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Cambridge IELTS 1 Academic Reading Test 4 Answer Key

Cambridge 1 reading test 4 answers, reading passage 1- glass - capturing the dance of light.

Glass - Capturing the Dance of Light Reading Answers

Reading Passage 2 – Why some women cross the finish line ahead of men

Why some women cross the finish line ahead of men Reading Answers

Reading Passage 3 – Population viability analysis

Population viability analysis Reading Answers

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(update 2023) cambridge ielts 8 reading test 4 answers – free lesson.

Cambridge IELTS 8 is the latest IELTS exam preparation.  READINGIELTS.COM  will help you to answer all questions in  cambridge ielts 8 reading test 4  with detail explanations.


Questions 1 – 5, choose the correct heading for sections b – f, 1.   section b.

In paragraph B, the writer gives us an overview about lower secondary schools in Japan such  as  the  number  of  years  [lower  secondary  schools  in  Japan  cover  three  school years…private sector],  the facilities [School  are usually modern in  design…in  rows],  the time of lessons [a standardized 50 minutes], break time [a 10 – minute break], classes are large and unstreamed. => This provides the background of secondary education in Japan. – lower secondary schools = middle – years education => ANSWER: vii – Background to middle – years education in Japan

2.   Section C

In  paragraph  C:  “Everyone  has  their  own  copy of  the  textbook  supplied  by  the  central education authority, Monbusho, as a part of the concept of free compulsory education up to the age of 15” => Monbusho, central education authority supplies textbooks. The last sentence in paragraph C: “Besides approving textbooks,  Monbusho also decides the highly centralized national curriculum and how it is to be delivered”. This means that Monbusho has great effects/influence not only on textbooks but also the national curriculum. Moreover, the writer only refers to Monbusho in paragraph C. =>ANSWER: i – The influence of Monbusho

3.   Section D

In paragraph D, the writer indicates the pattern for a math lessons:  “Lessons all follow the same pattern. At the beginning, the pupils put solutions to the homework on the board, then the teachers comment, collect or elaborate as necessary”.   => That means there is a typical format/pattern of a math lesson. format = pattern => ANSWER:  v – The typical format of a math lesson

4.   Section E

5.   section f.

In paragraph  F, the writer raises a question in order to  find out what factors contribute to the success of math education in Japan.   “So what are the  major contributing factors in the  success  of  maths  teaching?  Clearly,  attitudes  are  important”.    Some  other  “relevant points  relate  to  the  supportive  attitude  of  a  class  towards  slower  pupils,  the  lack  of competition within a class, and the positive emphasis on learning….” – key = major contributing factors => ANSWER: viii – The key to Japanese successes in maths education

Questions 6-9

6.   there  is  a  wider  range of  achievement  amongst  english  pupils  studying  maths  than  amongst their japanese counterparts.

Key words: wider range of achievement, English pupils, studying maths, Japanese counterparts In  paragraph  A:    “but  there  was  also  a  larger  proportion  of  ‘low’  attainers  in  England, where, incidentally, the variation in attainment scores was much greater”. This  means  that  though  Japan  has  a  significantly  better  record  in  terms  of  average mathematical attainment than England and Wales, England has a wider range of attainment scores than Japan.  So, in England and Wales it is common for some pupils to achieve very high scores, while others only have low scores. – wider = greater – achievement = attainment counterpart:  a person or thing that has the same position or function as somebody/something else in a different place or situation. =>   ANSWER: YES

7. The  percentage  of  Gross  National  Product  spent  on  education  generally  reflects  the  level  of attainment

Key words: percentage, Gross National Product, spent, reflects, level of attainment The  last  sentence  in  paragraph  A:    “the  percentage  of  Gross  National  Product  spent  on education  is  reasonably  similar  in  the  two  countries,  so  how  is  this  higher  and  more consistent attainment in maths achieved?” This means that though both countries [Japan & England] receive the same percentage of Gross  National  Product,  the  level  of  achievement  in  studying  maths  is  higher  in  Japan. Moreover,  in  the  first  sentence,  the  writer  indicates  that  Japan  has  a  better  record  in mathematical  attainment  than  England  and  Wales;  therefore,  it  is  false  to  say  that  the percentage of GNP spent on education reflects the level of attainment. =>  ANSWER: NO

8.   Private  schools  in  Japan  are  more  modern  and  spacious  than  state  –  run  lower  secondary schools.

9.   teachers mark homework in japanese schools.

Key words: teachers, mark, homework, Japanese schools In  paragraph  D:    “Pupils  mark  their  own  homework:  this  is  an  important  principle  in Japanese schooling as it enables pupils to see where and why they made a mistake so that these can be avoided in future”. => This means that teachers do not mark homework.   It is the students who mark their own homework. =>ANSWER: NO

Questions 10-13   Choose the correct letter, A,B,C or D.

10. maths textbooks in japanese schools are.

In  paragraph  C:  “These  textbooks  are,  on  the  whole,  small,  presumably  inexpensive  to produce,  but  well  set  out  and  logically  developed”.   Textbooks  are  referred  to  again  in paragraph D:   “….the logical nature of the textbooks and their comprehensive coverage of  different  types  of  examples,  combined  with  the  relative  homogeneity  of  the  class, renders work sheets unnecessary”.   Therefore, teachers do not need to use work sheets, the maths textbooks contain everything that the pupils need. –  well organised = well set out –  comprehensive coverage ~ containing all the examples that the pupils need =>ANSWER: B  – Well organised and adapted to the needs of the pupils

11. When a new maths topic is introduced,

In paragraph D:   “…. the teacher explains the topic of the lesson, slowly and with a lot of repetition and elaboration.   Examples are demonstrated on the board; questions from the textbook  are  worked  through  first  with  the  class….”.  This  means  that  when  a  new  maths topic is introduced, the teacher patiently gives a clearly explanation of the topic to students. – patiently = slowly –  carefully = with a lot of repetition and elaboration =>ANSWER:  C- It is carefully and patiently explained to the students

