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How to Write Research Objectives

How to Write Research Objectives

3-minute read

Writing a research paper, thesis, or dissertation ? If so, you’ll want to state your research objectives in the introduction of your paper to make it clear to your readers what you’re trying to accomplish. But how do you write effective research objectives? In this post, we’ll look at two key topics to help you do this:

For more advice on how to write strong research objectives, see below.

Research Aims and Objectives

There is an important difference between research aims and research objectives:

For instance, an example research aim could be:

This study will investigate the link between dehydration and the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in intensive care patients in Australia.

To develop a set of research objectives, you would then break down the various steps involved in meeting said aim. For example:

This study will investigate the link between dehydration and the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in intensive care patients in Australia. To achieve this, the study objectives w ill include:

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Note that the objectives don’t go into any great detail here. The key is to briefly summarize each component of your study. You can save details for how you will conduct the research for the methodology section of your paper.

Make Your Research Objectives SMART

A great way to refine your research objectives is to use SMART criteria . Borrowed from the world of project management, there are many versions of this system. However, we’re going to focus on developing specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and timebound objectives.

In other words, a good research objective should be all of the following:

If you follow this system, your research objectives will be much stronger.

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Our academic editors can help you with research papers and proposals , as well as any other scholarly document you need checking. And this will help to ensure that your academic writing is always clear, concise, and precise.

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how to write an objective for a research paper

One of the most important aspects of a thesis, dissertation or research paper is the correct formulation of the aims and objectives. This is because your aims and objectives will establish the scope, depth and direction that your research will ultimately take. An effective set of aims and objectives will give your research focus and your reader clarity, with your aims indicating what is to be achieved, and your objectives indicating how it will be achieved.


There is no getting away from the importance of the aims and objectives in determining the success of your research project. Unfortunately, however, it is an aspect that many students struggle with, and ultimately end up doing poorly. Given their importance, if you suspect that there is even the smallest possibility that you belong to this group of students, we strongly recommend you read this page in full.

This page describes what research aims and objectives are, how they differ from each other, how to write them correctly, and the common mistakes students make and how to avoid them. An example of a good aim and objectives from a past thesis has also been deconstructed to help your understanding.

What Are Aims and Objectives?

Research aims.

A research aim describes the main goal or the overarching purpose of your research project.

In doing so, it acts as a focal point for your research and provides your readers with clarity as to what your study is all about. Because of this, research aims are almost always located within its own subsection under the introduction section of a research document, regardless of whether it’s a thesis , a dissertation, or a research paper .

A research aim is usually formulated as a broad statement of the main goal of the research and can range in length from a single sentence to a short paragraph. Although the exact format may vary according to preference, they should all describe why your research is needed (i.e. the context), what it sets out to accomplish (the actual aim) and, briefly, how it intends to accomplish it (overview of your objectives).

To give an example, we have extracted the following research aim from a real PhD thesis:

Example of a Research Aim

The role of diametrical cup deformation as a factor to unsatisfactory implant performance has not been widely reported. The aim of this thesis was to gain an understanding of the diametrical deformation behaviour of acetabular cups and shells following impaction into the reamed acetabulum. The influence of a range of factors on deformation was investigated to ascertain if cup and shell deformation may be high enough to potentially contribute to early failure and high wear rates in metal-on-metal implants.

Note: Extracted with permission from thesis titled “T he Impact And Deformation Of Press-Fit Metal Acetabular Components ” produced by Dr H Hothi of previously Queen Mary University of London.

Research Objectives

Where a research aim specifies what your study will answer, research objectives specify how your study will answer it.

They divide your research aim into several smaller parts, each of which represents a key section of your research project. As a result, almost all research objectives take the form of a numbered list, with each item usually receiving its own chapter in a dissertation or thesis.

Following the example of the research aim shared above, here are it’s real research objectives as an example:

Example of a Research Objective

It’s worth noting that researchers sometimes use research questions instead of research objectives, or in other cases both. From a high-level perspective, research questions and research objectives make the same statements, but just in different formats.

Taking the first three research objectives as an example, they can be restructured into research questions as follows:

Restructuring Research Objectives as Research Questions

Difference Between Aims and Objectives

Hopefully the above explanations make clear the differences between aims and objectives, but to clarify:

How to Write Aims and Objectives

Before we discuss how to write a clear set of research aims and objectives, we should make it clear that there is no single way they must be written. Each researcher will approach their aims and objectives slightly differently, and often your supervisor will influence the formulation of yours on the basis of their own preferences.

Regardless, there are some basic principles that you should observe for good practice; these principles are described below.

Your aim should be made up of three parts that answer the below questions:

The easiest way to achieve this would be to address each question in its own sentence, although it does not matter whether you combine them or write multiple sentences for each, the key is to address each one.

The first question, why , provides context to your research project, the second question, what , describes the aim of your research, and the last question, how , acts as an introduction to your objectives which will immediately follow.

Scroll through the image set below to see the ‘why, what and how’ associated with our research aim example.

Explaining aims vs objectives

Note: Your research aims need not be limited to one. Some individuals per to define one broad ‘overarching aim’ of a project and then adopt two or three specific research aims for their thesis or dissertation. Remember, however, that in order for your assessors to consider your research project complete, you will need to prove you have fulfilled all of the aims you set out to achieve. Therefore, while having more than one research aim is not necessarily disadvantageous, consider whether a single overarching one will do.

Research Objectives

Each of your research objectives should be SMART :

In addition to being SMART, your research objectives should start with a verb that helps communicate your intent. Common research verbs include:

Table of Research Verbs to Use in Aims and Objectives

Last, format your objectives into a numbered list. This is because when you write your thesis or dissertation, you will at times need to make reference to a specific research objective; structuring your research objectives in a numbered list will provide a clear way of doing this.

To bring all this together, let’s compare the first research objective in the previous example with the above guidance:

Checking Research Objective Example Against Recommended Approach

Research Objective:

1. Develop finite element models using explicit dynamics to mimic mallet blows during cup/shell insertion, initially using simplified experimentally validated foam models to represent the acetabulum.

Checking Against Recommended Approach:

Q: Is it specific? A: Yes, it is clear what the student intends to do (produce a finite element model), why they intend to do it (mimic cup/shell blows) and their parameters have been well-defined ( using simplified experimentally validated foam models to represent the acetabulum ).

Q: Is it measurable? A: Yes, it is clear that the research objective will be achieved once the finite element model is complete.

Q: Is it achievable? A: Yes, provided the student has access to a computer lab, modelling software and laboratory data.

Q: Is it relevant? A: Yes, mimicking impacts to a cup/shell is fundamental to the overall aim of understanding how they deform when impacted upon.

Q: Is it timebound? A: Yes, it is possible to create a limited-scope finite element model in a relatively short time, especially if you already have experience in modelling.

Q: Does it start with a verb? A: Yes, it starts with ‘develop’, which makes the intent of the objective immediately clear.

Q: Is it a numbered list? A: Yes, it is the first research objective in a list of eight.

Mistakes in Writing Research Aims and Objectives

1. making your research aim too broad.

Having a research aim too broad becomes very difficult to achieve. Normally, this occurs when a student develops their research aim before they have a good understanding of what they want to research. Remember that at the end of your project and during your viva defence , you will have to prove that you have achieved your research aims; if they are too broad, this will be an almost impossible task. In the early stages of your research project, your priority should be to narrow your study to a specific area. A good way to do this is to take the time to study existing literature, question their current approaches, findings and limitations, and consider whether there are any recurring gaps that could be investigated .

Note: Achieving a set of aims does not necessarily mean proving or disproving a theory or hypothesis, even if your research aim was to, but having done enough work to provide a useful and original insight into the principles that underlie your research aim.

2. Making Your Research Objectives Too Ambitious

Be realistic about what you can achieve in the time you have available. It is natural to want to set ambitious research objectives that require sophisticated data collection and analysis, but only completing this with six months before the end of your PhD registration period is not a worthwhile trade-off.

3. Formulating Repetitive Research Objectives

Each research objective should have its own purpose and distinct measurable outcome. To this effect, a common mistake is to form research objectives which have large amounts of overlap. This makes it difficult to determine when an objective is truly complete, and also presents challenges in estimating the duration of objectives when creating your project timeline. It also makes it difficult to structure your thesis into unique chapters, making it more challenging for you to write and for your audience to read.

Fortunately, this oversight can be easily avoided by using SMART objectives.

Hopefully, you now have a good idea of how to create an effective set of aims and objectives for your research project, whether it be a thesis, dissertation or research paper. While it may be tempting to dive directly into your research, spending time on getting your aims and objectives right will give your research clear direction. This won’t only reduce the likelihood of problems arising later down the line, but will also lead to a more thorough and coherent research project.

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Table of Contents

Definition of a Research Objective

What are the uses of the research objective.

