphs
- Problem statement – state what problem was studied and why – this must be in your initial set of literature review sources (statistics research paper citations); 1 paragraph. State briefly how it relates to overall field or area of study;
- Objectives – list primary and secondary objectives that you were trying to achieve during the course of writing a stats paper; separate each with period. Do not use more than 2 levels of sub-objectives when doing outline.
- Materials & methods – explain your data gathering process (for collection of raw statistics), how you set up the experiment when doing statistical hypothesis testing, and any other relevant information concerning the creation of a statistics research paper; 2-3 paragraphs
- Data analysis/results – state how you analyzed data collected (tables, graphs, charts etc.) that is not available in published works or articles for stats research paper; 2-3 paragraphs
- Discussion section – this is important! Don’t forget to discuss results presented in data analysis/results section as well as recap your problem statement; 3-4 paragraphs. Discussion of main results is an important part of a research paper; don’t forget to include one! Defend your hypothesis (if applicable) and describe its importance. Also compare with other studies done on similar topics; present similarities & differences in data collection methods & outcome measurements used vs others. Take time to explain how each area is different.
- Conclusion & recommendations: In your research paper conclusion , reiterate the significance of your hypothesis; based on results it is either confirmed, disconfirmed or weakened/strengthened. Also indicate what you would like to do now that this is done (if not requested in guidelines) – future research, more studies should be done using same methods etc. Give an indication of how long each study might take and who can benefit from its findings. If needed you also have space here to discuss any recommendations for future work (suggestions are good but don’t sound too pushy).
- References: The references section is usually under a separate heading that includes title & author of the paper/book, date of publication and page numbers. In your bibliography, various books & articles, including editions & versions if needed, that were used as sources when doing your research paper or study (will likely contain other authors’ articles you read).
- Appendices – tables, figures, charts, appendices with raw data, etc. The appendices – anything else that was created during statistical analysis while writing stats research paper can go here (you may need extra sheets of paper if there are too many graphs etc. to include as part of the main text)

## Statistics research writing tips:

- “This paper will investigate…”
- “The objective of this study is…”
- “It is not found if…”
- “There have been a few studies concerning..”
- “As there has been much debate about…”
- “No prior study exists that.”

- Now, state your results and findings, including the statistical analysis if necessary (such as significance or not).
- Write only what was found using charts or graphs, tables, and numbers that back up your claims about the study.
- Check all your spelling and grammar again.
- Pay attention to commas, semicolons and spaces.
- Use a spell checker if possible or ask someone else to proof-read it for you.

## Statistics Research Topics

Wondering what to write a research paper on statistics and probability about?

A statistician collects, computes and analyzes numerical data to summarize information.

If you are looking for a statistics research paper topic ideas you’ve come to the right place!

## Statistics Research Topics – Probability

## Statistics Research Topics – Descriptive statistics

For example mean, median and mode are measures of central tendency and dispersion.

Descriptive statistics is also necessary for analyzing real-life situations.

It provides information that’s useful for making business decisions.

## Statistics Research Topics – Testing significance of relationships (correlation)

## Statistics – Research Paper – Sampling

The main idea behind sampling is to reduce information loss by minimizing unnecessary information.

## Statistics Research Topics – Hypothesis testing

## Statistics – Research Paper – Analysis of variance (ANOVA)

## Statistics Research Topics – Confidence intervals

It helps shows how much uncertainty exists within estimates for a single population parameter.

This is done by adding and subtracting margins of error to the original estimation..

## Statistics – Research Topics – Non-parametric tests

Some examples of these tests includes 1 rank sum test, sign test etc…

## Professional Statistics Research Paper Writers

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## Statistics Research Paper Writing Help from Our Statistics Essay Experts

## How can Tutlance help me get my statistics essay done?

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## Can you help me write a business statistics research paper?

Read more about business statistics assignment help , psychology statistics homework help .

## Can you provide an example of a probability and statistics research paper?

Other kinds of examples of research papers in probability and statistics include:

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## Probability and statistics research paper examples

## Hire a Homework Doer in 3 Simple Steps!

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## Research Papers / Publications

## Research Paper

## Variability

## Frequentist And Bayesian Inference

- Fienberg, Stephen E., and Joseph B. Kadane. 2001. Statistics: The Field. In International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, ed. Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, 15085–15090. Oxford, U.K.: Elsevier.
- Fisher, Ronald A. 1935. The Design of Experiments. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd.
- Kruskal, William H. 1968. Statistics: The Field. In International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills, vol. 15, 206–224. New York: Macmillan.
- Stigler, Stephen M. 1986. The History of Statistics: The Measurement of Uncertainty before 1900. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Stigler, Stephen M. 1999. Statistics on the Table: The History of Statistical Concepts and Methods. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- How to Write a Research Paper
- Research Paper Topics
- Research Paper Examples

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## Related Posts

## 1. Importance

‘… but time and chance happeneth to them all’ (Ecclesiastes).

Figure 2 The dashed lines provide 95 percent bounds about a central curve

series = trend seasonal + noise

series = sum of cosines + noise

series = regression function + noise

## 3.1 Concepts

This is particularly the case for time series values with joint normal distributions.

A number of speciﬁc probability models have been

## 3.2 Problems

## 4.1 Descriptive

a display. This is useful for discerning slowly evolving behavior.