12. How do schools deal with students who experience difficulties?

In paragraph E:  “Teachers say that they give individual help at the end of a lesson or after school,  setting  extra  work  if  necessary.    In  observed  lessons,  any  strugglers  would  be assisted by the teacher or quietly seek help from their neighbour”. Schools  also  encourage  parents  to  help:     “Parents  are  kept  closely  informed  of  their children‟s  progress  and  will  play  a  part  in  helping  their  children  to  keep  up  with  class, sending  them  to  ‘Juku’  (private  evening tuition)  if  extra  help  is  needed  and  encouraging them to work harder”. – supplementary = extra tuition: the act of teaching something, especially to one person or to people in small groups =>ANSWER: A – They are given appropriate supplementary tuition

13. Why do Japanese students tend to achieve relatively high rates of success in maths?

Cambridge ielts 8 – test 4 – passage 1 keywords table, passage 2: biological control of pests, questions 14 – 17  choose the correct letter, a,b,c or d, 14. the use of pesticides has contributed to.

In paragraph 1: “Apart from engendering widespread ecological disorders, pesticides have contributed   to   the   emergence   of   a   new   breed   of   chemical-resistant,   highly   lethal superbugs”. This  means  that  the  use  of  pesticides  is  partly  responsible  for  widespread  ecological disorders and the development of  highly lethal superbugs ~ types of insects that are very difficult to destroy and which cause a lot of damage.   This results in an imbalance in many ecologies around the world. – around the world = widespread – imbalance = disorders => ANSWER: B – an imbalance in many ecologies around the world.

15. The Food and Agriculture Organization has counted more than 300 agricultural pests which

In paragraph 2: “more than 300 species of agricultural pests have developed resistance to a wide range of potent chemicals”.   That means pesticides no longer affect/ have any effect on these agricultural pests. – no longer responding to = have developed resistance to – pesticides = potent chemicals =>ANSWER: A – are no longer responding to most pesticides in use.

16. Cotton farmers in Central America began to use pesticides

Paragraph   4   refers  to   cotton   farmers  in   Central   America:     “farmers   avidly   took   to pesticides  as  a  sure  measure  to  boost  crop  yield”.  That  means  farmers  used  pesticides  to increase the amount of cotton harvested from each crop ~ the crop yield. – began to use = took to – boost: to make something increase =>ANSWER: D – to ensure more cotton was harvested from each crop

17. By the mid-1960s, cotton farmers in Central America found that pesticides

In paragraph 5: “By the mid-1960s, the situation took an alarming turn with the outbreak of four more new pests, necessitating pesticides spraying to such an extent that 50% of the financial outlay on cotton production was accounted for by pesticides”. This  means  that  pesticides  accounted  for  50%  of  the  amount  of  money  spent  on  cotton production. – financial outlay: the money that you have to spend in order to produce cotton =>ANSWER: D – were costing 50% of the total amount they spent on their crops

Questions 18 – 21

18. disease -spreading pests respond more quickly to pesticides than agricultural pests do., 19. a number of pests are now born with an innate immunity to some pesticides.

Key words: pests, born, innate immunity, pesticides In  paragraph  3:  “Because  of  their  tremendous  breeding  potential  and  genetic  diversity, many pests are known to withstand synthetic chemicals and bear offspring with a built-in resistance  to  pesticides”.   That  means  these  species  are  born  with  an  innate  immunity/  to insecticides. – born with ~ some pests give birth to young/offspring which are not killed by chemical pesticides – withstand ~ resist/be immune to/not be killed by – insecticides ~ chemicals/pesticides which kill insects innate: that you have when you were born =>ANSWER: YES

20. Biological control entails using synthetic chemicals to try and change the genetic make-up of the pests‟ offspring.

Key words: biological control, synthetic chemicals, change, genetic make-up, pests‟ offspring. In paragraph 7, “In the face of the escalating perils  from indiscriminate  applications of pesticides, a more effective and ecologically sound strategy of biological control, involving the selective use of  natural  enemies of  the pest population, is  fast  gaining popularity – though, as yet, it is a new field with limited potential”. The  writer  states  that  „biological  control‟  is  a  more  effective  and  ecologically  sound strategy,  used  in  an  effort  to  tackle  the  serious  danger  caused  by  the  application  of pesticides.  This  means  that  „biological  control‟  does  not  use  pesticides  but  uses  natural enemies  of  pests.  =>  It  is  false  to  say  that  “Biological  control  entails  using  synthetic chemicals to try and change the genetic make-up of the pests‟ offspring”. – peril: serious danger – indiscriminate:  action  that  is  taken  without  thought  about  what  the  result  may  be,  especially when it causes people to be harmed =>ANSWER: NO

21. Bio-control is free from danger under certain circumstances

Key words: bio – control, free from, danger, circumstances In  paragraph  7,  the  writer  mentions   “the  advantage  of  biological  control  in  contrast  to other  methods  is  that  it  provides  a  relatively  low  –  cost,  perpetual  control  system  with  a minimum of detrimental side – effects. When handled by experts, bio – control is safe, non – polluting and self – dispersing”. – Under certain circumstances [when handled by experts], bio-control is safe, non-polluting and self-dispersing = free from danger. =>ANSWER: YES

Questions 22 – 26

22. disapene scale insects feed on, 23. neodumetia sangawani ate.