Specifying the data collection procedure ensures data accuracy and integrity . Thus, the probability of error is minimized. Generalizations or conclusions based on valid arguments founded on reliable data strengthens research findings on particular issues and problems.

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In data mining activities where large data sets are involved, the research objective plays a crucial role. Without a clear objective to guide the machine learning process, the desired outcomes will not be met.

How is the Research Objective Written?

5 examples of research objectives, related posts, 5 tested time management tips for graduate students, a definition of curriculum from a traditional viewpoint, a rare swarm of bees, about the author, regoniel, patrick, leave a reply cancel reply.

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Writing a Research Paper Introduction | Step-by-Step Guide

Published on September 24, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on November 29, 2022.

The introduction to a research paper is where you set up your topic and approach for the reader. It has several key goals:

The introduction looks slightly different depending on whether your paper presents the results of original empirical research or constructs an argument by engaging with a variety of sources.

Table of contents

Step 1: introduce your topic, step 2: describe the background, step 3: establish your research problem, step 4: specify your objective(s), step 5: map out your paper, research paper introduction examples, frequently asked questions about the research paper introduction.

The first job of the introduction is to tell the reader what your topic is and why it’s interesting or important. This is generally accomplished with a strong opening hook.

The hook is a striking opening sentence that clearly conveys the relevance of your topic. Think of an interesting fact or statistic, a strong statement, a question, or a brief anecdote that will get the reader wondering about your topic.

For example, the following could be an effective hook for an argumentative paper about the environmental impact of cattle farming:

A more empirical paper investigating the relationship of Instagram use with body image issues in adolescent girls might use the following hook:

Don’t feel that your hook necessarily has to be deeply impressive or creative. Clarity and relevance are still more important than catchiness. The key thing is to guide the reader into your topic and situate your ideas.

This part of the introduction differs depending on what approach your paper is taking.

In a more argumentative paper, you’ll explore some general background here. In a more empirical paper, this is the place to review previous research and establish how yours fits in.

Argumentative paper: Background information

After you’ve caught your reader’s attention, specify a bit more, providing context and narrowing down your topic.

Provide only the most relevant background information. The introduction isn’t the place to get too in-depth; if more background is essential to your paper, it can appear in the body .

Empirical paper: Describing previous research

For a paper describing original research, you’ll instead provide an overview of the most relevant research that has already been conducted. This is a sort of miniature literature review —a sketch of the current state of research into your topic, boiled down to a few sentences.

This should be informed by genuine engagement with the literature. Your search can be less extensive than in a full literature review, but a clear sense of the relevant research is crucial to inform your own work.

Begin by establishing the kinds of research that have been done, and end with limitations or gaps in the research that you intend to respond to.

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The next step is to clarify how your own research fits in and what problem it addresses.

Argumentative paper: Emphasize importance

In an argumentative research paper, you can simply state the problem you intend to discuss, and what is original or important about your argument.

Empirical paper: Relate to the literature

In an empirical research paper, try to lead into the problem on the basis of your discussion of the literature. Think in terms of these questions:

You can make the connection between your problem and the existing research using phrases like the following.

Now you’ll get into the specifics of what you intend to find out or express in your research paper.

The way you frame your research objectives varies. An argumentative paper presents a thesis statement, while an empirical paper generally poses a research question (sometimes with a hypothesis as to the answer).

Argumentative paper: Thesis statement

The thesis statement expresses the position that the rest of the paper will present evidence and arguments for. It can be presented in one or two sentences, and should state your position clearly and directly, without providing specific arguments for it at this point.

Empirical paper: Research question and hypothesis

The research question is the question you want to answer in an empirical research paper.

Present your research question clearly and directly, with a minimum of discussion at this point. The rest of the paper will be taken up with discussing and investigating this question; here you just need to express it.

A research question can be framed either directly or indirectly.

If your research involved testing hypotheses , these should be stated along with your research question. They are usually presented in the past tense, since the hypothesis will already have been tested by the time you are writing up your paper.

For example, the following hypothesis might respond to the research question above:

The final part of the introduction is often dedicated to a brief overview of the rest of the paper.

In a paper structured using the standard scientific “introduction, methods, results, discussion” format, this isn’t always necessary. But if your paper is structured in a less predictable way, it’s important to describe the shape of it for the reader.

If included, the overview should be concise, direct, and written in the present tense.

Full examples of research paper introductions are shown in the tabs below: one for an argumentative paper, the other for an empirical paper.

Are cows responsible for climate change? A recent study (RIVM, 2019) shows that cattle farmers account for two thirds of agricultural nitrogen emissions in the Netherlands. These emissions result from nitrogen in manure, which can degrade into ammonia and enter the atmosphere. The study’s calculations show that agriculture is the main source of nitrogen pollution, accounting for 46% of the country’s total emissions. By comparison, road traffic and households are responsible for 6.1% each, the industrial sector for 1%. While efforts are being made to mitigate these emissions, policymakers are reluctant to reckon with the scale of the problem. The approach presented here is a radical one, but commensurate with the issue. This paper argues that the Dutch government must stimulate and subsidize livestock farmers, especially cattle farmers, to transition to sustainable vegetable farming. It first establishes the inadequacy of current mitigation measures, then discusses the various advantages of the results proposed, and finally addresses potential objections to the plan on economic grounds.

The rise of social media has been accompanied by a sharp increase in the prevalence of body image issues among women and girls. This correlation has received significant academic attention: Various empirical studies have been conducted into Facebook usage among adolescent girls (Tiggermann & Slater, 2013; Meier & Gray, 2014). These studies have consistently found that the visual and interactive aspects of the platform have the greatest influence on body image issues. Despite this, highly visual social media (HVSM) such as Instagram have yet to be robustly researched. This paper sets out to address this research gap. We investigated the effects of daily Instagram use on the prevalence of body image issues among adolescent girls. It was hypothesized that daily Instagram use would be associated with an increase in body image concerns and a decrease in self-esteem ratings.

The introduction of a research paper includes several key elements:

and your problem statement

Don’t feel that you have to write the introduction first. The introduction is often one of the last parts of the research paper you’ll write, along with the conclusion.

This is because it can be easier to introduce your paper once you’ve already written the body ; you may not have the clearest idea of your arguments until you’ve written them, and things can change during the writing process .

The way you present your research problem in your introduction varies depending on the nature of your research paper . A research paper that presents a sustained argument will usually encapsulate this argument in a thesis statement .

A research paper designed to present the results of empirical research tends to present a research question that it seeks to answer. It may also include a hypothesis —a prediction that will be confirmed or disproved by your research.

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Research Aims, Objectives & Questions

The “Golden Thread” Explained Simply (+ Examples)

By: David Phair (PhD) and Alexandra Shaeffer (PhD) | June 2022

The research aims , objectives and research questions (collectively called the “golden thread”) are arguably the most important thing you need to get right when you’re crafting a research proposal , dissertation or thesis . We receive questions almost every day about this “holy trinity” of research and there’s certainly a lot of confusion out there, so we’ve crafted this post to help you navigate your way through the fog.

Overview: The Golden Thread

What is the “golden thread”?  

The golden thread simply refers to the collective research aims , research objectives , and research questions for any given project (i.e., a dissertation, thesis, or research paper). These three elements are bundled together because it’s extremely important that they align with each other, and that the entire research project aligns with them.

Importantly, the golden thread needs to weave its way through the entirety of any research project , from start to end. In other words, it needs to be very clearly defined right at the beginning of the project (the topic ideation and proposal stage) and it needs to inform almost every decision throughout the rest of the project. For example, your research design and methodology will be heavily influenced by the golden thread (we’ll explain this in more detail later), as well as your literature review.

The research aims, objectives and research questions (the golden thread) define the focus and scope ( the delimitations ) of your research project. In other words, they help ringfence your dissertation or thesis to a relatively narrow domain, so that you can “go deep” and really dig into a specific problem or opportunity. They also help keep you on track , as they act as a litmus test for relevance. In other words, if you’re ever unsure whether to include something in your document, simply ask yourself the question, “does this contribute toward my research aims, objectives or questions?”. If it doesn’t, chances are you can drop it.

Alright, enough of the fluffy, conceptual stuff. Let’s get down to business and look at what exactly the research aims, objectives and questions are and outline a few examples to bring these concepts to life.

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Research Aims: What are they?

Simply put, the research aim(s) is a statement that reflects the broad overarching goal (s) of the research project. Research aims are fairly high-level (low resolution) as they outline the general direction of the research and what it’s trying to achieve .

Research Aims: Examples  

True to the name, research aims usually start with the wording “this research aims to…”, “this research seeks to…”, and so on. For example:

As you can see, these research aims provide a high-level description of what the study is about and what it seeks to achieve. They’re not hyper-specific or action-oriented, but they’re clear about what the study’s focus is and what is being investigated.