## 4.2 Parameter Estimation

## 4.3 Uncertainty Estimation

## 4.4 Seasonal Adjustment

## 4.5 System Identiﬁcation

## 4.6 Computing

## 5. Current Theory And Research

## 6. Future Directions

- Akaike H 1965 On the statistical estimation of the frequency response function of a system having multiple input. Annals of the Institute of Statistics and Mathematics 17: 185–210
- Bartlett M S 1966 Stochastic Processes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK
- Beveridge W H 1922 Wheat prices and rainfall in western Europe. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 85: 412–59
- Blackman R B, Tukey J W 1959 The Measurement of Power Spectra From the Point of View of Communications Engineering. Dover, New York
- Box G E P, Jenkins G M 1970 Time Series Analysis: Forecasting and Control. Holden-Day, San Francisco
- Brillinger D R 1975 Time Series: Data Analysis and Theory. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York
- Cleveland W S 1985 The Elements of Graphing Data. Wadsworth, Belmont, CA
- Davis H T 1941 The Analysis of Economic Time Series. Principia, Bloomington, IN
- Davison A C, Hinkley D V 1997 Bootstrap Methods and Their Application. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK
- Durbin J, Koopman S J 2001 Time Series Analysis by State Space Methods. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK
- Durbin J, Watson G S 1950 Testing for serial correlation in least squares regression. Biometrika 37: 409–28
- Durbin J, Watson G S 1951 Testing for serial correlation in least squares regression. Biometrika 38: 159–77
- Einstein A 1914 Methode pour la determination des valeurs statistiques d’observations concernant des grandeurs soumises a des ﬂuctuations irregulieres. Archives of Sciences Physiques et Naturelles Series 4 37: 254–5
- Engle R F (ed.) 1995 ARCH Selected Readings. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK
- Fahrmein L, Tutz G 1994 Multivariate Statistical Modelling Based on Generalized Linear Models. Springer, New York
- Fisher R A 1929 Tests of signiﬁcance in harmonic analysis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A 125: 54–9
- Granger C W J 1982 Acronyms in time series analysis. Journal of Time Series Analysis 2: 103–8
- Granger C W J, Andersen A P 1978 An Introduction to Bilinear Time Series Models. Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, Gottingen
- Granger C W J, Hatanaka M 1964 Spectral Analysis of Economic Time Series. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ
- Grenander U, Rosenblatt M 1957 Statistical Analysis of Stationary Time Series. Wiley, New York
- Guttorp P 1995 Stochastic Modelling of Scientiﬁc Data. Chapman & Hall, London
- Hannan E J 1960 Time Series Analysis, Methuen, London
- Hannan E J 1963 Regression for time series. In: Rosenblatt M (ed.) Time Series Analysis. Wiley, New York
- Harvey A C 1990 Forecasting, Structural Time Series Models and the Kalman Filter. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK
- Harvey A C, Koopman S J, Penzer J 1998 Messy time series: A uniﬁed approach. Advances in Econometrics 13: 103–43
- Heideman M T, Jondon D H, Burrus C S 1984 Gauss and the history of the fast Fourier transform. Archives in History and Exact Science 34: 265–77
- Hooker R H 1901 Correlation of the marriage-rate with trade. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 64: 696–703
- Kalman R E 1963 Mathematical description of linear dynamical systems. SIAM Journal of Control 1: 152–92
- Laplace P S 1825 Traite de Mechanique Celeste. Bachelier, Paris
- Lauritzen S L 1981 Time series analysis in 1880: A discussion of contributions made by T. N. Thiele. International Statistical Review 49: 319–31
- MacDonald I L, Zucchini W 1997 Hidden Marko and Other Models for Discretealued Time Series. Chapman and Hall, London
- Moore H L 1914 Economic Cycles: Their Law and Cause. Macmillan, New York
- National Bureau of Economic Research Bureau of the Census 1976 Conference on Seasonal Analysis of Economic Time Series. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC
- Parzen E 1961 An approach to time series analysis. Annals of Mathematical Statistics 32: 951–89
- Prakasa Rao B L S 1999 Statistical Inference for Diﬀusion Type Processes. Arnold, London
- Shumway R H, Stoﬀer D S 2000 Time Series Analysis and its Applications. Springer, New York
- Tong H 1990 Non-linear Time Series: A Dynamical System Approach. Oxford University Press, New York
- Tufte E R 1983 The Elements of Graphing Data. Graphics Press, Cheshire, CT
- Tukey J W 1977 Exploratory Data Analysis. Addision-Wesley, Reading, MA
- Tukey J W 1984 The Collected Works of John W. Tukey I-II Time Series. Wadsworth, Belmont, CA
- Whittle P 1951 Hypothesis Testing in Time Series Analysis. Almqvist and Wiksell, Uppsala, Sweden
- Wiener N 1949 Time Series. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
- Wiener N 1958 Nonlinear Problems in Random Theory. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
- Wold H O A 1965 Bibliography: on Time Series and Stochastic Processes. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
- Yule G U 1927 On the method of investigating periodicities in disturbed series with special reference to Wolfer’s sunspot numbers. Philosophical Transactions A 226: 267–98

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## Research Papers on Statistics

## Content Analysis For Aging Journals In Rehabilitation Counseling

- Research Paper
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## How To Write A Statistics Research Paper?

## What is a stats research paper?

## How to create the perfect statistics research paper example?

## Select the topic

Remember to jot down all the needed information for the proper referencing when you use a resource

## Data collection

## Outlining the paper

## The intro section

- Opening remarks about the field of the research.
- Credits to other researchers who worked on this theme.
- The scientific motivation for the new research .
- An explanation of why existing researches are not sufficient.
- The thesis statement , aka the core idea of the text.

## The body of the text (research report, as they say in statistics)

## The conclusion

## Tips on how to write a statistics paper example

Here are some life hacks and shortcuts that you may use to boost your paper:

- Many sources where you take the statistical data , do offer it with the interpretation. Do not waste time on calculations and take the interpretation from there.
- Visuals are the must: always include a graph, chart, or a table to visualize your words.
- If you do not know the statistical procedure and how to interpret the results , never use it in the paper.
- Always put the statistics at the end of the sentence.
- If your paper requires the presentation of your calculations and you are not confident with it, ask a pro to help you.
- Different types of statistical data require proper formatting. Cite statistics properly according to the chosen format.