In  paragraph  10:   “Neodumetia  sangawani,  was  found  useful  in  controlling  the  Rhodes grass-scale insect that was devouring forage grass in many parts of the US”. This  means  Neodumetia  sangawaniate  ate  Rhodes  grass-scale  insect  to  control  it  from devouring  [eating]  forage  grass.  To  be  clear,  Neodumetia  sangawani  eats  grass-scale insects, and grass-scale insects eat forage grass. –  ate = was devouring =>ANSWER:  H – Grass-scale insects

24. Leaf-mining hispides blighted

In  paragraph  10:  “In  the  late  1960s,  when  Sri  Lanka‟s  flourishing  coconut  groves  were plagued  by  leaf-mining  hispides,  a  larval  parasite  imported  from  Singapore  brought  the pest under control”. This means that Sri Lanka‟s coconut groves were damaged by leaf-mining hispides. – blight = plague – flourishing: developing quickly and being very successful/productive grove: a small group of trees => ANSWER: C – Coconut trees

25. An Argentinian weevil may be successful in wiping out

In  paragraph  9,  “Similarly the  Hyderabad  – based Regional  Laboratory (RRL), supported by CIBC, is now trying out an Argentina weevil  for the  eradication of water hyacinth”. That  means  an  Argentinian  weevil  may  be  successful  in  destroying  all  of  the  water hyacinth plants [by eating them] – hyacinth: a plant with a mass of small blue, white or pink flowers with a sweet smell that grow closely together around a thick stem – wiping out = eradication

26. Salvinia molesta plagues

Cambridge ielts 8 – test 4 – passage 2 keywords table, passage 3: collecting ant specimens, questions 27-30: do the following statements agree with the information given in reading passage 3, 27. taxonomic research involves comparing members of one group of ants.

Key words: taxonomic, comparing members of group of ants In paragraph 1:   “For taxonomy, or classification, long series, from a single nest, which contain  all  castes  (workers,  including  majors  and  minors,  and,  if  present,  queens  and males) are desirable, to allow the determination of variation within species”. This  means  that  taxonomic  research  involves  classifying  ants  from  a  single  nest,  which contain all castes, or different members of a group. – comparing = determination of variation – one group = species =>ANSWER: TRUE

28. New species of ant are frequently identified by taxonomists.

Key words: new species of ant, identified, taxonomists All the information relating to taxonomic research is in paragraph 1. Taxonomic research involves   comparing  members   of  one   group  of   ants   and   “the   taxonomist   sometimes overlooks whole species in favour of those currently under study”. There is no information about how often new species of ant are identified by taxonomists. => ANSWER: NOT GIVEN

29. Range is the key criterion for ecological collections

Key words: range, key criterion, ecological collections In paragraph 1, “For ecological studies, the most important factor is collecting identifiable samples  of  as  many  of  the  different  species  present  as  possible”.  This  means  that  it  is important for ecological collections to collect a variety of present species [collect different species] – range: a variety of things of a particular type – key criterion = the most important factor => ANSWER: TRUE

30. A single collection of ants can generally be used for both taxonomic and ecological purposes.

Key words: single collection of ants, taxonomic and ecological purposes In paragraph 1: “For ecological studies, the most important factor is collecting identifiable samples of as many of the different species present as possible”.    Taxonomists prefer to collect  a  lot  of  ants  from  a  single  nest.    “Unfortunately,  these  methods  are  not  always compatible”.  Therefore, one collection of ants cannot always be used for both purposes. Therefore, it  is  false to  say that  a single collection of ants  can  generally be used for  both taxonomic and ecological purposes. => ANSWER: FALSE

Questions 31 – 36

31. it is preferable to take specimens from groups of ants.

In paragraph 2, in the hand collecting method, “when possible, collections should be made from nests or foraging columns and at least 20 to 25 individuals collected. This will ensure that  all  individuals  are  from  the  same  species  and  so  increase  their  value  for  detailed studies”.  “Take  specimens  from  groups  of  ants”  means  all  individuals  [ants]  are  the  same  species, from       the       same       nestor column of ants searching for food. =>ANSWER: A – Hand-collecting

32. It is particularly effective for wet habitats.

In paragraph 4, in the ground litter sampling method, “this method  works especially well in rain forests and marshy areas”.  Rain forests and marshy areas are wet habitats. – effective = works well – marshy area: land which is always soft and wet. => ANSWER: C – Sampling ground litter

33. It is a good method for species which are hard to find

In  paragraph  3,  in  the  method  using  baits,  “Baits  can  be  used  to  attract  and  concentrate foragers. This often increases the number of individuals collected and attracts  species that are otherwise  elusive”.  That  means baits can be  used to  collect  species which are hard to find [elusive]. – hard to find = elusive =>ANSWER: B – Using bait

34. Little time and effort is required

35. separate containers are used for individual specimens.

In paragraph 2, in the hand collecting method, “Individual insects are placed in plastic or glass tubes (1.5 – 3.0 ml capacity for small ants, 5-8 ml for larger ants) containing 75% to 95% ethanol”. Insects   [including   small   ants   and   larger   ants]   are   placed   in   plastic   or   glass   tubes [containers] with different sizes.  Each insect is placed in a separate tube. – containers = tubes =>ANSWER: A – Hand collecting

36. Non-alcoholic preservative should be used

In paragraph 5, in the method using pitfall traps, “the preservative used is usually ethylene glycol or propylene glycol, as alcohol will evaporate quickly and the traps will dry out”. If  alcohol  is  used  to  preserve  ant  speciments,  the  traps  dry  too  quickly  because  alcohol evaporates.     So   other   preservatives,   which   do   not   contain   alcohol   should   be   used. – evaporate: to disappear, especially by gradually becoming less and less => ANSWER: D – Using a pitfall trap

Questions 37 – 40

In paragraph 4:   “this is most commonly done by placing leaf litter [38] on a screen [39] over a large funnel, often  under some heat [37]. as the leaf litter dries from above, ants (and other animals) move downward and eventually fall out the bottom and are collected in alcohol [40] placed below the funnel”, cambridge ielts 8 – test 4 – passage 3 keywords table.

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You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13  which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.

Bats to the rescue

How Madagascar’s bats are helping to save the rainforest

There are few places in the world where relations between agriculture and conservation are more strained. Madagascar’s forests are being converted to agricultural land at a rate of one percent every year. Much of this destruction is fuelled by the cultivation of the country’s main staple crop: rice. And a key reason for this destruction is that insect pests are destroying vast quantities of what is grown by local subsistence farmers, leading them to clear forest to create new paddy fields. The result is devastating habitat and biodiversity loss on the island, but not all species are suffering. In fact, some of the island’s insectivorous bats are currently thriving and this has important implications for farmers and conservationists alike.