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how to write an objective for a research paper

Research Objectives: What are they?

The research objectives take the research aims and make them more practical and actionable . In other words, the research objectives showcase the steps that the researcher will take to achieve the research aims.

The research objectives need to be far more specific (higher resolution) and actionable than the research aims. In fact, it’s always a good idea to craft your research objectives using the “SMART” criteria. In other words, they should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time-bound”.

Research Objectives: Examples  

Let’s look at two examples of research objectives. We’ll stick with the topic and research aims we mentioned previously.  

For the digital transformation topic:  

And for the student wellness topic:  

  As you can see, these research objectives clearly align with the previously mentioned research aims and effectively translate the low-resolution aims into (comparatively) higher-resolution objectives and action points . They give the research project a clear focus and present something that resembles a research-based “to-do” list.

The research objectives detail the specific steps that you, as the researcher, will take to achieve the research aims you laid out.

Research Questions: What are they?

Finally, we arrive at the all-important research questions. The research questions are, as the name suggests, the key questions that your study will seek to answer . Simply put, they are the core purpose of your dissertation, thesis, or research project. You’ll present them at the beginning of your document (either in the introduction chapter or literature review chapter) and you’ll answer them at the end of your document (typically in the discussion and conclusion chapters).  

The research questions will be the driving force throughout the research process. For example, in the literature review chapter, you’ll assess the relevance of any given resource based on whether it helps you move towards answering your research questions. Similarly, your methodology and research design will be heavily influenced by the nature of your research questions. For instance, research questions that are exploratory in nature will usually make use of a qualitative approach, whereas questions that relate to measurement or relationship testing will make use of a quantitative approach.  

Let’s look at some examples of research questions to make this more tangible.

Research Questions: Examples  

Again, we’ll stick with the research aims and research objectives we mentioned previously.  

For the digital transformation topic (which would be qualitative in nature):  

And for the student wellness topic (which would be quantitative in nature):  

You’ll probably notice that there’s quite a formulaic approach to this. In other words, the research questions are basically the research objectives “converted” into question format. While that is true most of the time, it’s not always the case. For example, the first research objective for the digital transformation topic was more or less a step on the path toward the other objectives, and as such, it didn’t warrant its own research question.  

So, don’t rush your research questions and sloppily reword your objectives as questions. Carefully think about what exactly you’re trying to achieve (i.e. your research aim) and the objectives you’ve set out, then craft a set of well-aligned research questions . Also, keep in mind that this can be a somewhat iterative process , where you go back and tweak research objectives and aims to ensure tight alignment throughout the golden thread.

 Your research questions will be the driving force throughout the research process, especially in the literature review and methodology chapters.

The importance of strong alignment 

Alignment is the keyword here and we have to stress its importance . Simply put, you need to make sure that there is a very tight alignment between all three pieces of the golden thread. If your research aims and research questions don’t align, for example, your project will be pulling in different directions and will lack focus . This is a common problem students face and can cause many headaches (and tears), so be warned.

Take the time to carefully craft your research aims, objectives and research questions before you run off down the research path. Ideally, get your research supervisor/advisor to review and comment on your golden thread before you invest significant time into your project, and certainly before you start collecting data .  

Recap: The golden thread

In this post, we unpacked the golden thread of research, consisting of the research aims , research objectives and research questions . You can jump back to any section using the links below.

As always, feel free to leave a comment below – we always love to hear from you. Also, if you’re interested in 1-on-1 support, take a look at our private coaching service here.

how to write an objective for a research paper

Psst… there’s more (for free)

This post is part of our research writing mini-course, which covers everything you need to get started with your dissertation, thesis or research project.

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Isaac Levi

Thank you very much for your great effort put. As an Undergraduate taking Demographic Research & Methodology, I’ve been trying so hard to understand clearly what is a Research Question, Research Aim and the Objectives in a research and the relationship between them etc. But as for now I’m thankful that you’ve solved my problem.

Hatimu Bah

Well appreciated. This has helped me greatly in doing my dissertation.

Dr. Abdallah Kheri

An so delighted with this wonderful information thank you a lot.

so impressive i have benefited a lot looking forward to learn more on research.

Ekwunife, Chukwunonso Onyeka Steve

I am very happy to have carefully gone through this well researched article.

Infact,I used to be phobia about anything research, because of my poor understanding of the concepts.

Now,I get to know that my research question is the same as my research objective(s) rephrased in question format.

I please I would need a follow up on the subject,as I intends to join the team of researchers. Thanks once again.


Thanks so much. This was really helpful.


i found this document so useful towards my study in research methods. thanks so much.

Michael L. Andrion

This is my 2nd read topic in your course and I should commend the simplified explanations of each part. I’m beginning to understand and absorb the use of each part of a dissertation/thesis. I’ll keep on reading your free course and might be able to avail the training course! Kudos!


Thank you! Better put that my lecture and helped to easily understand the basics which I feel often get brushed over when beginning dissertation work.

Enoch Tindiwegi

This is quite helpful. I like how the Golden thread has been explained and the needed alignment.

Sora Dido Boru

This is quite helpful. I really appreciate!


The article made it simple for researcher students to differentiate between three concepts.

Afowosire Wasiu Adekunle

Very innovative and educational in approach to conducting research.

Mohammed Shamsudeen

A very helpful piece. thanks, I really appreciate it .

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How to Write Objectives in a Research Proposal

Last Updated: February 13, 2023 References

This article was co-authored by Felipe Corredor . Felipe is a Senior College Admissions Consultant at American College Counselors with over seven years of experience. He specializes in helping clients from all around the world gain admission into America's top universities through private, one-on-one consulting. He helps guide clients through the entire college admissions process and perfect every aspect of their college applications. Felipe earned a Bachelor's Degree from the University of Chicago and recently received his MBA. There are 10 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed 96,086 times.

A research proposal is a detailed outline for a significant research project. They’re common for class assignments, capstone papers, grant applications, and even job applications in some fields, so it's possible you'll have to prepare one at some point. The objectives are a very important part of a research proposal because they outline where the project is headed and what it will accomplish. Developing objectives can be a little tricky, so take some time to consider them. Then work on wording them carefully so your readers understand your goals. With clear objectives, your research proposal will be much stronger.

Brainstorming Your Objectives

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Using the Right Language

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Writing the Objectives

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How to Write Objectives in Papers

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Teacher tips: how to write thesis statements for high school papers, how to write an essay in conversational style, eight critical thinking guidelines in psychology.

The objective of the paper is the reason given for writing the paper. By stating your objective, you’re telling the reader exactly what you’re hoping to demonstrate, and exactly what they can hope to learn -- or be convinced of. The objective of a paper is often called a thesis statement, and it needs to be right up front and center in your paper -- if you write it well, and give it pride of place in your introduction, then it should give strong support to the rest of your paper.

When you’re writing an academic paper, it can be tempting to be verbose. Many students think that they’ll sound smart if they’re wordy. But there’s nothing smart about using ten words when you could use one word, or about using a ten-letter word when you could use a five-letter word. Confused readers are frustrated readers, not admiring readers. While it’s always important to use clear language when you’re writing an academic paper, this is especially true of the objective. If the reader can’t understand the point of the paper, there will be no reason for them to read further.

Remember that the objective is the purpose of the entire paper, not the entire paper itself. Don’t try to cram all of your research, sources, and evidence into one or two sentences. The objectives should reflect the main thrust of your paper, not delve into the nitty gritty details. Keeping your objectives short doesn’t mean selling them short: it means taking a bird’s eye-view of your paper and expressing the most important general principles concisely.

Be Interesting

“Objective” is a dry word, but if there’s one thing the objective of a paper should be, it’s interesting. If the objective of a paper is boring, you can bet that the paper is boring. Students often think that professors don’t care if a paper is interesting, but professors are like any other reader -- they want to be pulled into a paper, not bored to death by it. Make sure that your language is vivid and captures your reader’s attention.

Prove That You’re Going to Prove Something

It won’t matter how clear your objective is, how brief it is, or even how interesting it is, unless it convinces the reader that you’ll convince them of something. (Or, if not, convinces them that you’ll convince them of something, then at least convinces them that you’ll present a compelling argument.) The point of your paper is always to prove something, whether it’s that global warming is a real thing or that Shakespeare’s plays weren’t all they were cracked up to be.

Living in Canada, Andrew Aarons has been writing professionally since 2003. He holds a Bachelor of Arts in English literature from the University of Ottawa, where he served as a writer and editor for the university newspaper. Aarons is also a certified computer-support technician.

Rules for Thesis Statements

What are the four tips for writing a good thesis statement for an expository essay, attention grabbers to use when writing an essay, how to write an essay that stands out, how to write a college expository essay, what problems take place when choosing research topics & research questions, how to write a higher level essay introduction, how to assess the strength or weakness of a thesis statement, fifth grade writing ideas: creative ways to begin sentences, most popular.

