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Table of Contents
Winter 2022/23, summer 2022, research skills, infrastructure.
These are the last two semesters. For courses older than two semesters, check our list of all past courses .
- Grundlagen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion
- Mobile Interaction Design
- Research Project Human–Computer Interaction
- Physical Computing Lab
We currently have three recurring meetings:
- Thesis meeting, every other Wednesday at 10:00
- Internship reports, Monday at 13:00
- COVID-19: Hiwi working days (internal)
- Monday lunch meeting (internal)
This wiki is also a place to collect information useful for the group.
- Information for new group members (registration, housing, things to do)
- How to use and create git repositories
- List of things we need to or should probably order
- Info on the components we have stocked in the lab
- List of vendors
- Capacitive sensing
- Circuit design
- Making printed circuit boards
- Flexible PCBs
- ESP microcontrollers
- AVR microcontrollers
- Raspberry Pi
- Casting objects
- Machine learning
- Programming for embedded systems
- Parallel web testing
- Thesis writing
- Evaluating iQ4S questionnaires
- How to create demo videos
- Instructions on LDAP, Wiki, etc.
- How to use the HCI printer
- How to use the Optitrack
- Instructions for the photo setup we have
- How to use the reflow oven
- How to use the 3D printer
- How to use the laser cutter
- How to use the vinyl cutter
- How to use the circuit board plotter
- How to use the table saw
- How to control the WeMo sockets via WiFi
- How to use a mac
- How to update from Ubuntu 12.04 to 16.04
- How to use our GPU optimized server
- How to setup piwik
- How to get started with the Phantom Premium Device in Unity
- Student Helper Activities
- 3D Printer Cleaning Log
- Exploring Deep Learning Strategies for precise Control of EMS Master Thesis, Student: Muaid Mughrabi, Supervisor: Tim Dünte This thesis focuses on the application of deep reinforcement learning in conjunction with electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) to achieve precise control of the human hand. The primary goal is to develop an automated method for calibrating EMS devices to perform hand movements using learning-based approaches. To achieve this, several research questions were posed regarding the characteristics of the controller to be found. Systematically answering these questions led to the development of several artifacts that enable the iterative construction of better models. First, classical, non-trainable models were developed to test the assumptions made in the initial phase of this work. Neural models that control movements by turning a single EMS action on and off were then explored. Subsequently, models that can use the entire EMS parameter space (intensity x pulse width) were also explored. To this end, a procedure was introduced to create personalized EMS action spaces that can be used to map network actions in regression settings. Different reward functions (homographic, asymmetric, stepped, and Gaussian) were developed and tested to determine their impact on the resulting policies and the training process. Results were then compared to the human baseline using data collected with 6 participants. The work also sheds light on the limitations of the model and possible areas for further research.
- Design and Evaluation of an Interaction Method using Bluetooth AoA and AoD Master Thesis, Student: Kendall Ly, Supervisor: Dennis Stanke In this paper, concepts for designing interaction methods using Bluetooth’s Direction Finding methods, Angle of Arrival (AoA) and Angle of Departure (AoD) are presented. In particular, the focus is on studying the capacities and limitations of Bluetooth-AoA. Based on the results of these studies, arm gestures were designed to be used to interact with Bluetooth devices via the measured angles of arrival. In a user study with 16 participants, these gestures were evaluated in the context of targeting accuracy and measurement accuracy for the angles of arrival. For the experimental studies, prototypes were developed to enable the exchange of direction finding packets, allowing the use of Bluetooth AoA functionalities. Results have shown that Bluetooth device selection using a pointing gesture is relatively reliable with a detection rate of at least 70%. For the performance of the pointing gesture, it has additionally been found that the targeting accuracy of users is less accurate with the left arm. In contrast, the measurements of the angle of arrival are less accurate on the right arm. Despite a deviation of about 3° from the actual angles, the gestures using Bluetooth AoA offer robust possibilities for interaction with Bluetooth devices.