Enter University of Cambridge zoologist Ricardo Rocha. He’s passionate about conservation, and bats. More specifically, he’s interested in how bats are responding to human activity and deforestation in particular. Rocha’s new study shows that several species of bats are giving Madagascar’s rice farmers a vital pest control service by feasting on plagues of insects. And this, he believes, can ease the financial pressure on farmers to turn forest into fields.

Bats comprise roughly one-fifth of all mammal species in Madagascar and thirty-six recorded bat species are native to the island, making it one of the most important regions for conservation of this animal group anywhere in the world.

Co-leading an international team of scientists, Rocha found that several species of indigenous bats are taking advantage of habitat modification to hunt insects swarming above the country’s rice fields. They include the Malagasy mouse-eared bat, Major’s long-fingered bat, the Malagasy white-bellied free-tailed bat and Peters’ wrinkle-lipped bat.

‘These winner species are providing a valuable free service to Madagascar as biological pest suppressors,’ says Rocha. ‘We found that six species of bat are preying on rice pests, including the paddy swarming caterpillar and grass webworm. The damage which these insects cause puts the island’s farmers under huge financial pressure and that encourages deforestation.’

The study, now published in the journal Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment , set out to investigate the feeding activity of insectivorous bats in the farmland bordering the Ranomafana National Park in the southeast of the country.

Rocha and his team used state-of-the-art ultrasonic recorders to record over a thousand bat ‘feeling buzzes’ (echolocation sequences used by bats to target their prey) at 54 sites, in order to identify the favourite feeding spots of the bats. The next used DNA barcoding techniques to analyse droppings collected from bats at the different sites.

The recordings revealed that bat activity over rice fields was much higher than it was in continuous forest – seven times higher over rice fields which were on flat ground, and sixteen times higher over fields on the sides of hills – leaving no doubt that the animals are preferentially foraging in these man-made ecosystems. The researchers suggest that the bats favour these fields because lack of water and nutrient run-off make these crops more susceptible to insect pest infestations. DNA analysis showed that all six species of bat had fed on economically important insect pests. While the findings indicated that rice farming benefits most from the bats, the scientists also found indications that the bats were consuming pests of other crops, including the black twig borer (which infests coffee plants), the sugarcane cicada, the macadamia nut-borer, and the sober tabby (a pest of citrus fruits).

‘The effectiveness of bats as pest controllers has already been proven in the USA and Catalonia,’ said co-author James Kemp, from the University of Lisbon. ‘But our study is the first to show this happening in Madagascar, where the stakes for both farmers and conservationists are so high.’

Local people may have a further reason to be grateful to their bats. While the animal is often associated with spreading disease, Rocha and his team found evidence that Malagasy bats feed not just on crop pests but also on mosquitoes – carriers of malaria, Rift Valley fever virus and elephantiasis – as well as blackflies, which spread river blindness.

Rocha points out that the relationship is complicated. When food is scarce, bats become a crucial source of protein for local people. Even the children will hunt them. And as well as roosting in trees, the bats sometimes roost in buildings, but are not welcomed there because they make them unclean. At the same time, however, they are associated with sacred caves and the ancestors, so they can be viewed as beings between worlds, which makes them very significant in the culture of the people. And one potential problem is that while these bats are benefiting from farming, at the same time deforestation is reducing the places where they can roost, which could have long-term effects on their numbers. Rocha says, ‘With the right help, we hope that farmers can promote this mutually beneficial relationship by installing bat houses.’

Rocha and his colleagues believe that maximising bat populations can help to boost crop yields and promote sustainable livelihoods. The team is now calling for further research to quantify this contribution. ‘I’m very optimistic,’ says Rocha. ‘If we give nature a hand, we can speed up the process of regeneration.’

Questions 1-6

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

In boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE                if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE               if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN     if there is no information on this

1   Many Madagascan forests are being destroyed by attacks from insects.

2   Loss of habitat has badly affected insectivorous bats in Madagascar.

3   Ricardo Rocha has carried out studies of bats in different parts of the world.

4   Habitat modification has resulted in indigenous bats in Madagascar becoming useful to farmers.

5    The Malagasy mouse-eared bat is more common than other indigenous bat species in Madagascar.

6    Bats may feed on paddy swarming caterpillars and grass webworms.

Questions 7-13

Complete the table below.

Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 7-13 on your answer sheet.  

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You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26  which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.  

Does education fuel economic growth?

Over the last decade, a huge database about the lives of southwest German villagers between 1600 and 1900 has been compiled by a team led by Professor Sheilagh Ogilvie at Cambridge University’s Faculty of Economics. It includes court records, guild ledgers, parish registers, village censuses, tax lists and – the most recent addition – 9,000 handwritten inventories listing over a million personal possessions belonging to ordinary women and men across three centuries. Ogilvie, who discovered the inventories in the archives of two German communities 30 years ago, believes they may hold the answer to a conundrum that has long puzzled economists: the lack of evidence for a causal link between education and a country’s economic growth.

As Ogilvie explains, ‘Education helps us to work more productively, invent better technology, and earn more … surely it must be critical for economic growth? But, if you look back through history, there’s no evidence that having a high literacy rate made a country industrialise earlier.’ Between 1600 and 1900, England had only mediocre literacy rates by European standards, yet its economy grew fast and it was the first country to industrialise. During this period, Germany and Scandinavia had excellent literacy rates, but their economies grew slowly and they industrialised late. ‘Modern cross-country analyses have also struggled to find evidence that education causes economic growth, even though there is plenty of evidence that growth increases education,’ she adds.