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How to Write an Objective in a Research Proposal

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Writing an objective for a research proposal can be daunting, especially if you are unsure how to go about it. However, having an objective is essential in any research project. It sets the direction of your investigation and helps keep you focused on your research goals. If you’re stuck on how to write an objective in a research proposal , this article provides key tips to help you craft one effectively.

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What Is a Research Proposal Objective?

A research proposal objective is a concise statement that outlines the purpose of a proposed project . The objective also defines how it intends to answer the identified research question. It should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART). It typically includes an explanation of why this research must be conducted and what its results may contribute to knowledge in the field.

Importance of Objective in Research Proposal

A research proposal objective is crucial as it sets a clear goal for the entire project, providing guidance and focus to its development. It allows researchers to better identify and understand the questions they are attempting to answer. It also helps determine the necessary resources to complete the project successfully. Additionally, an objective provides direction for creating a practical timeline for completing tasks and reaching milestones throughout the process. A clearly stated objective from the outset allows stakeholders to easily assess the value of the research conducted.

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When writing a research proposal objective, it is essential to keep several key considerations in mind. Below are some tips to craft an excellent objective for your research proposal:

Articulate the Key Research Questions to Guide Ideas

You must define your primary research question early on. It helps you stay focused throughout the writing process and ensure that all objectives directly relate back to it. This will help you formulate a clear goal for your proposal.

Explain the Main Purpose of Your Research

The overall purpose or aim of the research must be clearly defined so that readers can understand what you are trying to accomplish. A well-defined ultimate goal will give context to the individual objectives you set out in your proposal.

Break Down the Research Goal Into Attainable Objectives

Breaking down your research goal into multiple objectives can help structure your work and keep you organized throughout the process. Outlining specific tasks helps to ensure that all parts of your project are addressed and can also assist in analyzing results later.

Keep Objectives Limited for the Best Results

Limiting your objectives to three to five at most is recommended to maintain focus on key areas of interest. It prevents the unnecessary expansion of scope or distraction from the main purpose of your research.

Separate General and Specific Objectives

Splitting up your objectives into general and specific ones helps to organize and prioritize tasks. The general objective is an overarching plan for what needs to be accomplished. And the specific objectives offer more detailed steps for achieving these larger goals.

Evaluate Objectives Using the SMART Format

The SMART format is an effective way to assess if your objectives are specific, achievable, measurable, relevant, and time-bound. Adhering to these criteria ensures that your goals are practical and attainable within a reasonable timeframe. It gives you a better chance of success with your research proposal.

Writing a research proposal objective is essential to the success of your research project. By following these steps, you can craft a practical and comprehensive objective that describes what you want to accomplish in your research. Remember to keep it concise, clear, and focused on one main goal or idea. With this guide, you now know how to write an objective in a research proposal , so get started on yours today!

How to Write an Objective in a Research Proposal

Abir Ghenaiet

Abir is a data analyst and researcher. Among her interests are artificial intelligence, machine learning, and natural language processing. As a humanitarian and educator, she actively supports women in tech and promotes diversity.

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How to Write a Research Paper Conclusion

Matt Ellis

Wrapping up a paper may seem simple enough, but if you don’t know how to write a research paper conclusion, it can sometimes be the hardest part of the paper-writing process.

In this guide, we share expert advice on how to write a research paper conclusion. We explain what to put (and what not to put) in a research paper conclusion, describe the different types of conclusions, and show you a few different research paper conclusion examples.

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What is a research paper conclusion?

A research paper conclusion should summarize the main points of the paper, help readers contextualize the information, and as the last thing people read, be memorable and leave an impression. The research paper conclusion is the best chance for the author to both reiterate their main points and tie all the information together. All in all, it’s one of the most important parts of writing a research paper .

Research paper conclusions are generally one paragraph long , although more complicated topics may have longer conclusions. Although conclusions don’t normally present new information or data that wasn’t mentioned in the article, they often reframe the issues or offer a new perspective on the topic.

6 elements to include in a research paper conclusion

1 urgency or consequences.

A good conclusion answers the question, Why should the reader care? To connect the information to the reader, point out why your topic should matter to them. What happens if the problem persists, or how can the problem be solved? Feel free to mention common obstacles that feed the problem, implications of the data, or a recommended action for fixing it.

2 Reminder of thesis statement

Research paper conclusions are a great place to revisit your initial thesis statement , a sentence that encapsulates the main topic or problem your paper addresses. Thesis statements are discussed heavily at the beginning of a paper, but they can be even stronger when you reintroduce them at the end, after you’ve presented all your evidence.

3 Recap of main points

Although you don’t want to repeat yourself just for the sake of repetition, a recap of your main points can be helpful to your reader. Think of these as your paper’s “key takeaways,” the parts you want readers to remember. Save the details for the body text and use the conclusion to remind the reader of your strongest supporting evidence before they put your paper down.

4 Parallels to the introduction

The introduction and the conclusion are two sides of the same coin. A useful strategy to consider as you approach writing a research paper conclusion is to follow the same structure or address the same themes as you do in the introduction. For example, if you pose a question in your introduction, you can answer it directly in your conclusion. Keep this in mind when writing your research paper outline so you can properly plan both parts.

5 Limitations of the study

Although this isn’t applicable to every research paper, if you’re writing about actual tests or studies you’ve conducted, there are some ethical requirements for what you put in a research paper conclusion. Specifically, you’re expected to address the limitations of your study; these may include criticisms or flaws in your process that might have affected the results, such as using suboptimal participation groups. It’s best to call these out yourself rather than having a colleague call them out later.

6 Conciseness

Above all, every research paper conclusion should be written with conciseness . In general, conclusions should be short, so keep an eye on your word count as you write and aim to be as succinct as possible. You can expound on your topic in the body of your paper, but the conclusion is more for summarizing and recapping.

5 elements not to include in a research paper conclusion

1 dry summary.

Summarizing may be a crucial part of research paper conclusions, but it’s not the only part. Your conclusion should be more than just a summary; it should shape the way your reader thinks about your topic. Don’t just repeat the facts: Contextualize them for the reader, offer a new perspective, or suggest a step for solving the problem.

2 Generic or clichéd phrasing

Just like our advice for how to write a conclusion for a more general essay, you should also avoid generic or clichéd phrasing in research paper conclusions. Some words or phrases are overused in conclusions to the point of becoming trite. If you want your conclusion to seem fresh and well-written, avoid these phrases:

3 New data or evidence

Conclusions are not the place to introduce new evidence or data, especially if they are significant enough to reframe your entire argument. Hard facts and supporting evidence belong in the body of the paper; when the reader is absorbing this section, they’re still actively learning about the topic. By the conclusion, the reader is almost done forming their opinion. The conclusion is more about retrospection; introducing unexpected information there can frustrate readers just as much as it surprises them.

4 Ignoring negative results

It might be tempting to sugarcoat negative results or ignore them completely, but that will only harm your paper in the end. It’s always best to own up to any shortcomings in your research and admit them overtly. Your transparency not only helps validate your other research, but it also prevents critics from pointing out these same shortcomings in a more damaging way.

5 Ambiguous resolutions

Part of the appeal of research paper conclusions is the closure they bring; they’re supposed to wrap up arguments and clean up any loose ends. If your conclusion is ambiguous, it can give the impression that your research was incomplete, inadequate, or fundamentally flawed. Rather, write your conclusion with direct language and take a firm stance. Even if the data was inconclusive, state definitively that it was inconclusive. This kind of clarity in writing makes you sound both confident and competent.

Types of research paper conclusions with examples

Although there are no formal types of research paper conclusions, in general they tend to fall into the categories of summary , commentary , and new perspective . Bear in mind that these aren’t mutually exclusive—the same research paper conclusion can summarize and present a new perspective at the same time. Consider mixing and matching parts from each to create the unique blend your own paper needs.

Research paper conclusion example: Summary

The most common type of research paper conclusion is the straight summary, which succinctly repeats the key points of the paper. Keep in mind that a conclusion should do more than merely summarize, so be sure to add some lines that offer extra value or insight.

Like all great scientists, Isaac Newton was able to condense his ideas, however complicated, into the simple and brief laws discussed above. Newton’s law of inertia, his law of action/reaction, and his equation of F=ma —along with his law of gravity, also discussed above—combine to form the very foundation of classical mechanics. Without his laws, physics as we know it wouldn’t exist.

Research paper conclusion example: Commentary

The conclusion can be an opportunity for a writer to share their own personal views. This is especially useful in scientific writing, where the body of the paper is reserved for data and facts, and the conclusion is the only section for personal opinion. Just be careful about getting too subjective—this is still a research paper, not a personal essay .

As you can see by the cause-and-effect relationships pointed out above, an attack on journalism in one part of the world is an attack on journalism everywhere. Though the issue might seem distant, it’s actually right on our doorstep. All of us need to start standing up to the powers that censor the truth and defend the brave journalists who risk their lives to deliver it.