## Guide on Writing a Death Penalty Research Paper

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## How to Write a Statistics Research Paper: A Complete Guide

## Choice of Topic

- Reword your potential topics as questions. Then look at each potential topic and ask yourself: can this question be answered with the help of statistical analysis? For example, ‘Is there life on Mars?’ is a fascinating question, no doubt about it, but the answer to it lies beyond the domain of statistics;
- Check if there is enough data on the topic or if you are going to be able to gather enough of it to support your point. That is why you should analyze the existing body of research before you settle upon a particular topic;
- If you are having trouble singling out a topic you would like to write about, try checking out online academic databases and search engines, like Google Scholar and EBSCO . By running searches related to the general direction of your future paper, you will be able to discern the topics that are already well-researched to avoid inadvertently choosing them. In addition, it may give you valuable ideas on potential research around which you can build your paper;
- Don’t forget to discuss the topic you’ve chosen with your instructor. What may seem like an awesome research direction to you may look completely different at somebody who has seen hundreds of papers and knows what topics work and what do not.

Here are some examples of good topics you may find helpful in your work:

- The Study of Diversity in Motion Picture Industry;
- Statistical Analysis of Home Advantage Influence on Performance of Football Teams;
- Evidence of Reverse Discrimination in American Businesses during the Last Decade;
- Effects of Placement Based on Academic Ability vs. Placement Based on Age in Education;
- Positive and Negative Effects of Net Neutrality.

## Data Collection

There are three types of sources to be used when writing statistics papers:

- Experiments and information gathering activities you’ve carried out personally;
- Statistical information and data sets received from reliable sources, such as FedStats or Google Public Data Explorer ;
- Published works by other authors (journal articles, books, newspapers, online sources, etc.).

## Introduction

## Body Paragraphs

What the body of your paper should contain:

- Methodology – what methods of collecting and analyzing the information you’ve employed. Here you not just specify the methods themselves, but describe how you went about gathering data and conducting the necessary experiments. For example, if you used a survey, you should not only mention the method per se, but dwell on how you prepared questions for it, how you chose people to participate in it, how their answers varied depending on various factors and so on;
- Supporting materials – the best statistics papers are supplemented with graphs, charts, diagrams etc., visually supporting your point of view and serving as reliable proof of your findings;
- Topic paragraphs – here you present your findings. Make sure to never exceed the limitation of one idea per paragraph – papers on statistics are complicated enough without your making their structure unnecessary convoluted. If you always introduce just one point per paragraph, it shows the reader what he can expect and makes it easier to perceive what you try to prove.

## General Style and Writing Tips: Secrets of Our Best Academic Writers

- Be wary of plagiarism , i.e., using the other writer’s work without acknowledging the authorship. Plagiarism is a very serious violation of academic rules, and can even lead to expulsion in some cases. So don’t use it intentionally – you will be caught – and use plagiarism checkers to make sure you haven’t done it accidentally, e.g., by forgetting to put quotation marks around a borrowed sentence or writing something that is suspiciously similar to another paper on the same topic;
- Try to keep your sentences relatively short (20-25 words), but don’t turn it into a goal in and of itself. If you need a sentence that is longer than that, use it – just try to gravitate to suggested length in general;
- Do not use colloquial words, expression and grammar structures, including contractions. Your writing should look as professional and impersonal as possible;
- On the other hand, don’t try to make your writing overly scientific through the use of longer and more complex words and more cumbersome sentence structures than necessary. You don’t have to make your writing simplistic, but use complicated terminology only when it is truly needed and don’t look for excuses to make your writing look smarter than it is – it is a very obvious trick;
- Be ready to go through several drafts before you achieve the results that satisfy you and will satisfy your instructor. A good statistics research paper requires a lot of work and revisions, so if you find it necessary to introduce serious changes into your work or even rewrite some parts of it completely, it is quite normal;
- Your goal is to find whether the hypothesis expressed in your thesis statement is true or false, not to prove it right no matter what. In statistics writing, it doesn’t matter whether the hypothesis turns out to be false – what your instructor is going to pay attention to is how you reached your conclusion, how you gathered information, how you carried out your analysis. Concentrate on these aspects and let everything else take care of itself;
- Avoid the passive voice unless it is absolutely necessary. Statistics papers are rather dry thanks to their methodology, and the use of passive voice makes them even harder to read and perceive the information they contain;
- Never cite books and other sources you haven’t read. It is quite easy to find out if you are familiar with this or that source, and if it turns out that you don’t know anything else about the source you are quoting, it is going to harm your reputation as a scholar.

## Post-Writing Tips: Revising and Proofreading Your Research Paper

- Check basic formatting: cover sheet, page numbers, bibliography, etc. Do all these elements comply with your style guide? Are there any ambiguous cases? Are you sure everything should be formatted the way you did it? Consult your instructor if in doubt;
- Introduction – is the “hook” sufficient to attract the reader’s attention? Does it correspond logically to the rest of the paper? Does it flow smoothly into the thesis statement?
- Conclusion – does it sum up everything important about your paper without missing anything?
- Body paragraphs – do you introduce no more than a single point in each paragraph? Are they logically connected to each other? Are the points you mention clear and unambiguous?
- Is all the data clear and backed up with statistical information?
- Do your arguments follow each other logically?
- Did you quote all the sources you used in your paper? If you missed some quotation marks even by mistake you can be accused of plagiarism, which can lead to very unpleasant consequences;
- Are you sure of your grammar, syntax and spelling? Are you sure about the meanings of all the words you used? If in doubt, look them up in a dictionary;
- Is the flow of your paper natural? Does it read easily? You may need to ask somebody else to read it in order to find out for sure.