In the handwritten inventories that Ogilvie is analysing are the belongings of women and men at marriage, remarriage and death. From badger skins to Bibles, sewing machines to scarlet bodices – the villagers’ entire worldly goods are included. Inventories of agricultural equipment and craft tools reveal economic activities; ownership of books and education-related objects like pens and slates suggests how people learned. In addition, the tax lists included in the database record the value of farms, workshops, assets and debts; signatures and people’s estimates of their age indicate literacy and numeracy levels; and court records reveal obstacles (such as the activities of the guilds*) that stifled industry.

Previous studies usually had just one way of linking education with economic growth – the presence of schools and printing presses, perhaps, or school enrolment, or the ability to sign names. According to Ogilvie, the database provides multiple indicators for the same individuals, making it possible to analyse links between literacy, numeracy, wealth, and industriousness, for individual women and men over the long term.

Ogilvie and her team have been building the vast database of material possessions on top of their full demographic reconstruction of the people who lived in these two German communities. ‘We can follow the same people – and their descendants – across 300 years of educational and economic change,’ she says. Individual lives have unfolded before their eyes. Stories like that of the 24-year-olds Ana Regina and Magdalena Riethmüllerin, who were chastised in 1707 for reading books in church instead of listening to the sermon. ‘This tells us they were continuing to develop their reading skills at least a decade after leaving school,’ explains Ogilvie. The database also reveals the case of Juliana Schweickherdt, a 50-year-old spinster living in the small Black Forest community of Wildberg, who was reprimanded in 1752 by the local weavers’ guild for ‘weaving cloth and combing wool, counter to the guide ordinance’. When Juliana continued taking jobs reserved for male guild members, she was summoned before the guild court and told to pay a fine equivalent to one third of a servant’s annual wage. It was a small act of defiance by today’s standards, but it reflects a time when laws in Germany and elsewhere regulated people’s access to labour markets. The dominance of guilds not only prevented people from using their skills, but also held back even the simplest industrial innovation.

The data-gathering phase of the project has been completed and now, according to Ogilvie, it is time ‘to ask the big questions’. One way to look at whether education causes economic growth is to ‘hold wealth constant’. This involves following the lives of different people with the same level of wealth over a period of time. If wealth is constant, it is possible to discover whether education was, for example, linked to the cultivation of new crops, or to the adoption of industrial innovations like sewing machines. The team will also ask what aspect of education helped people engage more with productive and innovative activities. Was it, for instance, literacy, numeracy, book ownership, years of schooling? Was there a threshold level – a tipping point – that needed to be reached to affect economic performance?

Ogilvie hopes to start finding answers to these questions over the next few years. One thing is already clear, she says: the relationship between education and economic growth is far from straightforward. ‘German-speaking central Europe is an excellent laboratory for testing theories of economic growth,’ she explains. Between 1600 and 1900, literacy rates and book ownership were high and yet the region remained poor. It was also the case that local guilds and merchant associations were extremely powerful and legislated against anything that undermined their monopolies. In villages throughout the region, guilds blocked labour migration and resisted changes that might reduce their influence.

‘Early findings suggest that the potential benefits of education for the economy can be held back by other barriers, and this has implications for today,’ says Ogilvie. ‘Huge amounts are spent improving education in developing countries, but this spending can fail to deliver economic growth if restrictions block people – especially women and the poor – from using their education in economically productive ways. If economic institutions are poorly set up, for instance, education can’t lead to growth.’


* guild: an association of artisans or merchants which oversees the practice of their craft or trade in a particular area

Questions 14-18

Reading Passage 2 has six paragraphs, A-F .

Which section contains the following information?

Write the correct letter, A-F , in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet.

14    an explanation of the need for research to focus on individuals with a fairly consistent income

15    examples of the sources the database has been compiled from

16    an account of one individual’s refusal to obey an order

17    a reference to a region being particularly suited to research into the link between education and economic growth

18   examples of the items included in a list of personal possessions

Questions 19-22

Complete the summary below.

Choose ONE WORD from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 19-22 on your answer sheet.

Demographic reconstruction of two German communities

The database that Ogilvie and her team has compiled sheds light on the lives of a range of individuals, as well as those of their 19 …………………, over a 300-year period. For example, Ana Regina and Magdalena Riethmüllerin were reprimanded for reading while they should have been paying attention to a 20 ………………… .

There was also Juliana Schweickherdt, who came to the notice of the weavers’ guild in the year 1752 for breaking guild rules. As a punishment, she was later given a 21 ………………… . Cases like this illustrate how the guilds could prevent 22 ………………… and stop skilled people from working

Questions 23 and 24

Choose TWO letters, A-E .

Write the correct letters in boxes 23 and 24 on your answer sheet.

Which TWO of the following statements does the writer make about literacy rates in Section B?

A   Very little research has been done into the link between high literacy rates and improved earnings.

B   Literacy rates in Germany between 1600 and 1900 were very good.

C   There is strong evidence that high literacy rates in the modern world result in economic growth.

D   England is a good example of how high literacy rates helped a country industrialise.

E   Economic growth can help to improve literacy rates.

Questions 25 and 26

Write the correct letters in boxes 25 and 26 on your answer sheet.

Which TWO of the following statements does the writer make in Section F about guilds in German-speaking Central Europe between 1600 and 1900?

A   They helped young people to learn a skill.

B   They were opposed to people moving to an area for work.

C   They kept better records than guilds in other parts of the world.

D   They opposed practices that threatened their control over a trade.

E   They predominantly consisted of wealthy merchants.


You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

Timur Gareyev – blindfold chess champion

Next month, a chess player named Timur Gareyev will take on nearly 50 opponents at once. But that is not the hard part. While his challengers will play the games as normal, Gareyev himself will be blindfolded. Even by world record standards, it sets a high bar for human performance. The 28-year-old already stands out in the rarefied world of blindfold chess. He has a fondness for bright clothes and unusual hairstyles, and he gets his kicks from the adventure sport of BASE jumping. He has already proved himself a strong chess player, too. In a 10-hour chess marathon in 2013, Gareyev played 33 games in his head simultaneously. He won 29 and lost none. The skill has become his brand: he calls himself the Blindfold King.