Research paper conclusion example: New perspective

Research paper conclusions are the perfect place to offer a new perspective on your topic. After presenting all your evidence and research, you can now draw connections and synthesize the data to create a unifying theory or new angle. The conclusion is the best place to include this, as the reader is already familiar with all the essential details.

You’ll notice that the studies we examined all come to the same conclusion: Remote working increases both production and employee satisfaction. Ultimately, the idea that remote work hinders productivity is a lie. In fact, the research suggests clearly that remote work should be increased, not done away with. If remote work becomes the norm instead of the exception, businesses could actually achieve new heights.

Research paper conclusion FAQs

What is the purpose of a research paper conclusion.

The purpose of a research paper conclusion is to summarize the main points of the paper, help the reader contextualize the information, and leave a lasting impression on the reader.

What should you include in a research paper conclusion?

A research paper conclusion should include a summary of the key points in your paper. Additionally, the conclusion can reframe the research in a way that’s easier for the reader to understand, often by adding urgency or explaining consequences. The conclusion is also used to mention the limitations of your research, such as an inadequate number of participants.

What are the different kinds of research paper conclusions?

Although there are no formal categories of research paper conclusion, in general research paper conclusions tend to fall into the categories of summary, commentary, and new perspective. Bear in mind that these aren’t mutually exclusive—the same research paper conclusion can both summarize the paper and present a new perspective.

how to write an objective for a research paper


A Guide to Writing Research Objectives and Aims

A Guide to Writing Research Objectives and Aims


In determining the success of your research project, it is crucial to understand your research objectives and aim. However, it is, unfortunately, an aspect that many students struggle with, resulting in poor performance. As a result of their importance, if you suspect even the slightest possibility that you belong to this group of students, we strongly recommend that you read this article in its entirety.

In this article, we describe what research aim and objectives are, what distinguishes them from each other, and how to write them correctly.

What is Research Aim?

Research aims describe the purpose or main goal of a project. It help your reader to understand the focus of your research and gives them an idea of what you are trying to accomplish. Research aims are found in their own subsection under the introduction section of all research documents, regardless of whether they are dissertations or research papers.

In most situations, a research aim is expressed as a broad statement of the main goal of the study and doesn’t need to be more than one sentence. The exact format of the outline will vary depending on your preference, but it should all explain the purpose (context), your objective (the actual aim), and how you plan to accomplish it (highlights of your objectives).

What are Research Objectives?

Research aim defines what your study is going to answer, but research objectives outline how it’s going to answer it.

Those objectives break down each component of your research project into smaller portions, each representing a key section of it. Thus, almost all dissertations and theses are organized into numbered lists, with each item getting its own chapter.

Understanding the difference between research objectives and aim

The above explanation should make clear the difference between aim and objectives, but to clarify:

How to Write the Aim and Objectives of Research?

It is important to note that there is no definitive way to write clear objectives and aim for research. Researchers typically formulate their goals and objectives in so many different ways, and your supervisor may often influence the formulation based on their preferences.

Nevertheless, there are a few basic principles you should observe to ensure good practice; these principles are listed below.

Research Aim

The aim should include three parts, which address the following questions:

It is easier to accomplish writing your research aim by addressing each question using its own sentence, although you can combine sentences for each or write multiple sentences for each question, the important thing is to address each one individually.

The first question, why, provides context to your research project, the second question, what describes the aim of your research, and the last question, how, acts as an introduction to your objectives which will immediately follow.

Research Objectives

Each of your research objectives should have the following:

Properly formulating the aims and objectives of your thesis, dissertation, or research paper is an integral part of its success. Your goals and objectives will determine what your research ultimately looks like in terms of scope, depth, and direction. You will gain clarity in your research and in the minds of your readers if you establish clear aims and objectives, with your aim stating what you wish to achieve, and your objectives indicating how you will do that. Moreover, you will have a clearer direction for your research if you take the time to establish your research objective and aim. This will lead to fewer future issues, but also to a more thorough and cohesive research project.

Feel free to reach out to us here if you need assistance in writing your objectives or aim for your thesis or research. You can also click here to learn more about the services provided.

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11.1 The Purpose of Research Writing

Learning objectives.

Why was the Great Wall of China built? What have scientists learned about the possibility of life on Mars? What roles did women play in the American Revolution? How does the human brain create, store, and retrieve memories? Who invented the game of football, and how has it changed over the years?

You may know the answers to these questions off the top of your head. If you are like most people, however, you find answers to tough questions like these by searching the Internet, visiting the library, or asking others for information. To put it simply, you perform research.

Whether you are a scientist, an artist, a paralegal, or a parent, you probably perform research in your everyday life. When your boss, your instructor, or a family member asks you a question that you do not know the answer to, you locate relevant information, analyze your findings, and share your results. Locating, analyzing, and sharing information are key steps in the research process, and in this chapter, you will learn more about each step. By developing your research writing skills, you will prepare yourself to answer any question no matter how challenging.

Reasons for Research

When you perform research, you are essentially trying to solve a mystery—you want to know how something works or why something happened. In other words, you want to answer a question that you (and other people) have about the world. This is one of the most basic reasons for performing research.

But the research process does not end when you have solved your mystery. Imagine what would happen if a detective collected enough evidence to solve a criminal case, but she never shared her solution with the authorities. Presenting what you have learned from research can be just as important as performing the research. Research results can be presented in a variety of ways, but one of the most popular—and effective—presentation forms is the research paper . A research paper presents an original thesis, or purpose statement, about a topic and develops that thesis with information gathered from a variety of sources.

If you are curious about the possibility of life on Mars, for example, you might choose to research the topic. What will you do, though, when your research is complete? You will need a way to put your thoughts together in a logical, coherent manner. You may want to use the facts you have learned to create a narrative or to support an argument. And you may want to show the results of your research to your friends, your teachers, or even the editors of magazines and journals. Writing a research paper is an ideal way to organize thoughts, craft narratives or make arguments based on research, and share your newfound knowledge with the world.

Write a paragraph about a time when you used research in your everyday life. Did you look for the cheapest way to travel from Houston to Denver? Did you search for a way to remove gum from the bottom of your shoe? In your paragraph, explain what you wanted to research, how you performed the research, and what you learned as a result.

Research Writing and the Academic Paper

No matter what field of study you are interested in, you will most likely be asked to write a research paper during your academic career. For example, a student in an art history course might write a research paper about an artist’s work. Similarly, a student in a psychology course might write a research paper about current findings in childhood development.

Having to write a research paper may feel intimidating at first. After all, researching and writing a long paper requires a lot of time, effort, and organization. However, writing a research paper can also be a great opportunity to explore a topic that is particularly interesting to you. The research process allows you to gain expertise on a topic of your choice, and the writing process helps you remember what you have learned and understand it on a deeper level.

Research Writing at Work

Knowing how to write a good research paper is a valuable skill that will serve you well throughout your career. Whether you are developing a new product, studying the best way to perform a procedure, or learning about challenges and opportunities in your field of employment, you will use research techniques to guide your exploration. You may even need to create a written report of your findings. And because effective communication is essential to any company, employers seek to hire people who can write clearly and professionally.

Writing at Work

Take a few minutes to think about each of the following careers. How might each of these professionals use researching and research writing skills on the job?

A medical laboratory technician or information technology professional might do research to learn about the latest technological developments in either of these fields. A small business owner might conduct research to learn about the latest trends in his or her industry. A freelance magazine writer may need to research a given topic to write an informed, up-to-date article.

Think about the job of your dreams. How might you use research writing skills to perform that job? Create a list of ways in which strong researching, organizing, writing, and critical thinking skills could help you succeed at your dream job. How might these skills help you obtain that job?

Steps of the Research Writing Process

How does a research paper grow from a folder of brainstormed notes to a polished final draft? No two projects are identical, but most projects follow a series of six basic steps.

These are the steps in the research writing process:

Each of these steps will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter. For now, though, we will take a brief look at what each step involves.

Step 1: Choosing a Topic

As you may recall from Chapter 8 “The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?” , to narrow the focus of your topic, you may try freewriting exercises, such as brainstorming. You may also need to ask a specific research question —a broad, open-ended question that will guide your research—as well as propose a possible answer, or a working thesis . You may use your research question and your working thesis to create a research proposal . In a research proposal, you present your main research question, any related subquestions you plan to explore, and your working thesis.

Step 2: Planning and Scheduling

Before you start researching your topic, take time to plan your researching and writing schedule. Research projects can take days, weeks, or even months to complete. Creating a schedule is a good way to ensure that you do not end up being overwhelmed by all the work you have to do as the deadline approaches.