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Purdue Online Writing Lab College of Liberal Arts

## Writing with Descriptive Statistics

## Welcome to the Purdue OWL

Some fields prefer to put means and standard deviations in parentheses like this:

## Free Statistics Research Paper Sample for You

Topic: Sports , Time , Gender , Gym , Education , Information , Physical Exercise , Difference

## Introduction

## Data Gathering

## Descriptive Statistics: Time

## Graphical visualization of the frequency distribution for each gender is given below:

## Set level of significance alpha:

## Estimate for difference: -0,158

No thanks, I don't want to save money

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## How to Find Statistics for a Research Paper

Last Updated: March 29, 2019 References

## Identifying the Data You Need

- For example, if you're writing a research paper for a sociology class on the effect of crime in inner cities, you may want to make the point that high school graduation rates decrease as the rate of violent crime increases.
- To support that point, you would need data about high school graduation rates in specific inner cities, as well as violent crime rates in the same areas.
- From that data, you would want to find statistics that show the trends in those two rates. Then you can compare those statistics to reach a correlation that would (potentially) support your point.

- Background research also can clue you in to words or phrases that are commonly used by academics, researchers, and statisticians examining the same issues you're discussing in your research paper.
- A basic familiarity with your topic can help you identify additional statistics that you might not have thought of before.
- For example, in reading about the effect of violent crime in inner cities, you may find an article discussing how children coming from high-crime neighborhoods have higher rates of PTSD than children who grow up in peaceful suburbs.
- The issue of PTSD is something you potentially could weave into your research paper, although you'd have to do more digging into the source of the statistics themselves.
- Keep in mind when you're reading on background, this isn't necessarily limited to material that you might use as a source for your research paper. You're just trying to familiarize yourself with the subject generally.

- With a descriptive statistic, those who collected the data got information for every person included in a specific, limited group.
- "Only 2 percent of the students in McKinley High School's senior class have red hair" is an example of a descriptive statistic. All the students in the senior class have been accounted for, and the statistic describes only that group.
- However, if the statisticians used the county high school's senior class as a representative sample of the county as a whole, the result would be an inferential statistic.
- The inferential version would be phrased "According to our study, approximately 2 percent of the people in McKinley County have red hair." The statisticians didn't check the hair color of every person who lived in the county.

- Finding the best key words can be an art form. Using what you learned from your background research, try to use words academics or other researchers in the field use when discussing your topic.
- You not only want to search for specific words, but also synonyms for those words. You also might search for both broader categories and narrower examples of related phenomena.
- For example, "violent crime" is a broad category that may include crimes such as assault, rape, and murder. You may not be able to find statistics that specifically track violent crime generally, but you should be able to find statistics on the murder rate in a given area.
- If you're looking for statistics related to a particular geographic area, you'll need to be flexible there as well. For example, if you can't find statistics that relate solely to a particular neighborhood, you may want to expand outward to the city or even the county.

- While you can run a general internet search using your key words to potentially find statistics you can use in your research paper, knowing specific sources can help you find reliable statistics more quickly.
- For example, if you're looking for statistics related to various demographics in the United States, the U.S. government has many statistics available at www.usa.gov/statistics.
- You also can check the U.S. Census Bureau's website to retrieve census statistics and data.
- The NationMaster website collects data from the CIA World Factbook and other sources to create a wealth of statistics comparing different countries on a number of measures.

## Evaluating Sources

- Find out who was responsible for collecting the data, and why. If the organization or group behind the data collection and creation of the statistics has an ideological or political mission, their statistics may be suspect.
- Essentially, if someone is creating statistics to support a particular position or prove their arguments, you cannot trust those statistics. There are many ways raw data can be manipulated to show trends or correlations that don't necessarily reflect reality.
- Government sources typically are highly reliable, as are most university studies. However, even with university studies you want to see if the study was funded in whole or in part by a group or organization with an ideological or political motivation or bias.

- To explore the background adequately, use the journalistic standard of the "5 w's" – who, what, when, where, and why.
- This means you'll want to find out who carried out the study (or, in the case of a poll, who asked the questions), what questions were asked, when was the study or poll conducted, and why the study or poll was conducted.
- The answers to these questions will help you understand the purpose of the statistical research that was conducted, and whether it would be helpful in your own research paper.

- You may find the statistics set forth in a report that describes these statistics and what they mean.
- However, just because someone else has explained the meaning of the statistics doesn't mean you should necessarily take their word for it.
- Draw on your understanding of the background of the study or poll, and look at the interpretation the author presents critically.
- Remove the statistics themselves from the text of the report, for example by copying them into a table. Then you can interpret them on your own without being distracted by the author's interpretation.
- If you create a table of your own from a statistical report, make sure you label it accurately so you can cite the source of the statistics later if you decide to include them in your research paper.

- If you're looking at raw data, you may need to actually calculate the statistics yourself. If you don't have any experience with statistics, talk to someone who does.
- Your teacher or professor may be able to help you understand how to calculate the statistics correctly.
- Even if you have access to a statistics program, there's no guarantee that the result you get actually will be accurate unless you know what information to provide the program. Remember the common phrase with computer programs: "Garbage in, garbage out."
- Don't assume you can just divide two numbers to get a percentage, for example. There are other probability elements that must be taken into account.

## Writing with Statistics

- For example, the word "average" is one you often see in everyday writing. However, when you're writing about statistics, the word "average" could mean up to three different things.
- The word "average" can be used to mean the median (the middle value in the set of data), the mean (the result when you add all the values in the set and then divide by the quantity of numbers in the set), or the mode (the number or value in the set that occurs most frequently).
- Therefore, if you read "average," you need to know which of these definitions is meant.
- You also want to make sure that any two or more statistics you're comparing are using the same definition of "average." Not doing so could lead to a significant misinterpretation of your statistics and what they mean in the context of your research.