But Gareyev’s prowess has drawn interest from beyond the chess-playing community. In the hope of understanding how he and others like him can perform such mental feats, researchers at the University of California in Los Angeles (UCLA) called him in for tests. They now have their first results. ‘The ability to play a game of chess with your eyes closed is not a far reach for most accomplished player,’ said Jesse Rissman, who runs a memory lab at UCLA. ‘But the thing that’s so remarkable about Timur and a few other individuals is the number of games they can keep active at once. To me it is simply astonishing.’

Gareyev learned to play chess in his native Uzbekistan when he was six years old. Tutored by his grandfather, he entered his first tournament aged eight and soon became obsessed with competitions. At 16, he was crowned Asia’s youngest ever chess grandmaster. He moved to the US soon after, and as a student helped his university win its first national chess championship. In 2013, Gareyev was ranked the third best chess player in the US.

To the uninitiated, blindfold chess seems to call for superhuman skill. But displays of the feat go back centuries. The first recorded game in Europe was played in 13th-century Florence. In 1947, the Argentinian grandmaster Miguel Najdorf played 45 simultaneous games in his mind, winning 39 in the 24-hour session.

Accomplished players can develop the skill of playing blind even without realising it. The nature of the game is to run through possible moves in the mind to see how they play out. From this, regular players develop a memory for the patterns the pieces make, the defences and attacks. ‘You recreate it in your mind,’ said Gareyev. ‘A lot of players are capable of doing what I’m doing.’ The real mental challenge comes from playing multiple games at once in the head. Not only must the positions of each piece on every board be memorised, they must be recalled faithfully when needed, updated with each player’s moves, and then reliably stored again, so the brain can move on to the next board. First moves can be tough to remember because they are fairly uninteresting. But the ends of games are taxing too, as exhaustion sets in. When Gareyev is tired, his recall can get patchy. He sometimes makes moves based on only a fragmented memory of the pieces’ positions.

The scientists first had Gareyev perform some standard memory tests. These assessed his ability to hold numbers, pictures and words in mind. One classic test measures how many numbers a person can repeat, both forwards and backwards, soon after hearing them. Most people manage about seven. ‘He was not exceptional on any of these standard tests,’ said Rissman. ‘We didn’t find anything other than playing chess that he seems to be supremely gifted at.’ But next came the brain scans. With Gareyev lying down in the machine, Rissman looked at how well connected the various regions of the chess player’s brain were. Though the results are tentative and as yet unpublished, the scans found much greater than average communication between parts of Gareyev’s brain that make up what is called the frontoparietal control network. Of 63 people scanned alongside the chess player, only one or two scored more highly on the measure. ‘You use this network in almost any complex task. It helps you to allocate attention, keep rules in mind, and work out whether you should be responding or not,’ said Rissman.

It was not the only hint of something special in Gareyev’s brain. The scans also suggest that Gareyev’s visual network is more highly connected to other brain parts than usual. Initial results suggest that the areas of his brain that process visual images – such as chess boards – may have stronger links to other brain regions, and so be more powerful than normal. While the analyses are not finalised yet, they may hold the first clues to Gareyev’s extraordinary ability.

For the world record attempt, Gareyev hopes to play 47 blindfold games at once in about 16 hours. He will need to win 80% to claim the title. ‘I don’t worry too much about the winning percentage, that’s never been an issue for me,’ he said. ‘The most important part of blindfold chess for me is that I have found the one thing that I can fully dedicate myself to. I miss having an obsession.’

Questions 27-32

Reading Passage 3 has eight paragraphs, A-H .

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter, A-H , in boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet.

NB   You may use any letter more than once.

27   a reference to earlier examples of blindfold chess

28   an outline of what blindfold chess involves

29   a claim that Gareyev’s skill is limited to chess

30   why Gareyev’s skill is of interest to scientists

31   an outline of Gareyev’s priorities

32   a reason why the last part of a game may be difficult

Questions 33-36

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3?

In boxes 33-36 on your answer sheet, write

33   In the forthcoming games, all the participants will be blindfolded.

34   Gareyev has won competitions in BASE jumping.

35   UCLA is the first university to carry out research into blindfold chess players.

36   Good chess players are likely to be able to play blindfold chess.

Questions 37-40

Complete the summary below

Write the correct letter in boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet.

How the research was carried out

The researchers started by testing Gareyev’s 37 ……………………; for example, he was required to recall a string of 38 …………………… in order and also in reverse order. Although his performance was normal, scans showed an unusual amount of 39 …………………… within the areas of Gareyev’s brain that are concerned with directing attention. In addition, the scans raised the possibility of unusual strength in the parts of his brain that deal with 40 …………………… input.

Cambridge IELTS 17 Reading Test 03

Cambridge ielts 16 reading test 01, answer cambridge ielts 17 reading test 04.



7   droppings

9   mosquitoes

10   protein

11   unclean

12   culture

13   houses

19   descendants

20   sermon

22   innovation

23&24   B, E

25&26   B, D



37   memory

38   numbers

39   communication

40   visual

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reading task 4 ответы


IELTS AC Reading: Cambridge 13 Test 4; Reading Passage 3: Book Review; with best solutions and detailed explanations

This IELTS Reading post deals with Cambridge 13 Reading Test 4 Passage 3 which is entitled ‘Book Review’ . This post discusses all the answers and solutions for Reading Passage 3. This is another intended post for candidates who have the most difficulties in finding and understanding IELTS Reading Answers. This post can simply guide you the best to figure out every Reading answer without trouble. Finding IELTS Reading answers is a step-by-step routine and I hope this post can assist you in this topic.

Cambridge 13 Reading Test 4 Passage 3 :

The headline of the passage: book review.