During this step of the process, it is also a good idea to plan the resources and organizational tools you will use to keep yourself on track throughout the project. Flowcharts, calendars, and checklists can all help you stick to your schedule. See Chapter 11 “Writing from Research: What Will I Learn?” , Section 11.2 “Steps in Developing a Research Proposal” for an example of a research schedule.

Step 3: Conducting Research

When going about your research, you will likely use a variety of sources—anything from books and periodicals to video presentations and in-person interviews.

Your sources will include both primary sources and secondary sources . Primary sources provide firsthand information or raw data. For example, surveys, in-person interviews, and historical documents are primary sources. Secondary sources, such as biographies, literary reviews, or magazine articles, include some analysis or interpretation of the information presented. As you conduct research, you will take detailed, careful notes about your discoveries. You will also evaluate the reliability of each source you find.

Step 4: Organizing Research and the Writer’s Ideas

When your research is complete, you will organize your findings and decide which sources to cite in your paper. You will also have an opportunity to evaluate the evidence you have collected and determine whether it supports your thesis, or the focus of your paper. You may decide to adjust your thesis or conduct additional research to ensure that your thesis is well supported.

Remember, your working thesis is not set in stone. You can and should change your working thesis throughout the research writing process if the evidence you find does not support your original thesis. Never try to force evidence to fit your argument. For example, your working thesis is “Mars cannot support life-forms.” Yet, a week into researching your topic, you find an article in the New York Times detailing new findings of bacteria under the Martian surface. Instead of trying to argue that bacteria are not life forms, you might instead alter your thesis to “Mars cannot support complex life-forms.”

Step 5: Drafting Your Paper

Now you are ready to combine your research findings with your critical analysis of the results in a rough draft. You will incorporate source materials into your paper and discuss each source thoughtfully in relation to your thesis or purpose statement.

When you cite your reference sources, it is important to pay close attention to standard conventions for citing sources in order to avoid plagiarism , or the practice of using someone else’s words without acknowledging the source. Later in this chapter, you will learn how to incorporate sources in your paper and avoid some of the most common pitfalls of attributing information.

Step 6: Revising and Editing Your Paper

In the final step of the research writing process, you will revise and polish your paper. You might reorganize your paper’s structure or revise for unity and cohesion, ensuring that each element in your paper flows into the next logically and naturally. You will also make sure that your paper uses an appropriate and consistent tone.

Once you feel confident in the strength of your writing, you will edit your paper for proper spelling, grammar, punctuation, mechanics, and formatting. When you complete this final step, you will have transformed a simple idea or question into a thoroughly researched and well-written paper you can be proud of!

Review the steps of the research writing process. Then answer the questions on your own sheet of paper.

Key Takeaways

Writing for Success by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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The Importance of Correct Objectives for Research Paper Methodology

The research paper is not just a set of opinions and personal thought on topics the researcher wishes to examine and dissect. It is a study done in a manner that requires thorough research using legitimate references such as books study materials, and past work from experts to come up with a reliable and accurate dissertation of the selected topic. There is also a research paper format and research paper outline to follow. It is not enough that the researcher scans a single Essay methodology example to have an idea what to write. The general requirements of a Research paper will include the topic, sources, and of course, the Methodology.

Some may ask: “ what is a research methodology ? And what are the research methodology objectives ? ” The research methodology is an integral part of the paper. The research methodology objectives include ensuring the reliability and accuracy of the document to be presented by using the appropriate data gathering resources and the formulas or statistical tools that will be employed.

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Novices would often ask about what is a research methodology . To come up with a good research methodology, the researcher needs to be able to describe the different research methods used. The term Research Methods refers to the techniques one employed to collect all needed data for the selected project. Looking at a number of Essay methodology examples , research methodology samples , scientific research methodology , and some interesting research paper topics that makes use of different research paper format as reference may also help, but then again, research methodology have more specific needs that will necessitate the researcher to look for several possible research paper topics .

Prior to writing the Dissertation Methodology part, the researcher needs to have a concise concept of the different steps and methods of gathering data. The researcher may make use of some of the following research methods to come up with a more scientific research methodology :

To determine the best scientific research methodology to utilize, it is best to seek the advice and work with the Research Advisor to verify the kind of research technique employed specifically within one’s field of expertise or discipline. It also helps to see a research methodology sample and a research paper outline as a guide. Also, the researcher needs to elaborate on the reasons behind selecting a specific method as well as the rationale as to why the other methods were vetoed, this is best done by assessing and presenting the pros and cons because this also needs to be stated in the dissertation methodology section.

To assist the novice researcher, the following rules may be considered when writing one’s dissertation methodology:

Do you need help with your research methodology format ? Often asking “ what is a research methodology ” and “ what is a research paper format ”?

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We are P rof E ssays.com and we provide you with the most professional service rendered by our professional writers. We can present you with a research methodology sample , an essay methodology example , or a descriptive research paper based on whatever format you’ll need, whether it’s an MLA format research paper or an APA style research paper , we got it all here!

Here at P rof E ssays.com , we provide you with concepts on what is a research methodology , your research methodology objectives , some research methodology sample using scientific research methodology on various research paper topics with credible research paper formats, cover page , research paper components that employs either MLA format research paper or an APA style research paper .

We can also offer descriptive research paper , abstract , and research paper outline as we are the most comprehensive kind of service that not commonly seen in other sites. Check out our essay samples .

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The next step is making research methodology objectives. In making the research objectives, one may contemplate on the following tips:

The Research paper outline generally follows the following parts:

TITLE PAGE – the title page reflects the research paper topics and the specific issue the researchers wishes to discuss and examine. The researcher may forego the cover page of the research paper unless otherwise indicated by the Adviser or Teacher. This is also known as the cover page

ABSTRACT – It serves as a summary or overview of the Research material and usually follows the cover page , It may be written in a single paragraph where the reader/ assessor will be presented with the reason behind the research, the approach to the existing problem, the results of the study, and the conclusion of the study. One can safely say that the Abstract is the sum total of the material.

INTRODUCTION – research paper components in any reference book will never be approved without an Introduction . This enables the reader to understand the rationale behind the research work, and should not be more than 2 pages in length.

BODY – This may be further subdivided in to two or more sections and contains the bulk of the collected information, the manner in which they were acquired, the references, and the research methods used to some up with a solution/ conclusion.

CONCLUSION – it showcases the results of the study based on the treatment of the collected data. It is the summary of the Research work and highlights the solution of the presented problem and the more specific sub- problems.

APPENDICES – this refers to the collection of supplementary books or other legitimate sources of information used in the research paper which may be statistical or explanatory in nature.

BIBLIOGRAPHY – Is the list of writings utilized by the researcher, it includes information like the title of the books used, the name of the author(s), the publisher, date of issue, etc.

To come up with a descriptive research paper that meets the needs of the assessor, the research paper format may make us of the two most commonly employed format and the research paper components may vary. These are The American Psychological Association (APA) format or the Modern Language Association (MLA) format.

The APA style research paper is a descriptive research paper most often used when a research topic is within the discipline of the social sciences or when the researcher needs to cite social sciences sources. The guidelines of an APA format will include encoding the material double- spaced on 8.5”x11” paper with I inch margins on every side. APA style research paper also recommends the use of Times New Roman, font size 12. The APA format also has 4 major parts, the research paper components will include:

On the other hand, the MLA format is most often used to write research papers within the field of Humanities and Liberal Arts.

The MLA format research paper is a descriptive research paper that provides very specific rules on the formatting of materials/ documents and enables the writers to cite their references or sources through a system that makes use of parenthetical citations, through this system, the writer/ researcher is able to build his credibility by showcasing their references, gives credit to the author of their source, and protects the researcher from any allegations of plagiarism

The MLA format research paper is as follows:

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Tags: apa research paper , custom essay , custom research paper , interesting topics for research paper , mla research paper , research paper , research paper methodology , research paper outline , research paper topics

how to write an objective for a research paper

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Just-In-Time (JIT): Example Research Paper By An Expert Writer To Follow

Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: Time , Production , Inventory , Organization , Manufacture , Business , System , Manufacturing

Words: 1300

Published: 03/08/2023


Just-in-time (JIT)

Just in Time in production may also be referred to as the Toyota production system or Just in time production. This is a method whose primary objectives is to decrease flow periods within manufacturing as well as response time from customers and suppliers. It originated in Japan in the 1960s at a Toyota factory. It was mitigated to the western industries in the 1980s where many manufacturing industries practiced it. Just In time manufacturing strategy struggles to advance organization returns on a business venture by decreasing the procedure inventory and the linked costs. This just in time in production process depends on signs and Kanban amid points in the method and process to meet its objectives. These signals and Kanban tells when to make the production share. This Kanban’s are permits which could be simple visual signs. According to Monden (2011) the Kanban relationship is used in the description of relationships between suppliers in respect to the quantities delivered. This could either be absence or presence of share of a shelf. Just in time in production emphasizes on continuous development when implemented adequately and correctly. It can improve and progress returns of production organizations investments, efficiency, and excellence.