- Charts and graphs also can be useful even when you are referencing the statistics within your text. Using graphical elements can break up the text and enhance reader understanding.
- Tables, charts, and graphs can be especially beneficial if you ultimately will have to give a presentation of your research paper, either to your class or to teachers or professors.
- As difficult as statistics are to follow in print, they can be even more difficult to follow when someone is merely telling them to you.
- To test the readability of the statistics in your paper, read those paragraphs out loud to yourself. If you find yourself stumbling over them or getting confused as you read, it's likely anyone else will stumble too when reading them for the first time.

- This often has as much to do with how you describe the statistics as the specific statistics you use.
- Keep in mind that numbers themselves are neutral – it is your interpretation of those numbers that gives them meaning.

- For example, if you present the statistic that the murder rate in one neighborhood increased by 500 percent, and in the same period high school graduation rates decreased by 300 percent, these numbers are virtually meaningless without context.
- You don't know what a 500 percent increase entails unless you know what the rate was before the period measured by the statistic.
- When you say "500 percent," it sounds like a large amount, but if there was only one murder before the period measured by the statistic, then what you're actually saying is that during that period there were five murders.
- Additionally, your statistics may be more meaningful if you can compare them to similar statistics in other areas.
- Think of it in terms of a scientific experiment. If scientists are studying the effects of a particular drug to treat a disease, they also include a control group that doesn't take the drug. Comparing the test group to the control group helps show the drug's effectiveness.

- For example, you might write "According to the FBI, violent crime in McKinley County increased by 37 percent between the years 2000 and 2012."
- A textual citation provides immediate authority to the statistics you're using, allowing your readers to trust the statistics and move on to the next point.
- On the other hand, if you don't state where the statistics came from, your reader may be too busy mentally questioning the source of your statistics to fully grasp the point you're trying to make.

## Expert Q&A

- ↑ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/672/1/
- ↑ http://writingcenter.unc.edu/handouts/statistics/
- ↑ http://libguides.dixie.edu/c.php?g=57887&p=371711
- ↑ http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats
- ↑ https://www.usa.gov/statistics
- ↑ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/672/02/
- ↑ http://libguides.lib.msu.edu/datastats
- ↑ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/672/06/
- ↑ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/672/04/

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## Top 99+ Trending Statistics Research Topics for Students

## Why Do We Need to Have Good Statistics Research Topics?

## What Are Some Interesting Research Topics?

- Literacy rate in a city.
- Abortion and pregnancy rate in the USA.
- Eating disorders in the citizens.
- Parent role in self-esteem and confidence of the student.
- Uses of AI in our daily life to business corporates.

## Top 99+ Trending Statistics Research Topics For 2023

Here in this section, we will tell you more than 99 trending statistics research topics:

## Sports Statistics Research Topics

- Statistical analysis for legs and head injuries in Football.
- Statistical analysis for shoulder and knee injuries in MotoGP.
- Deep statistical evaluation for the doping test in sports from the past decade.
- Statistical observation on the performance of athletes in the last Olympics.
- Role and effect of sports in the life of the student.

## Psychology Research Topics for Statistics

- Deep statistical analysis of the effect of obesity on the student’s mental health in high school and college students.
- Statistical evolution to find out the suicide reason among students and adults.
- Statistics analysis to find out the effect of divorce on children in a country.
- Psychology affects women because of the gender gap in specific country areas.
- Statistics analysis to find out the cause of online bullying in students’ lives.
- In Psychology, PTSD and descriptive tendencies are discussed.
- The function of researchers in statistical testing and probability.
- Acceptable significance and probability thresholds in clinical Psychology.
- The utilization of hypothesis and the role of P 0.05 for improved comprehension.
- What types of statistical data are typically rejected in psychology?
- The application of basic statistical principles and reasoning in psychological analysis.
- The role of correlation is when several psychological concepts are at risk.
- Actual case study learning and modeling are used to generate statistical reports.
- In psychology, naturalistic observation is used as a research sample.
- How should descriptive statistics be used to represent behavioral data sets?

## Applied Statistics Research Topics

- Does education have a deep impact on the financial success of an individual?
- The investment in digital technology is having a meaningful return for corporations?
- The gap of financial wealth between rich and poor in the USA.
- A statistical approach to identify the effects of high-frequency trading in financial markets.
- Statistics analysis to determine the impact of the multi-agent model in financial markets.

## Personalized Medicine Statistics Research Topics

- Statistical analysis on the effect of methamphetamine on substance abusers.
- Deep research on the impact of the Corona vaccine on the Omnicrone variant.
- Find out the best cancer treatment approach between orthodox therapies and alternative therapies.
- Statistics analysis to identify the role of genes in the child’s overall immunity.
- What factors help the patients to survive from Coronavirus .

## Experimental Design Statistics Research Topics

- Generic vs private education is one of the best for the students and has better financial return.
- Psychology vs physiology: which leads the person not to quit their addictions?
- Effect of breastmilk vs packed milk on the infant child overall development
- Which causes more accidents: male alcoholics vs female alcoholics.
- What causes the student not to reveal the cyberbullying in front of their parents in most cases.

## Easy Statistics Research Topics

- Application of statistics in the world of data science
- Statistics for finance: how statistics is helping the company to grow their finance
- Advantages and disadvantages of Radar chart
- Minor marriages in south-east Asia and African countries.
- Discussion of ANOVA and correlation.
- What statistical methods are most effective for active sports?
- When measuring the correctness of college tests, a ranking statistical approach is used.
- Statistics play an important role in Data Mining operations.
- The practical application of heat estimation in engineering fields.
- In the field of speech recognition, statistical analysis is used.
- Estimating probiotics: how much time is necessary for an accurate statistical sample?
- How will the United States population grow in the next twenty years?
- The legislation and statistical reports deal with contentious issues.
- The application of empirical entropy approaches with online grammar checking.
- Transparency in statistical methodology and the reporting system of the United States Census Bureau.