- Supporting Conversations via Speech Recognition and Graphical Output Bachelor Thesis, Student: Niklas Friedrich, Supervisor: Dennis Stanke In this thesis a smartwatch prototype is created which automatically displays supporting information during a conversation. For this purpose, an existing hardware prototype with two additional screens aligned for the participants of the conversation will be extended by a speech recognition system. The speech recognition continuously evaluates the content of the conversation. If something is recognized that can be displayed, it is displayed including relevant contextual information on the additional screens of the smartwatch, visible to all participants in the conversation.
- Design and Evaluation of Haptic Mouse Feedback via EMS Bachelor Thesis, Student: Jeremy Süther, Supervisor: Tim Dünte This work is a continuative work. In the previous work, haptic mouse feedback using electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on the forearm was investigated. The stimulation of the muscles should restrict the movement of the hand in the direction of the thumb as well as the little finger. In this work, the muscles are stimulated, also with EMS, on the upper arm to affect the movement of the hand from the body or to the body. In a study, the muscles are evaluated for their interpretation, recognition of different values, and scalability on a slider on a graphical user interface. At the end of the study, a combination of both works is tested using a selected application scenario. Finally, the resulting data is evaluated.
- The Effectiveness of Interventions Against Selective Exposure on Social Media Platforms Bachelor Thesis, Student: Falk Stock, Supervisor: Jan Wolff Counteracting the formation of filter bubbles and their role in the spread of misinformation remains a hot topic in the context of online platforms. Several approaches towards achieving a more balanced and sensible interaction with content on (social) media services have been proposed in the past. Most rely on self-control and a willingness to confront oneself with dissenting views. There remains a knowledge gap concerning whether the relevant target audience would be willing to employ such interventions. Additionally, a real risk is present of achieving the opposite effect if such interventions are deployed, as confrontation with dissenting opinions can serve to harden one's views. Similar questions can be found in the area of sustainable HCI, in which a large set of interventions towards a more sustainable lifestyle have been proposed. Here, the question of validating the effectiveness of research in this area is an ongoing issue as well. This thesis concerns with the question to which extent such interventions can serve a purpose. That is, whether the relevant audience would employ them and whether they aid in shaping a balanced worldview. For this, an extensive literature review needs to be conducted to collect large selection of proposed interventions. Its likely that one has to segue slightly into the basics of sociology and psychology as well. Depending on the findings, either a survey or a small scale study can be conducted for the purpose of verification or contextualization.
- Enhancing Control Strategies for EMS Applications using Neural Networks Master Thesis, Student: Jan Feuchter, Supervisor: Tim Dünte After electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) has been used successfully in medicine for years, more and more applications in other areas have recently been researched. In human-computer interaction, EMS can help with the output of complex information without the user having to pay attention to auditory or visual feedback. However, the increasing complexity of the data also poses increasing challenges for the controller. In this work, several existing strategies in wrist control are extended. For this purpose, approaches that use reinforcement learning are analyzed in short experiments. At the same time, approaches without neural networks are also optimized so that a comparison with regard to the quality and the training duration of the controls is possible. It is shown that neural networks can represent an option for the realization of the control, but are not always the optimal solution. Instead, simpler controllers tailored to a specific problem are often equivalent or even better. These then also work without prior training. Binary controller deviations were less than one degree for constant functions and up to eight degrees for high-frequency sinusoids. A high time dependency was determined in reinforcement learning, whereby the deviations were more than ten degrees even for constant functions.
- Measurement of Muscle Activity for the Evaluation of Computer Mouse with EMG Bachelor Thesis, Student: Merlin-Puck Rietschel, Supervisors: Tim Dünte and Marcel Schepelmann This work compares the concept of a vertical computer mouse with the classic computer mouse in terms of the user’s muscle activity. For this purpose the computer mouse models Logitech MX Master 3 in the classic design form and Logitech MX Vertical in a vertical design form are compared under various criteria within a user study. The first task requires drag-and-drop actions over long distances and the second task requires computer mouse movements over short distances but with many changes of direction. During the execution the screen contents, mouse hand of the participants, muscle activity of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, computer mouse interactions, mouse typing interactions and results of the test executions are recorded and evaluated. The computer mouse models are compared in the disciplines speed of task processing, muscle activity of the flexor carpi ulnaris, cursor speed, subjective evaluation of the participants using a questionnaire based on the System Usability Scale, and precision. The Logitech MX Vertical was rated with a score of 60.17 and the Logitech MX Master 3 was assessed with a score of 67.83. The user study showed that the central tendencies of the muscle activity measured in the study conducted must be considered the same for both computer mouse models.