Practicality of JIT

The mechanism for JIT is often misunderstood. For example, active application of JIT is never independent of another important part of a production strategy, or it can terminate with opposite and negative results. Recently, manufacturers and producers have tried predicting techniques including application of a trailing thirteen-week average which is the best predictor for JIT systems. Some researchers have argued that JIT based on the assumption of steadiness is a flawed philosophy. Just in time production philosophy is a simple inventory strategy which exposes hidden costs of maintaining inventory. This does not make it a simple resolution for an organization to accept. The organization should trail a collection of new techniques to control and manage the results of alteration. The inventory is observed as experiencing expenses rather than adding or installing value, which is against past accounts. This motivates organizations to remove the inventory that does not recompense for production matters and continuously develops the system to require less inventory and also to allow stock management to maintain stock keeping. Management keeps an inventory record to hide production issues which includes backups at work centers, the reliability of the machine, and variability of processes, inflexibility of workers and equipment including inadequacy of capacity. JIT focuses on having the correct material, at the proper time and place and the exact quantity. As shown by Monden (2011) there are far reaching impacts on the applicability and use of the JIT system on an organisation as it affects the industry in different perspectives. JIT involves making only what is desired when it is desirable, and the quantity required. For example, it is efficient to manufacture thousands of vehicles at minimal costs. It is also advantageous to come up with a detailed manufacturing strategy which involves parts of procurement. Supply what is wanted, when wanted and the quantity wanted according to the production plan to eliminate waste and unwanted requirements resulting in improved productivity.

Analysis of JIT.

Transaction cost method-Just In Time decreases inventory in an organization. However, an organization may just be subcontracting their inventory inputs to suppliers regardless of whether they have JIT or not. Based on research done in Japan where providers were found to be charging JIT customers a five-percent price on their products. Environmental concerns- Numerous daily deliveries were usually made by bicycle before the introductory of JIT, with increased quantity requiring vans and Lorries. The potential land problems were concerning burning of fossils fuels which violated just in time waste strategies. Management of wastes inclusive of employee’s efforts are critical in the production process. According to Javadian et. al (2013) removal of materials that do not aid in the improvements and inhibit performance is a necessary element in the JIT process Price instability JIT discreetly assumed an input level cost steadiness that removes the wants to buy shares in advance of cost increases. Wherever there is predictable growth in input prices, it is desired to restore inventory. JIT quality volatility implicitly takes up data parts making quality remain constant with time. An organization or business may come up with high-quality products. A solution is to function with the selected suppliers to assist the company to improve the JIT processes to reduce costs and variations. Long term price agreement are discussed and agreed on the quality levels of products to be made the responsibility of the supplier. This involves the fixing of volatile quality based on a quality circle. Demand stability. It is argued that the benefits of comparatively stable market, which aids to guarantee well-organized capital consumption rates. Without significant steady demand, just in time becomes unmanageable in extraordinary investment cost manufacture. As indicated by Mark (2012) Just in Time assists in the improvement of sharing through a communication forum that checks on the customers’ demands. The supply stability. For example, the railway strikes in the US in 1992 resulted in failure to of a worker plant since there was no supply of materials. Implementation design of JIT and strategy process flow Process – Redesign and relay out for flow process, Decrease lot extents – Connection methods – Equilibrium workplace volume.

Some of JIT benefits and objectives includes;

There are less investments on inventories as the levels of inventories are reduced as indicated by Javadian et. al (2013) There is an improvement inflow of goods from warehouse to shelves. Individual and small part ration scopes minimize portion delay inventories simplifying inventory movement and organization. Efficient use of employees with several skills. Workers who can work on diverse parts of the progression permits the organization to move workforces where they are desirable. Manufacture planning and work hour steadiness coordinated and harmonized with demand. Products are made only when there is demand. This enables the company to save money for not paying workers overtime or allowing employees to concentrate on extra works or take part in teaching. The amplified relationship emphasizes on the supply. Companies with no inventory do not have source system problems to come up with the shortage part making supplier relationship that is critical to consider. Purchases arise at intervals which are regular and even through the manufacturing period. The resource is coordinated with manufacture demand and the maximum inventory quantity.

Just in time production minimizes storing space desirable in a warehouse.

There is a lesser chance of inventory contravention or perishing. Conclusion and Recommendations. In conclusion, the potential relationship between organization learning and just in time production is detected. Concepts, process and issues of the business education including just in time production should be reviewed in any organization. The critical success parameters and the path to just in time production progress should be discussed and implemented correctly in any organization. Analysis and discussion of how these concepts are interconnected from both theoretical and practical considerations are of great importance. JIT processes require the use of constant coordination and flow of information for effective implementation as indicated by Mark (2012). It is argued that the tool focused and efficient based just in time production is similar to business looping as it concentrates mainly on relationship improvement and piece learning using a limited just in time production tools and resources.

Monden, Y. (2011). Toyota production system: an integrated approach to just-in-time. CRC Press. Droge, C., Vickery, S. K., & Jacobs, M. A. (2012). Does supply chain integration mediate the relationships between product/process strategy and service performance? An empirical study. International Journal of Production Economics, 137(2), 250-262. Javadian Kootanaee, A., Babu, K. N., & Talari, H. F. (2013). Just-in-time manufacturing system: from introduction to implement. Nagendra and Talari, Hamid Foladi, Just-In-Time Manufacturing System: From Introduction to Implement (March 1, 2013).

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Writing an Abstract for Your Research Paper

Definition and Purpose of Abstracts

An abstract is a short summary of your (published or unpublished) research paper, usually about a paragraph (c. 6-7 sentences, 150-250 words) long. A well-written abstract serves multiple purposes:

It’s also worth remembering that search engines and bibliographic databases use abstracts, as well as the title, to identify key terms for indexing your published paper. So what you include in your abstract and in your title are crucial for helping other researchers find your paper or article.

If you are writing an abstract for a course paper, your professor may give you specific guidelines for what to include and how to organize your abstract. Similarly, academic journals often have specific requirements for abstracts. So in addition to following the advice on this page, you should be sure to look for and follow any guidelines from the course or journal you’re writing for.

The Contents of an Abstract

Abstracts contain most of the following kinds of information in brief form. The body of your paper will, of course, develop and explain these ideas much more fully. As you will see in the samples below, the proportion of your abstract that you devote to each kind of information—and the sequence of that information—will vary, depending on the nature and genre of the paper that you are summarizing in your abstract. And in some cases, some of this information is implied, rather than stated explicitly. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , which is widely used in the social sciences, gives specific guidelines for what to include in the abstract for different kinds of papers—for empirical studies, literature reviews or meta-analyses, theoretical papers, methodological papers, and case studies.

Here are the typical kinds of information found in most abstracts:

Your abstract should be intelligible on its own, without a reader’s having to read your entire paper. And in an abstract, you usually do not cite references—most of your abstract will describe what you have studied in your research and what you have found and what you argue in your paper. In the body of your paper, you will cite the specific literature that informs your research.

When to Write Your Abstract

Although you might be tempted to write your abstract first because it will appear as the very first part of your paper, it’s a good idea to wait to write your abstract until after you’ve drafted your full paper, so that you know what you’re summarizing.

What follows are some sample abstracts in published papers or articles, all written by faculty at UW-Madison who come from a variety of disciplines. We have annotated these samples to help you see the work that these authors are doing within their abstracts.

Choosing Verb Tenses within Your Abstract

The social science sample (Sample 1) below uses the present tense to describe general facts and interpretations that have been and are currently true, including the prevailing explanation for the social phenomenon under study. That abstract also uses the present tense to describe the methods, the findings, the arguments, and the implications of the findings from their new research study. The authors use the past tense to describe previous research.

The humanities sample (Sample 2) below uses the past tense to describe completed events in the past (the texts created in the pulp fiction industry in the 1970s and 80s) and uses the present tense to describe what is happening in those texts, to explain the significance or meaning of those texts, and to describe the arguments presented in the article.

The science samples (Samples 3 and 4) below use the past tense to describe what previous research studies have done and the research the authors have conducted, the methods they have followed, and what they have found. In their rationale or justification for their research (what remains to be done), they use the present tense. They also use the present tense to introduce their study (in Sample 3, “Here we report . . .”) and to explain the significance of their study (In Sample 3, This reprogramming . . . “provides a scalable cell source for. . .”).

Sample Abstract 1

From the social sciences.

Reporting new findings about the reasons for increasing economic homogamy among spouses

Gonalons-Pons, Pilar, and Christine R. Schwartz. “Trends in Economic Homogamy: Changes in Assortative Mating or the Division of Labor in Marriage?” Demography , vol. 54, no. 3, 2017, pp. 985-1005.