Questions 27-29:   (Multiple Choice Questions)

[ Multiple choice questions are a common type of question set in the IELTS Reading test. It is also found in the Listening test.  Most of the time, they come with four options but sometimes there are three options. Candidates need to work hard for this type of question because this may confuse them easily in passage 2 or passage 3. There will be long answers for each question, so they may kill valuable time. So, a quick reading or skimming technique might come handy here.  Remember that answers in 3 options out of 4 will be very close. So, vocabulary power will help a lot to choose the best answer.]

[ TIPS: Skimming is the best reading technique. You need not understand every word here. Just try to gather the gist of the sentences. That’s all. Read quickly and don’t stop until you finish each sentence.]

Question 27: What is the reviewer’s attitude to advocates of positive psychology?  

Keywords for this question: reviewer’s attitude, advocates of positive psychology

We can find the reference to ‘positive psychology’ in line 6 of paragraph no. 1. Here, the writer defines ‘positive psychology’.  However, the mention of ‘advocates of positive psychology’ is found in line 12 of paragraph no. 2.  The writer says in lines 2-5 about them, “Those who think in this way are oblivious to the vast philosophical literature in which the meaning and value of happiness have been explored and questioned, and write as if nothing of any importance had been thought on the subject until it came to their attention .”

Here, as if nothing of any importance had been thought on the subject until it came to their attention means they are actually ignorant about the ideas which they should consider.

*The word oblivious also means unaware or ignorant .

So, the answer is: D

Question 28: The reviewer refers to the Greek philosopher Aristotle in order to suggest that happiness    

Keywords for this question: Aristotle,  

We find the mention of Greek philosopher Aristotle in line 7 of paragraph no. 2. So, we need to scan the lines carefully. Here, the writer says in lines 6-10, “For Bentham it was obvious that the human good consists of pleasure and the absence of pain. The Greek philosopher Aristotle may have identified happiness with self-realisation in the 4th century,. .. . .. .. .   but for Bentham all this was mere metaphysics or fiction.” The writer discusses here that Bentham considers happiness as only with pleasure and with the absence of pain. But for Aristotle it was not only pleasure and absence of pain. Rather, it was something that could be identified by self-realisation, which may not seem correct all the time.

So, the answer is: A

Question 29: According to Davies, Bentham’s suggestion for linking the price of goods to happiness was significant because

Keywords for this question: Davies, Bentham’s suggestion, linking, price of goods,

The answer is in the fourth paragraph, where the writer talks about price of goods. Here, in the last few lines, the writer says, “By associating money so closely to inner experience, Davies writes, Bentham ‘ set the stage for the entangling of psychological research and capitalism that would shape the business practices of the twentieth century’.”  The writer explains here that Bentham had associated money or price of goods with inner experience and thus made a connection between work and human psychology.

So, the answer is: B

Questions 30-34: (Summary completion with NO MORE THAN ONE WORD)

[In this kind of question candidates are given a summary for one, two or three paragraphs with some fill in the blanks questions. As these are fill in the blanks or gaps, there is a condition of writing no more than ONE, TWO, or THREE words for each answer and candidates must maintain this condition. Candidates need to find out the related paragraphs by correctly studying the keywords form the questions. Then, they should follow the steps of finding answers to fill in the gaps.]

Title of the summary: Jeremy Bentham

Question 30: In the 1790s he suggested a type of technology to improve _________ for different Government departments.

Keywords for this question: 1790s, technology, to improve, different Government departments  

The answer to this question lies in paragraph no. 3, lines 6-7 where the author writes, “In the 1790s, he wrote to the Home Office suggesting that the departments of government be linked together through a set of ‘conversation tubes’.”

These lines indicate that Bentham proposed to the Home office that Governmental departments should establish communication with Home office through ‘conversation tubes’.

So, the answer is: F (communication)

Question 31: He developed a new way of printing banknotes to increase ________

Keywords for this question: developed, new way, printing banknotes  

In paragraph no. 3, the author says in lines 8-9, “… and to the Bank of England with a design for a printing device that could produce unforgeable banknotes ”. Here, unforgeable means something that cannot be forged or falsified or falsified. So, this means that Bentham actually developed a new way of printing banknotes to increase safety or security .

So, the answer is: B (security)

Question 32: and also designed a method for the ________ of food.

Keywords for this question: designed, method, food

The reference to food can be found in lines 9-10 of paragraph no. 3. “He drew up plans for a “frigidarium” to keep provisions such as meat, fish, fruit and vegetables fresh.” These lines directly refer to the preservation of food .

So, the answer is: G (preservation)

Question 33: He also drew up plans for a prison which allowed the _______ of prisoners at all times, … .. . .

Keywords for this question: drew up plans, prison, allowed, prisoners

The answer is in lines 10-12 of paragraph no. 3. Here, the author writes, “He celebrated design for a prison to be known as ‘Panoptieon’, in which prisoners would be kept in solitary confinement while being visible at all time to the guards, ….”  Here, while being visible = under observation

So, the answer is: E (observation)

Question 34: when researching happiness, he investigated possibilities for its ________, and suggested some methods of doing this.  

Keywords for this question: investigated, possibilities, suggested some methods    

The answer to this question is also found in lines 1-2 of Paragraph no. 4. “If happiness is to be regarded as a science, it has to be measured ,….” This means Bentham suggested the methods of taking measurement .

So, the answer is: A (measurement)

Questions 35-40 (YES/NO/NOT GIVEN):

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question matches with the claim of the writer in the text- YES The statement in the question contradicts with the claim of the writer in the text- NO The statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN]

[TIPS: For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question 35: One strength of The Happiness Industry is its discussion of the relationship between psychology and economics.

Keywords for this question: The Happiness Industry, discussion, relationship, psychology, economics

The answer can be found in the first few lines of paragraph no. 5 “The Happiness Industry describes how the project of a science of happiness has become integral to capitalism . We learn much that is interesting about how economic problems are being redefined and treated as psychological maladies ”. So, it is clear from these lines that there is a strong relationship between psychology and economics.