## Statistical Research Topics for High School

- Uses of statistics in chemometrics
- Statistics in business analytics and business intelligence
- Importance of statistics in physics.
- Deep discussion about multivariate statistics
- Uses of Statistics in machine learning

## Survey Topics for Statistics

- Gather the data of the most qualified professionals in a specific area.
- Survey the time wasted by the students in watching Tvs or Netflix.
- Have a survey the fully vaccinated people in the USA
- Gather information on the effect of a government survey on the life of citizens
- Survey to identify the English speakers in the world.

## Statistics Research Paper Topics for Graduates

- Have a deep decision of Bayes theorems
- Discuss the Bayesian hierarchical models
- Analysis of the process of Japanese restaurants.
- Deep analysis of Lévy’s continuity theorem
- Analysis of the principle of maximum entropy

## AP Statistics Topics

- Discuss about the importance of econometrics
- Analyze the pros and cons of Probit Model
- Types of probability models and their uses
- Deep discussion of ortho stochastic matrix
- Find out the ways to get an adjacency matrix quickly

## Good Statistics Research Topics

- National income and the regulation of cryptocurrency.
- The benefits and drawbacks of regression analysis.
- How can estimate methods be used to correct statistical differences?
- Mathematical prediction models vs observation tactics.
- In sociology research, there is bias in quantitative data analysis.
- Inferential analytical approaches vs. descriptive statistics.
- How reliable are AI-based methods in statistical analysis?
- The internet news reporting and the fluctuations: statistics reports.
- The importance of estimate in modeled statistics and artificial sampling.

## Business Statistics Topics

- Role of statistics in business in 2023
- Importance of business statistics and analytics
- What is the role of central tendency and dispersion in statistics
- Best process of sampling business data.
- Importance of statistics in big data.
- The characteristics of business data sampling: benefits and cons of software solutions.
- How may two different business tasks be tackled concurrently using linear regression analysis?
- In economic data relations, index numbers, random probability, and correctness are all important.
- The advantages of a dataset approach to statistics in programming statistics.
- Commercial statistics: how should the data be prepared for maximum accuracy?

## Statistical Research Topics for College Students

- Evaluate the role of John Tukey’s contribution to statistics.
- The role of statistics to improve ADHD treatment.
- The uses and timeline of probability in statistics.
- Deep analysis of Gertrude Cox’s experimental design in statistics.
- Discuss about Florence Nightingale in statistics.
- What sorts of music do college students prefer?
- The Main Effect of Different Subjects on Student Performance.
- The Importance of Analytics in Statistics Research.
- The Influence of a Better Student in Class.
- Do extracurricular activities help in the transformation of personalities?
- Backbenchers’ Impact on Class Performance.
- Medication’s Importance in Class Performance.
- Are e-books better than traditional books?
- Choosing aspects of a subject in college

## How To Write Good Statistics Research Topics?

- Introduction of a problem
- Methodology explanation and choice.
- Statistical research itself is in the main part (Body Part).
- Samples deviations and variables.
- Lastly, statistical interpretation is your last part (conclusion).

Note: Always include the sources from which you obtained the statistics data.

## Top 3 Tips to Choose Good Statistics Research Topics

## 1. Narrow down your research topic

## 2. Choose a topic that gives you curiosity

## 3. Choose a manageable topic

## Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. what are some good topics for the statistics project.

## Q2. What are the topics in statistics?

## Q3. What are the top 10 research topics?

Here are the top 10 research topics that you can try in 2023:

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## Keyboard Shortcuts

Download the data file: nutrient.txt

## Using Technology

We will use the SAS program called to carry out the calculations that we would like to see.

Download the SAS file: nutrient.sas

The video will walk you through the various parts of the code.

Download the SAS Output file: nutrient2.lst

## Using Minitab

## Video: Descriptive Statistics in Minitab

## Descriptive Statistics

A summary of the descriptive statistics is given here for ease of reference.

The variance-covariance matrix is also copied into the matrix below.

## Interpretation

- The sample variances are given by the diagonal elements of S . For example, the variance of iron intake is \(s_{2}^{2}\). 35. 8 mg 2 .
- The covariances are given by the off-diagonal elements of S . For example, the covariance between calcium and iron intake is \(s_{12}\)= 940. 1.
- Note that, the covariances are all positive, indicating that the daily intake of each nutrient increases with increased intake of the remaining nutrients.

## Sample Correlations

The sample correlations are included in the table below.

\[r^2_{23} = 0.62337^2 = 0.38859\]

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## Statistical Research Papers by Topic

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## 100 Inspiring Statistics Research Topics

Definition and importance of statistics.

## How To Write Statistics Research Topics?

- Introduction of a problem or a scenario.
- Methodology choice and explanation.
- Statistical research itself in the body part.
- Samples variables and deviations.
- Statistical interpretation as your conclusion part.

## 100 Research Topics For Statistics

- good statistics research topics .

- The pros and cons of regression analysis.
- How accurate is the use of AI-based tools in statistical analysis?
- The online news reports and the fluctuations: statistical reports.
- How can statistical discrepancy be fixed with the help of estimation methods?
- National income and the regulation of cryptocurrencies.
- Covid-19 vaccination in the United States and effectiveness of treatments statistics.
- Mathematical prediction models vs observation strategies.
- Bias in quantitative data analysis in Sociology studies.
- Descriptive statistics vs inferential analysis methods.
- Artificial sampling and the role of estimation in modeled statistics.