“The growing economic resemblance of spouses has contributed to rising inequality by increasing the number of couples in which there are two high- or two low-earning partners. [Annotation for the previous sentence: The first sentence introduces the topic under study (the “economic resemblance of spouses”). This sentence also implies the question underlying this research study: what are the various causes—and the interrelationships among them—for this trend?] The dominant explanation for this trend is increased assortative mating. Previous research has primarily relied on cross-sectional data and thus has been unable to disentangle changes in assortative mating from changes in the division of spouses’ paid labor—a potentially key mechanism given the dramatic rise in wives’ labor supply. [Annotation for the previous two sentences: These next two sentences explain what previous research has demonstrated. By pointing out the limitations in the methods that were used in previous studies, they also provide a rationale for new research.] We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to decompose the increase in the correlation between spouses’ earnings and its contribution to inequality between 1970 and 2013 into parts due to (a) changes in assortative mating, and (b) changes in the division of paid labor. [Annotation for the previous sentence: The data, research and analytical methods used in this new study.] Contrary to what has often been assumed, the rise of economic homogamy and its contribution to inequality is largely attributable to changes in the division of paid labor rather than changes in sorting on earnings or earnings potential. Our findings indicate that the rise of economic homogamy cannot be explained by hypotheses centered on meeting and matching opportunities, and they show where in this process inequality is generated and where it is not.” (p. 985) [Annotation for the previous two sentences: The major findings from and implications and significance of this study.]

Sample Abstract 2

From the humanities.

Analyzing underground pulp fiction publications in Tanzania, this article makes an argument about the cultural significance of those publications

Emily Callaci. “Street Textuality: Socialism, Masculinity, and Urban Belonging in Tanzania’s Pulp Fiction Publishing Industry, 1975-1985.” Comparative Studies in Society and History , vol. 59, no. 1, 2017, pp. 183-210.

“From the mid-1970s through the mid-1980s, a network of young urban migrant men created an underground pulp fiction publishing industry in the city of Dar es Salaam. [Annotation for the previous sentence: The first sentence introduces the context for this research and announces the topic under study.] As texts that were produced in the underground economy of a city whose trajectory was increasingly charted outside of formalized planning and investment, these novellas reveal more than their narrative content alone. These texts were active components in the urban social worlds of the young men who produced them. They reveal a mode of urbanism otherwise obscured by narratives of decolonization, in which urban belonging was constituted less by national citizenship than by the construction of social networks, economic connections, and the crafting of reputations. This article argues that pulp fiction novellas of socialist era Dar es Salaam are artifacts of emergent forms of male sociability and mobility. In printing fictional stories about urban life on pilfered paper and ink, and distributing their texts through informal channels, these writers not only described urban communities, reputations, and networks, but also actually created them.” (p. 210) [Annotation for the previous sentences: The remaining sentences in this abstract interweave other essential information for an abstract for this article. The implied research questions: What do these texts mean? What is their historical and cultural significance, produced at this time, in this location, by these authors? The argument and the significance of this analysis in microcosm: these texts “reveal a mode or urbanism otherwise obscured . . .”; and “This article argues that pulp fiction novellas. . . .” This section also implies what previous historical research has obscured. And through the details in its argumentative claims, this section of the abstract implies the kinds of methods the author has used to interpret the novellas and the concepts under study (e.g., male sociability and mobility, urban communities, reputations, network. . . ).]

Sample Abstract/Summary 3

From the sciences.

Reporting a new method for reprogramming adult mouse fibroblasts into induced cardiac progenitor cells

Lalit, Pratik A., Max R. Salick, Daryl O. Nelson, Jayne M. Squirrell, Christina M. Shafer, Neel G. Patel, Imaan Saeed, Eric G. Schmuck, Yogananda S. Markandeya, Rachel Wong, Martin R. Lea, Kevin W. Eliceiri, Timothy A. Hacker, Wendy C. Crone, Michael Kyba, Daniel J. Garry, Ron Stewart, James A. Thomson, Karen M. Downs, Gary E. Lyons, and Timothy J. Kamp. “Lineage Reprogramming of Fibroblasts into Proliferative Induced Cardiac Progenitor Cells by Defined Factors.” Cell Stem Cell , vol. 18, 2016, pp. 354-367.

“Several studies have reported reprogramming of fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocytes; however, reprogramming into proliferative induced cardiac progenitor cells (iCPCs) remains to be accomplished. [Annotation for the previous sentence: The first sentence announces the topic under study, summarizes what’s already known or been accomplished in previous research, and signals the rationale and goals are for the new research and the problem that the new research solves: How can researchers reprogram fibroblasts into iCPCs?] Here we report that a combination of 11 or 5 cardiac factors along with canonical Wnt and JAK/STAT signaling reprogrammed adult mouse cardiac, lung, and tail tip fibroblasts into iCPCs. The iCPCs were cardiac mesoderm-restricted progenitors that could be expanded extensively while maintaining multipo-tency to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells in vitro. Moreover, iCPCs injected into the cardiac crescent of mouse embryos differentiated into cardiomyocytes. iCPCs transplanted into the post-myocardial infarction mouse heart improved survival and differentiated into cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. [Annotation for the previous four sentences: The methods the researchers developed to achieve their goal and a description of the results.] Lineage reprogramming of adult somatic cells into iCPCs provides a scalable cell source for drug discovery, disease modeling, and cardiac regenerative therapy.” (p. 354) [Annotation for the previous sentence: The significance or implications—for drug discovery, disease modeling, and therapy—of this reprogramming of adult somatic cells into iCPCs.]

Sample Abstract 4, a Structured Abstract

Reporting results about the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in managing acute bacterial sinusitis, from a rigorously controlled study

Note: This journal requires authors to organize their abstract into four specific sections, with strict word limits. Because the headings for this structured abstract are self-explanatory, we have chosen not to add annotations to this sample abstract.

Wald, Ellen R., David Nash, and Jens Eickhoff. “Effectiveness of Amoxicillin/Clavulanate Potassium in the Treatment of Acute Bacterial Sinusitis in Children.” Pediatrics , vol. 124, no. 1, 2009, pp. 9-15.

“OBJECTIVE: The role of antibiotic therapy in managing acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) in children is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of high-dose amoxicillin/potassium clavulanate in the treatment of children diagnosed with ABS.

METHODS : This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Children 1 to 10 years of age with a clinical presentation compatible with ABS were eligible for participation. Patients were stratified according to age (<6 or ≥6 years) and clinical severity and randomly assigned to receive either amoxicillin (90 mg/kg) with potassium clavulanate (6.4 mg/kg) or placebo. A symptom survey was performed on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, and 30. Patients were examined on day 14. Children’s conditions were rated as cured, improved, or failed according to scoring rules.

RESULTS: Two thousand one hundred thirty-five children with respiratory complaints were screened for enrollment; 139 (6.5%) had ABS. Fifty-eight patients were enrolled, and 56 were randomly assigned. The mean age was 6630 months. Fifty (89%) patients presented with persistent symptoms, and 6 (11%) presented with nonpersistent symptoms. In 24 (43%) children, the illness was classified as mild, whereas in the remaining 32 (57%) children it was severe. Of the 28 children who received the antibiotic, 14 (50%) were cured, 4 (14%) were improved, 4(14%) experienced treatment failure, and 6 (21%) withdrew. Of the 28children who received placebo, 4 (14%) were cured, 5 (18%) improved, and 19 (68%) experienced treatment failure. Children receiving the antibiotic were more likely to be cured (50% vs 14%) and less likely to have treatment failure (14% vs 68%) than children receiving the placebo.

CONCLUSIONS : ABS is a common complication of viral upper respiratory infections. Amoxicillin/potassium clavulanate results in significantly more cures and fewer failures than placebo, according to parental report of time to resolution.” (9)

Some Excellent Advice about Writing Abstracts for Basic Science Research Papers, by Professor Adriano Aguzzi from the Institute of Neuropathology at the University of Zurich:

how to write an objective for a research paper

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  20. Get Inspired By This Just-In-Time (JIT) Research Paper Sample

    Just-in-time (JIT) Just in Time in production may also be referred to as the Toyota production system or Just in time production. This is a method whose primary objectives is to decrease flow periods within manufacturing as well as response time from customers and suppliers. It originated in Japan in the 1960s at a Toyota factory.

  21. How to write research objectives?

    The objectives of your research lay down specific milestones or stages that you will reach in order to accomplish your goals. They are precise steps that will guide you through your research path and hence can be written in a bulleted list. An example would help you understand how specific research objectives can be written in the form of ...

  22. Writing an Abstract for Your Research Paper

    An abstract is a short summary of your (published or unpublished) research paper, usually about a paragraph (c. 6-7 sentences, 150-250 words) long. A well-written abstract serves multiple purposes: an abstract lets readers get the gist or essence of your paper or article quickly, in order to decide whether to read the full paper;