- Design and Evaluation of Haptic Mouse Feedback for One-Dimensional Input using EMS Bachelor Thesis, Student: Julian Schmuhl, Supervisor: Tim Dünte For an ever increasing amount of people, a computer is a device they use on a day-to-day basis. In order to use a computer, an input device is needed, which is often a mouse. However, it lacks a form of haptic feedback, which can transfer information from the graphical user interface to the user. Therefore, in this thesis a prototype will be designed which enables haptic mouse feedback via electrical muscle stimulation. This will alter the position of the users wrist and the user perceives Force Feedback. The developed prototype is integrated in a application scenario, which includes the placement of an object on a graphical user interface. The prototype is tested in a user study, which focusses on every-day usage, in particular the precision of the placement and compares two stimulation modes. One stimulation mode is significantly more accurate. Afterwards, the prototype will be evaluated with the data from the study.
- Design and Implementation of a One-Handed Smartwatch Interaction for fast Responses via EMG Bachelor Thesis, Student: Nick Janßen, Supervisor: Tim Dünte In this work, another input modality for a smartwatch interaction is implemented and evaluated. The input modality is a gesture recognition system that uses electromyography (EMG) to measure muscle activity in the forearm and can recognize hand gestures. The advantage is that only one arm needs to be used as opposed to touch input, since the EMG wristband and smartwatch are attached to the same arm. The special feature of the EMG prototype used in this work is that it sequentially triggers the individual electrodes and then measures the activity via an external EMG sensor. The user study conducted for this work with 15 test subjects showed that the gesture recognition could recognize the gestures with 83.2% accuracy and the reaction time of the test subjects for gesture recognition (5820ms) is slower than that of touch screen input (4661ms). This is due to the recognition time of 1080ms for a gesture. Subtracting this for gesture recognition, there is no significant difference between both input modalities. Since gesture recognition results in fewer errors during the execution of other tasks, it can be assumed that the one-armed interaction offers an advantage over touchscreen input.
- Comparison and Evaluation of Public and Private Output Modalities on the Earlobe Master Thesis, Student: Kerem Can Demir, Supervisors: Dennis Stanke and Tim Dünte This work investigates the noticeability of different output modalities on the earlobe and meaningful applications in everyday life. Noticeability is composed of two aspects. The error rate describes the frequency at which active stimuli were not perceived. On the other hand, noticeability consists of the reaction time with which a stimulus is perceived. For this purpose, prototypes were developed that can be attached to the earlobe. These prototypes include a total of 9 modalities: Electrotactile feedback, Vibration, Thermal Cold, Thermal Warm, Sound, and Poke form the private modalities that the user perceives himself.Display, Light, and Sound Public are public modalities used to convey information to others around the user. A survey was conducted to gather initial impressions of each modality and to ask about specific usage scenarios. The results could later be compared with the surveys from the laboratory study. The laboratory study showed that there were significant differences in terms of the response time. The thermal cold and warm feedback showed no significance among themselves, but were significantly slower than the other private modalities. Furthermore, vibration feedback was significantly faster than poke feedback. For the public modalities, there was significance regarding response time between the display and both other modalities. The display was significantly slower. There was no significance between Light and Sound public. The error rate was 0 % for most modalities. The thermal cold feedback had an error rate of 27.78 %, the thermal warm feedback had an error rate of 3.89 %, the sound had 0.56 % and the display had 22.22 %.