## - Statistics Topics For Research Project

- Social media and sample size determination methods.
- SAS and coefficient of variation mistakes: manual vs automatic calculation.
- Interpretation of statistical results when using SPSS reporting system.
- The role of standard deviation when using Z-test analysis for social subjects.
- The reasons for using ANOVA testing when dealing with online surveys.
- Commercial hypothesis approach to online trading: why statistical analysis won't be accurate.
- How can diversity be explained with the help of statistical analysis?
- The link between playing video games and the violent outbreaks among college students: statistics.
- College loans: the reasons why the numbers increase and the related controversy.
- Analysis of the Markov Chain for determination of statistical limitations.

## - Ph.D. Research Topics In Statistics

- The use of statistical analysis in Quantum Physics: pros and cons when accuracy is essential.
- How can numerical calculations help with theoretical polymers.
- Data Assimilation when dealing with Big Data processes: statistical variables.
- The role of probability when one must apply Stochastic Analysis methods.
- Applicable Analysis and the benefits of statistical surveys for social distancing.
- Improvement of prediction methods in aeronautics.
- Cryptocurrencies and the statistical methods for SWIFT transactions.
- Why acceleration in the banking sector can be more harmful than useful today?
- Cell response and genetics: manual analysis and temporal factor.
- Business intelligence analysis methods: human analysis vs automatic computation.

## - Easy Statistics Research Topics

- The role of statistics in Data Mining processes.
- The real-life use of entropy estimation in engineering fields.
- Statistical analysis in the field of speech recognition.
- Online grammar checking and the use of empirical entropy methods.
- Ranking statistical approach when estimating the accuracy of college exams.
- Estimation of probiotics: how much time is necessary for an accurate statistical sample?
- How will the population of the United States increase in twenty years?
- What statistical methods are most useful for active sports?
- The legislation and the statistical reports dealing with controversial subjects.
- Transparency of statistical methods and the U.S. Census Bureau reporting system.

## - Survey Methods Statistics Research Topics

- The pros and cons of online surveys for business purposes.
- Data collecting and the use of the predefined groups.
- Analysis of strengths of multiple-question survey method: Geographical dependence and statistical survey methods
- Sampling accuracy and the link to wording in survey questions.
- How can statistical studies become more cost-effective by turning to surveys?
- Drawing survey conclusions and imputation techniques.
- The challenges of super population models in healthcare researching.
- What has the Covid-19 pandemic revealed about inaccurate surveys in 2021?
- Differential calculus versus spatial statistical research methods.
- Inner calculation formulas are most commonly used in online surveys.

## - Business Statistics Research Topics

- Economic data analysis when dealing with probabilities.
- Data distribution when working with descriptive samples: violations, bias, and privacy matters.
- Inferential statistics for small business owners: things one must know.
- The peculiarities of business data sampling: pros and cons of software solutions.
- Linear regression analysis: how can two different business projects be approached at once?
- Index numbers, random probability, and accuracy in economic data relations.
- Programming statistics: the benefits of dataset approach to statistics.
- Commercial statistics: how should the information be prepared for the best accuracy?
- Suggestive evidence vs real evidence among business corporations.
- AI-based statistical report analysis: financial calculation vs human estimation methods.

## - Applied Statistics Research Topics

- The challenges of statistical analysis and unstructured data.
- The pros and cons of text mining methods and educational statistics.
- Scientific approach to analysis vs basic social media analysis methods.
- Statistical software: what kind of data should not pass through classic solutions?
- The field of healthcare and processing of sensitive statistical information.
- Energy sources and statistical estimation of the green energy benefits.
- Changes in politics and turbulence in economic estimation.
- Globalization and statistical information coming from more than one source.
- Composition of a manual statistical report for unstable political environments.
- The percentage of aggression in active sports: behavioral statistics.

## - Sports Statistics Research Topics

- Why are Pareto charts preferred more compared to bubble charts for baseball series?
- Data analysis in sporting events: a comparison of baseball and basketball statistics.
- Recording live data sets: how can median accuracy be achieved?
- The role of free agencies for ranking purposes: bias in sports statistics.
- The peculiarities of NFL statistician's work and the reporting privacy.
- Why does the average distance gained per running session matter in soccer?
- Past games analysis information vs future estimates.
- The role of the news organization and the live changes to statistical estimation.
- Inter-sportive data and the commonalities encountered by statisticians in NBA and NFL.
- Knowledge of strengths and weaknesses of teams and their importance for accurate statistics in sports.

## - Possible Research Topics For Statistics

- Cyberbullying and common patterns used for online attacks: collecting stats.
- The role of statistics during political campaigns and elections.
- The success ratio of male vs female employees in Amazon Inc.
- The role of sociological estimation for the establishment of statistical data sets.
- How can data mining practices help establish more accurate statistics?
- The role of urgent calculation for statistical reports in the military.
- Estimation of descriptive statistics during Covid-19 times.
- Western and Southern African statistical reporting agencies: case study comparison.
- Statistical bias in politics: why transparency cannot be achieved.
- The use of statistical estimation in mechanical engineering.

## - Psychology Research Topics for Statistics

- PTSD and understanding of descriptive trends in Psychology.
- Statistical testing and probability's importance: the role of the researchers.
- Acceptable significance and probability levels in clinical Psychology.
- The use of hypothesis and the role of P 0.05 for better comprehension.
- What statistical data is usually rejected in Psychology?
- The use of elementary statistical principles and reasoning in psychological analysis.
- The role of correlation when there are several psychological concepts at play.
- Statistical reporting based on actual case study learning and modeling.
- Naturalistic observation as a scientific sample in Psychology.
- How should descriptive statistics capture behavioral data sets?

## Fitting Your Statistical Research Correctly

- Marketing Research Paper Topics
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The effect of coffee consumption on the risk of hypertension.