So, the answer is: YES

Question 36: It is more difficult to measure some emotions than others.

Keywords for this question: difficult to measure, some emotions,

The answer cannot be found in this passage. There is a sentence in paragraph 5 about the feeling of pleasure and displeasure that can be measured which gives further information for research management and advertising. “In addition, Davies shows how the belief that inner states of pleasure and displeasure can be objectively measured has informed management studies and advertising.” But it is not related to this question.

So, the answer is : NOT GIVEN

Question 37: Watson’s ideas on behaviourism were supported by research on humans he carried out before 1915.   

Keywords for this question: Watson’s ideas, behaviuorism, supported, research, humans, before 1915

The answer is found in lines 7-9 of paragraph no. 5 which directly contradicts the given question. “When he became president of the American Psychological Association in 1915, he had never even studied a single human being: his research had been confined to experiments on white rats.”

This means Watson’s experiments were on rats , not on humans.

So, the answer is: NO

Question 38: Watson’s ideas have been most influential on governments outside America.

Keywords for this question: Watson’s ideas, most influential, governments outside America

In paragraph 5 there is no information about the impact of Watson’s ideas on countries outside the USA.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question 39: The need for happiness is linked to industrialisation.  

Keywords for this question: need for happiness, linked, industrialisation  

Answer to this question can be found in the opening sentence paragraph no. 6 which talks about the need for happiness that is connected with labour market. “ Modern industrial societies appear to need the possibility of ever-increasing happiness to motivate them in their labours.” This is a clear match with the question.

Question 40: A main aim of government should be to increase the happiness of the population.

Keywords for this question: main aim, government, increase, happiness of the population  

The writer says in lines 2-3 in paragraph no. 6, “But whatever its intellectual pedigree, the idea that governments should be responsible for promoting happiness is always a threat to human freedom .”

Our question asks to find out the aim. But we find out that this is a comment from the author, not a statement on the aim of government.

So, the answer is: NO  

Please leave your comments if you like this post or have any queries about it.

Click here for solutions to Cambridge 13 Test 4 Reading Passage 1 

Click here for solutions to Cambridge 13 Test 4 Reading Passage 2


[…] Click here for solutions to Cambridge 13 Test 4 Reading passage 3 […]


Why the answer of 40 is not “Not Given”? In the sentence, it doesn’t mention government’s aim at all


I agree with you 🙂 The question designers of IELTS tests design the tests in a way that even the natives connot answer them correctly!!! I don’t understand it is an analytical test or a test for assessment of our English! I don’t comprehend why they are taking so hard! How many languages except their mother language do they know which expect us know English as well as our mother tongue?!

Sorry:( I am a little angry about the vain rigidity that the world has considered for people!


Hahahahhaha, wonderful👌👌👌


Initially, I also struggled to understand the explanation for question 40. After carefully scanning again, I finally found out the problem. We suppose to find the synonym of the key word ‘main aim of the government’ which is located in Paragraph 5, line 10 – ‘the goal of governments’. Reading that sentence, we’ll see that the main aim here is to change the behaviour of the population , not to increase their happiness.


Omg thank u


Government has several aims, and even if one of them is changing the behavior of the population, we still can not be sure whether increasing their happiness is their main aim or not, so the detail cant be in that passage

[…] Click here for solutions to Cambridge 13 Reading Test 4 Passage 3 […]


2 mistakes on ques 6 and 40 🙂

May I ask about the mistakes in details please?


I also found some difficulty in que 6 bcz I think it’s a true but it is false..!


Thanks for explanation But why the q 38 is notgiven ? It is obviously said that :In Britain

Hoàng Anh Dũng

But it doesn’t mention ‘most influential’

Why some of the passage 3 in book 12 and 13 are too hard😑


Hi thank you for all your information with nice flow to compare frequentist vs bayesian approach. I will look forward to next part of the tutorials!!

You’re most welcome!


The ans of third question should be false

Simran Kaur

Can you explain que no 37, they are talking about’ before 1915′ also.. But in passage ,it is mentioned that ‘ he became president in 1915’..

This means Watson’s experiments were on rats, not on humans.


I am from Vietnam and I wish I could do something for you. Since I started to do the tests, this web has helped me a lot

Hello, Thank you for your kind thoughts. My son is extremely sick. As a father, it gives me such a pain to watch him go through this. Please pray for my son.


According to the author’s analysis, the answer 40 seems like a ‘NG’. However, in the last paragraph, the writer gives his own comment that he is not agree with the idea that government should be responsible for promoting happiness, which is just what the question 40 claims. That’s why the answer 40 is a ‘N’ not a ‘NG’, cuz it contradicts the claims of the writer.

shubash bhattarai

How the answer of 35 is yes? AND does it has mentioned that discussing relationship between psychology and economics is the strenght part of The happiness industry?


Thanks a lot.This was helpful


Good day! I always use your system to check my mistakes. The system is perfectly organised. Please, can you give me some advice about reading? I do most of the reading practices but the score is always the same 5.5 or 6.

Hello, I think you can register for some 1-to-1 classes with me. Here, I can help you solve your problems directly. If that sounds good, let me know. Here’s my email: [email protected]


Academic IELTS Reading: Reading passage 1; Why we need to protect polar bears; with best solutions and detailed explanations

This Academic IELTS Reading post focuses on solutions to Reading Passage 1 titled ‘Why we need to protect polar bears’. This is a targeted post for IELTS candidates who have major problems finding out and understanding Reading Answers in the AC module. This post can guide you to the best to understand every Reading answer without […]

IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge Official Guide to IELTS Test 7 Reading passage 2; Fatal Attraction; with best solutions and best explanations

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This Academic IELTS Reading post focuses on solutions to IELTS Cambridge Official Guide to IELTS Test 7 Reading Passage 2 which is titled ‘Fatal Attraction’. This is a targeted post for IELTS candidates who have big problems finding and understanding Reading Answers in the AC module. This post can guide you to the best to understand […]


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