- Augmentation of Headphones by Wearable Displays -- Design and Usage Scenarios Bachelor Thesis, Student: Pia Brandt, Supervisor: Dennis Stanke Headphones allow defining your own soundscape and privately listening to audio sources in public. Active noise-cancelling headphones can even reduce external sounds that intrude into this soundscape. However, to others, the state of a person wearing headphones is unclear (is s/he listening to music? may s/he be spoken to?), which is socially problematic. The goal of this thesis is to explore whether displays integrated in headphones may help to communicate the state of the user to other people. What should be depicted on the display to indicate the state? What about privacy concerns? How should the headphones sense the state of the user? How could the user explicitly provide the content to be shown? This thesis comprises brainstorming about scenarios, sketching and designing potential visualizations on earpieces, asking potential users about the prospect of such display-enhanced headphones, and (if done as a Master's thesis) implementing a prototype.
- Design and Evaluation of a Trackball as an Input Device for Smartwatches Bachelor Thesis, Student: Peer Schroth, Supervisor: Dennis Stanke The fact that the finger covers the screen during touch input and the user can no longer see the screen content is still a problem when using smartwatches. Many smartwatches have alternative input possibilities to the touchscreen to prevent this problem. These include the rotation of the crown or bezel to interact without covering the screen with the users finger. This thesis will analyze already implemented interaction techniques and extend them by using a trackball as input device. Therefore, a trackball crown should be created for an Android smartwatch. Focus of this thesis is also the evaluation of a trackball as input device for smartwatches and the analysis of the user acceptance in user studies.
- Supporting Accessibility Assessments of Web UIs through the Simulation of Perceptual Impairments Master Thesis, Student: Aymen Maamri, Supervisor: Jan Wolff This thesis is concerned with the development and evaluation of methods for assessing the accessibility of content developed for the web. While technical standards and guidelines towards enabling the development of accessible web content have existed for some time, research into tools that provide an insight into the fulfillment of said guidelines is still ongoing. Two examples for such tools are WAVE and TAW. Yet these tools can only give informal feedback and therefore may lead to wrong conclusions about how issues should be remedied. Additionally, in recent years additional challenges have started to be discussed, such as the problem of seizure inducing animations, which extend the problem space. In a novel approach the limitations affecting accessibility are to be made tangible for able-bodied people in order for them to gain deeper insight into perception of their content under different constraints. This is to be done through what is essentially a simulation of the perception of web content under different disabilites. By developing the tool as a browser extension, regular interaction with web content can still be provided. The theory hereby is that, through experiencing possible problems firsthand, developers can immediately spot and prioritize and fix accessibility issues themselves. Through a user study the developed system is to be evaluated regarding its effectiveness when compared to informal approaches such as WAVE or TAW.
- Design and Evaluation of a Content-Aware Visualization of Twitter Conversations Master Thesis, Student: Michael Benz, Supervisor: Jan Wolff In previous work we’ve evaluated methods to qualify and cluster Twitter profiles using the platform’s social graph as a basis. While yielding favorable initial results, this technique is only able to perform a very broad classification. This is attributed to the fact that several other factors need to be taken into account when categorizing online profiles. Furthermore, the approach requires expensive pre-processing and is therefore unsuitable in applications that involve live data. In this work you will be given an extensive database of Twitter profiles and tweets, with the aim to incorporate a more extensive chunk of the data into the clustering approach. Through the application of machine learning, the required time of classifying unknown profiles can be significantly reduced once a model is trained for the task. As this approach has the potential to enable usage of information in real-time, a separate demonstrator application is to be developed to make use of this ability. The application’s aim is to give a live overview of Twitter postings in regards to their corresponding communities. For this, Twitter’s filtered or sampled stream APIs may be used in combination with the developed classifier to provide live data. Through an auxiliary user study the effect of this visualization method on the perception of content can be compared to that of a regular time-sorted list.