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## Hazard of Climate Changing

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## US Census Conducts Survey Every Ten Years to Analyze Various Demographics

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- Stresses statistical methods that have broad applications
- Draws attention to statistical methods that are relevant to the economic and social sciences
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Example: Descriptive statistics (experiment) After collecting pretest and posttest data from 30 students across the city, you calculate descriptive statistics. Because you have normal distributed data on an interval scale, you tabulate the mean, standard deviation, variance and range.

Example data sheet To keep track of your salt-tolerance experiment, you make a data sheet where you record information about the variables in the experiment, like salt addition and plant health. To gather information about plant responses over time, you can fill out the same data sheet every few days until the end of the experiment.

An example: if we are interested in knowing whether there is a relationship between hospital beds per 1,000 residents and the reading scores of senior citizens, defined as ages 65 and over, in a given city or country, then we must gather data on both variables.

Research Papers / Publications - Department of Statistics and Data Science Research » Research Papers / Publications Research Papers / Publications Chao Gao, Yandi Shen, Ye Zhang (2023), Uncertainty Quantification in The Bradley-Terry-Luce Model, Information and Inference: A Journal of the IMA.

See our collection of statistics research paper examples . These example papers are to help you understanding how to write this type of written assignments. Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.

Statistical Suﬃciency Research Paper Censuses Of Population Research Paper Stochastic Models Research Paper Stock Market Predictability Research Paper Structural Equation Modeling Research Paper Survival Analysis Research Paper Systems Modeling Research Paper Nonprobability Sampling Research Paper 1. Introduction

For example, if a sample survey reports the percentage in the sample who favor a particular candidate to be 55 percent and gives a 95 percent confidence interval as 52 to 58 percent, the meaning is that a procedure has been followed that gives an interval that covers the true population percent 95 percent of the time.

Examples List on Statistics Research Paper Two Experimental Designs Applied in the Management Coronary Artery Disease 5 pages (1250 words) , Download 1 , Research Paper Preview sample Pizza Chain Dominos 5 pages (1250 words) , Research Paper Nobody downloaded yet Preview sample sponsored ads Hire a pro to write a paper under your requirements!

The basic data and parameters are functions. Time series take on a dazzling variety of shapes and forms, indeed there are as many time series as there are functions of real numbers. Some common examples of time series forms are provided in Fig. 1. One notes periods, trends, wandering and integer-values. The time series such as those in the ...

Research papers on statistics involve great focus on analysis, proportional inference and interpretation. This section of Researchomatic is therefore focused on bringing to its customers some of the most carefully selected and compiled research papers on statistics that will help students to better understand the subject. Projects Rating

What is a stats research paper? How to create the perfect statistics research paper example? Select the topic Data collection Outlining the paper The intro section The body of the text (research report, as they say in statistics) The conclusion Tips on how to write a statistics paper example

Here are some examples of good topics you may find helpful in your work: The Study of Diversity in Motion Picture Industry; Statistical Analysis of Home Advantage Influence on Performance of Football Teams; Evidence of Reverse Discrimination in American Businesses during the Last Decade;

The mean of exam two is 77.7. The median is 75, and the mode is 79. Exam two had a standard deviation of 11.6. Overall the company had another excellent year. We shipped 14.3 tons of fertilizer for the year, and averaged 1.7 tons of fertilizer during the summer months.

According to the descriptive statistics the typical time spent on sports is 5 hours per week for both males and females (Mode = 5). The average time spent on sports is 6.761h for men and 6.919h for women. The men's data is more dispersed than women's (standard deviations are 3.808 and 3.451 respectively).

For example, if you present the statistic that the murder rate in one neighborhood increased by 500 percent, and in the same period high school graduation rates decreased by 300 percent, these numbers are virtually meaningless without context.

How To Write Good Statistics Research Topics? Top 3 Tips to Choose Good Statistics Research Topics 1. Narrow down your research topic 2. Choose a topic that gives you curiosity 3. Choose a manageable topic Conclusion Frequently Asked Questions Q1. What are some good topics for the Statistics project? Q2. What are the topics in statistics? Q3.

Example 1-5: Women's Health Survey (Descriptive Statistics) Let us take a look at an example. In 1985, the USDA commissioned a study of women's nutrition. Nutrient intake was measured for a random sample of 737 women aged 25-50 years. The following variables were measured: Calcium (mg) Iron (mg) Protein (g) Vitamin A (μg) Vitamin C (mg)

Statistical Research Papers by Topic Annual Reports Research Reports & Studies Statistical Research Papers by Topic Beginning August 1, 2001: Research Report Series - Computing (RRC) View papers from the Research Report Series on Computing (RRC). Research Report Series - Statistics (RRS)

See some statistical research topic examples that relate to business matters: Economic data analysis when dealing with probabilities. Data distribution when working with descriptive samples: violations, bias, and privacy matters. Inferential statistics for small business owners: things one must know.

Descriptive statistics is used in the form of histograms, bar graphs, line graphs, pie charts and other forms of descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics help in showing how the test scores are distributed. Presenting test score information in descriptive statistics allows for easy comparison, analysis of trends and result evaluation.

Statistics Essays 18 essay samples found Essay examples Essay topics The Effect of Coffee Consumption on the Risk of Hypertension Words: 1629 Pages: 5 4789 ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: hypertension can be defined as a disorder that makes the blood to exert some forces against the walls of the blood vessels.

Statistical Papers provides a forum for the presentation and critical assessment of statistical methods. In particular, the journal encourages the discussion of methodological foundations as well as potential applications. This journal stresses statistical methods that have broad applications; however, it does give special attention to statistical methods that are relevant to the economic and ...

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As a full-scale social movement, photorealism emerged from Pop Art, and as a counter to the maximalist other creative movement, similar to the minimalist art movements of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Photorealists use a photograph or many photos to collect the statistics to form their art works. They argued that the utilization of a camera ...