- A Critical Look at Sustainability in HCI Bachelor Thesis, Student: Huong Nguyen, Supervisor: Jan Wolff Publications in HCI's subfield Sustainable HCI strive to present systems with a positive ecological impact. Common themes have included persuasive technology and ambient awareness as means to foster changes in personal behavior. However, as effects are yet to be widespread enough to positively influence global emissions and resource usage, other works criticized such approaches and ascribe a different role to HCI, in which more focus should be placed on the supply aspect of devices. Recent works also called for an application of the principles behind permaculture, in which waste is essentially avoided in favor of a circular resource usage. A more extreme lens is provided by Bill Tomlinson et al. with the notion of Collapse Informatics, in which a deliberately negative speculative future is used as a framing device for sustainability efforts of HCI and ICT in general. By imposing an assumption of extreme limits on resource availability, taking the complete supply chain into account automatically becomes a necessity when assessing designs of digital systems. In this thesis, the aim is to provide a comprehensive framework to help evaluate all facets of sustainability focused projects, in which their complete supply chain and lifecycle is taken into account. With this framing, a critical look at a representative subset of existing literature in the area of SHCI is to be provided. Furthermore, the framing is to be used as a tool to evaluate the viability of 2 to 3 existing and influential HCI/ICT projects. Their shortcomings are to be identified and speculative designs that help fit these projects into the developed framework are to be given. This, in turn, serves to identify user-visible aspects of such developments and is to provide a baseline for future work in which user concerns of such systems are addressed.
- An Interface for Interactive Exploration of Communities on Social Media Bachelor Thesis, Student: Maximilian Spiekermann, Supervisor: Jan Wolff The role social platforms play when it comes to radicalization on the internet is a hot topic. Increasingly segregated sub-communities ("filter bubbles") serve to reinforce fringe opinions and don't allow for healthy exposure to sentiments expressed elsewhere. Existing work has already been done to identify such bubbles within the social graph of Twitter. The goal of this thesis is to design an interface that enables an interactive exploration of this graph, with a focus on social bubbles and their interconnections. This includes researching methods to map and present the data and to consider which additional information could be displayed. Furthermore, a user study will have to be conducted to evaluate the design's expressiveness and intelligibility.
- Preventing Selective Exposure on Twitter via Nudging Bachelor Thesis, Student: Kerim Balci, Supervisor: Jan Wolff The content provided to users of social platforms is pre-filtered based on past behaviour on the platform. It is subject to selection biases of individual users, thus preventing any confrontation with divergent opinions. This thesis concerns with the design of an interface that makes users aware of overly selective exposure in their social feeds. The aim of this interface is to subtly steer users towards a broader exposure via nudging. Said design nudge should incentivize users to counteract increasing disconnection of sub-communities on social platforms. Furthermore, a user study is to provide insight into the acceptance of such a feature and the agreement with its feedback.
- Design and Evaluation of a Wrist-Band Prototype for Hand Gesture Recognition via Electromyography Master Thesis, Student: Miena Basta Badres, Supervisor: Tim Dünte Searching for new control and input methods for small computers, such as wearables, one possible option is gesture-based control. This requires capturing hand gestures by a computer. In this work, an electromyography-based approach is taken to detect hand gestures using a provided EMG wristband prototype with eight electrode units. Software for the Arduino-based prototype and software for hand gesture recognition are developed. The modular recognition software processes the incoming signal from the prototype, recognizes the underlying hand gesture, creates recordings with hand gesture data sets, trains various classification methods, and evaluates these methods. In nine experiments with a total of two participants, the different classification methods Logistic Regression, Support Vector Machine, Naive Bayes, Random Forest Classifier, and Multilayer Perceptron Classifier are investigated. The hand gesture recognition is improved by means of the experiments by restructuring the input data and optimizing the parameters of the Random Forest Classifier resulting in an accuracy of up to 93 % for five different hand gestures using the provided prototype
- Design and Implementation of mobile Application Scenarios for Electrotactile Feedback on a Smartwatch Bachelor Thesis, Student: Niklas Herkenhoff, Supervisor: Tim Dünte The output capabilities of smartwatches are limited by the design and the used technologies, e.g. vibration and displays. We envision the use of electrotactile feedback to expand the output space of smartwatches. A working prototype that can present various sensations via electrotactile feedback is available and should be used to design and implement mobile scenarios that benefit from the enhanced output capabilities. Scenarios could be in the context of notifications, navigation, mobile gaming or etc. The thesis should start with a focus on literature to discover potential application scenarios. Then the thesis should create concepts for the discovered scenarios and after that at least one scenario should be implemented and evaluated with a few participants.
- Development and Exploration of the Extension of the Smartwatch Display to the Watch Band Bachelor Thesis, Student: Daniel Wittenburg, Supervisor: Dennis Stanke, Submitted: September 2020 Smartwatches are becoming more and more popular. But so far the screen size is limited to the watchface. In this work, a smartwatch watch strap has to be developed to extend the smartwatch display from the watchface to the watch strap. For this purpose, flexible displays will be used which can display additional information or notifications. The analysis of the design space on the watch strap, as well as the possible areas of application are to be identified and implemented. In addition, haptic feedback along the watch strap should be provided to inform the user about specific information (and their position) on the watch strap display.
- Development and Exploration of Feedback Methods for Ear Clips Bachelor Thesis, Student: Elias Moualem, Supervisor: Dennis Stanke, Submitted: September 2020 This thesis will deal with ear clips as output devices for notifications. Therefore an ear clip prototype will be created and evaluated with different feedback modalities (e.g. vibration, sound, LED, ...). The focus is on the evaluation of these modalities and their comparison. The ear clip should be able to connect to any Android device via Bluetooth and inform the user about notifications received on the Android device. Knowledge in Android programming is recommended.
- Exploration of different Sensations evoked by Electrotactile Feedback on a Smartwatch Master Thesis, Student: Malte Lucius, Supervisor: Tim Dünte Smartwatches and fitness trackers are getting more and more popular in public. With the skin contact provided by these wrist worn wearables, the usage of electrotactile stimulation in notification context becomes more simple and reasonable. This thesis investigates what sensations can be evoked by electrotactile feedback on the wrist skin and if they are suited to provide notifications. Therefore a modular, round, watch-like prototype was constructed to easily evaluate different electrode designs. The final version contains two opposing rubber electrodes on the bottom of the prototype. To apply electrotactile stimulation to users a RehaMove$3$ device, a medical certified configurable electrical stimulator, was used. It holds up a vast parameter space compared to other off-the-shelf devices. The RehaMove 3 does not offer wireless communication out of the box. For the mobile control of the RehaMove 3, a microcontroller was connected, a ported control library was finalized and an Android application was written. A study with 13 participants was conducted with the mobile prototype to evaluate the combinations.
- Implementation and Usability Evaluation of a Real-Time Insect Monitoring System Bachelor Thesis, Student: Jakob Hederich, Supervisor: Kin-Woon Yeow, Submitted: May 2020 In this project a pest monitoring system will be implemented using a Raspberry Pi, some LEDs and an IDS camera. The monitoring device is used to attract insects using light frequency of the LEDs and to monitor them using a camera. The insects will be detected using the You Only Look Once (YOLO) algorithm and further classified using Support Vector Machine(SVM). Two insect species (Aphids and Thrips) are identified with the method mentioned and the classification is done into three classes (Class 1: Aphids, Class 2: Thrips, Class 3: Others). The system will provide feedback to the user via an Android application. The real-time insect population will be recorded and displayed in a graphical form in the Android application. Furthermore, in the Android application, the user is able to set the type and frequency of the notification, either notifications in regular interval (daily or weekly basis) or warnings when a certain threshold is reached. The threshold mentioned is a population value that is either predetermined via experimental executions (eg. 80% of the maximum population) or inserted the threshold manually from the user. The setup feasibility of the monitoring system and the procedural execution in Android application are investigated in the user study. A simulated garden environment is conducted to ensure the users are able to use the system in a correct manner. Before the execution of the user study, a user manual for the monitoring system will be written for the user understanding. In the end of this thesis, an analysis/ a data tabulation that consists of usability and user-friendliness will be included from the survey conducted.
- A Mobile Vision-Based Recognition System Master Thesis, Student: Zhengyuan Miao, Supervisor: Kin-Woon Yeow, Submitted: May 2020 An Android application will be developed for amount-counting task of the pests in green house for this project. The whole system consists of two parts - mobile device with application and the server. User can use the application to take photos for the leaves of the vegetables and then these photos will be sent to the server for image recognition and object detection so that the number of pests will be automatically counted. By the server side, an image recognition algorithm will be run to calculate the number of the pests (and also with classifications of the pest types), after calculating server will send the results back to the user side and user can easily get the total quantities of different pests. Based on the result numbers user can take actions if the value of the pests’ quantity is beyond the threshold to protect the crops. Furthermore, we can see the data in server via ssh in the computer to analyze the data for experiment or somewhat. At the end of the project, a user study will be conducted, before the user study one user manual is required to be written and then user can read the manual to understand how to use the application.
- Exploration of Control Loop Strategies for EMS Applications using Neural Networks Master Thesis, Student: Stefan Schmidt, Supervisor: Tim Dünte, Submitted: July 2020 Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) is being researched in many different applications in the field of human-computer interaction, such as learning to play an instrument. Current problems refer to a only rough control of the muscles. Therefore, a solution strategy using neural networks is examined here. The research question is: How well are neural networks suitable for controlling an EMS application? To answer this question, the basic problems of EMS are first analyzed. Thereby an approach is presented which is based on the combination of Reinforcement Learning with neural networks. Experiments show that Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) are superior to feedforward networks. Analyses show significant differences in controlling of different angles. Therefore, comparisons between controllers for individual angles must be made. A comparison of PID controller and RNN shows an average increase in precision of 4.17°, in favor of the RNN. A comparison between PID controller and Bidirectional Recurrent Neural Network (BiRNN) shows an average increase of 7.63°. A comparison between RNN and BiRNN shows an increase of 3.46° by the BiRNN.
- Evaluation of Eletrotactile Feedback for Everyday Usage Scenarios Master Thesis, Student: Justin Schulte, Supervisor: Tim Dünte, Submitted: June 2020 Nowadays, most people own at least one smartphone and at the same time smartwatches and other wearables are becoming more and more popular. These devices send a variety of notifications to the wearer, usually in the form of vibration, sound or a status LED. Further, many users prefer invisible feedback, so that only the attention of the addressee and no third party is attracted. Accordingly, vibration feedback is used to a large extent, but this feedback is not sufficiently distinguishable. In this thesis, a wristwatch for mobile use is designed to evaluate an alternative invisible notification method using electrotactile feedback. By adjusting the parameters of the electro-tactile feedback the creation of different sensations is investigated. Potentially distinguishable natural notifications such as vibrating, itching or prodding are generated. A wristwatch prototype with corrosion-resistant gold-plated electrodes was designed, which were produced in a new electrode manufacturing process. Furthermore, a calibration procedure is presented to determine the individual strengths of the different electro-tactile stimulations. The time required for this process could be reduced to about one third of the time needed for a previous work. When calibrating a certain stimulation, it had to be played 3.2 times on average instead of 11.1 times. In the first study, the 17 participants were asked to assign terms, which correspond to one sensation each, to different stimulations. The stimulation associated with Prodding was best recognized (87 %). Furthermore, the majority of the participants would also use the stimulations Vibrating, Jabbing, Prodding and Pulsating in everyday life. In total, 76 % of the participants would use the designed system in everyday life. The second study, which included a distraction task, was planned but only conducted on one expert user. An average detection rate of 88 % was achieved. This result cannot be generalized, but shows the potential of the feedback method.
- A Survey of Context Awareness for Wearables Bachelor Thesis, Student: Daniela Wilhelm, Supervisor: Dennis Stanke, Submitted: March 2020 The aim of this thesis is to provide an overview of recent research on Context-Awareness. Therefore, previous research dealing with conceptual modelling and practical implementation should be elaborated. In addition, the limits of context awareness in current applications should be shown. This work is suited for students who are interested in current research and not in a technical implementation. Good English skills and a high degree of self-motivation are highly recommended to explore the original English articles in detail.
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