UCL LIBRARY SERVICES
- Library skills
References, citations and avoiding plagiarism
- Getting Started
- Independent research
- Understanding a reference
- Managing your references
- How to reference
- Harvard referencing
- Vancouver referencing
- APA referencing
- Chicago referencing
- OSCOLA referencing
- MHRA referencing
- MLA referencing
- Further help
Referencing in your assignments
In academic work of any kind, effective referencing of your sources will ensure that you:
- show that you are writing from a position of understanding of your topic.
- demonstrate that you have read widely and deeply.
- enable the reader to locate the source of each quote, idea or work/evidence (that was not your own).
- avoid plagiarism and uphold academic honesty.
In order to cite sources correctly in your assignments, you need to understand the essentials of how to reference and follow guidelines for the referencing style you are required to use.
- Referencing styles
Citing your sources can help you avoid plagiarism. You may need to submit your assignments through Turnitin, plagiarism detection software. Find out more about Turnitin and how you can use it to check your work before submitting it:
- What is plagiarism?
Why do I need to reference? Find out more
Referencing and empowerment
Karen Gravett & Ian M. Kinchin (2020) Referencing and empowerment: exploring barriers to agency in the higher education student experience, Teaching in Higher Education, 25:1, 84-97
Plagiarism: what is it, whom does it offend, and how does one deal with it?
J D Armstrong, 2nd (1993) Plagiarism: what is it, whom does it offend, and how does one deal with it?, American Journal of Roentgenology, 161:3, 479-484
Teaching Referencing as an Introduction to Epistemological Empowerment
Monica Hendricks & Lynn Quinn (2000) Teaching Referencing as an Introduction to Epistemological Empowerment, Teaching in Higher Education, 5:4, 447-457
Academic honesty and conduct
- Academic Integrity at UCL What is Academic Integrity, why is it important, and what happens if you breach it?
- Introduction to Academic Integrity Introduction to Academic Integrity is a short Moodle course to develop good academic practice, which includes information on plagiarism, how to reference accurately and where to find sources and support.
- Understanding academic integrity UCL's online and self-paced course to help you understand academic integrity, designed to help students to develop good academic practice for completing assessments.
- Engaging with AI in your education and assessment UCL student briefing on how you might engage with Artificial Intelligence (AI) in your assessments, effectively and ethically. Includes information on how to acknowledge AI sources in your work.
- Referencing and avoiding plagiarism tutorial
- << Previous: Getting Started
- Next: Independent research >>
- Last Updated: Mar 2, 2023 3:00 PM
- URL: https://library-guides.ucl.ac.uk/referencing-plagiarism
Generate accurate APA citations for free
The Scribbr Citation Generator will automatically create a flawless APA citation
- Knowledge Base
- APA Style 7th edition
Ordering works on the APA reference page
Published on November 4, 2020 by Raimo Streefkerk . Revised on June 16, 2022.
An APA Style reference page is ordered alphabetically by the first element in the reference entry , usually the first author’s last name.
- Smith, B. H. precedes Thompson, A. G.
In more complex situations, this basic guideline may not be enough. That’s probably why you’re here, right? Luckily, APA created more detailed guidelines that are outlined in this article.
Table of contents
Multiple works with the same first author, different authors with the same last name, no author (source title), same author, same date, nothing precedes something, apostrophes, hyphens, parentheses, and brackets, m’, mc, and mac, suffixes (sr., jr., i, ii, iii), frequently asked questions, single-author works.
If the works have just one author, order them based on the publication date, listing the oldest source first. Works with no date come before works with a date. Works that are “In press” come last.
- Warren, K. J. (n.d.)
- Warren, K. J. (2018)
- Warren, K. J. (in press)
If the first author is the same, but subsequent authors are different, order the references based on the second author’s last name. If the second author is the same, then order on the third author, and so on. One-author works come before multiple-author works.
- Palmer, T., & Hunt, S.
- Palmer, T., Hunt, S., & Robertson, H.
Order works from different authors with the same last name based on their initials.
- Theel, M. precedes Theel, P. S.
Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.
When the author of a work is unknown, the source title is moved to the author position. In this case, the reference is ordered based on the title. Disregard “A”, “An”, and “The” at the beginning of the title. If the title starts with a numeral, alphabetize it as though it were spelled out.
- How social media influences mental health (ordered on the H of “How”)
- The impact of smartphones on creativity (ordered on the I of “Impact”)
- 10 ways to increase your productivity (ordered on the T of “Ten”)
Works with the same author and date are distinguished with a lowercase letter after the publication year. This letter appears in the APA in-text citation and the reference entry . Order works by that lowercase letter.
- Browning, H. (2020a) precedes Browning, H. (2020b)
Shorter names precede longer names with which they share all their letters.
- Camp H. G. precedes Campbell A. T.
Disregard apostrophes and hyphens in two-word names, and disregard anything in parentheses (e.g., contributor roles) or brackets (e.g., usernames).
- O’Connor, G. precedes Oetman, H.
- Bloom, S.-J. precedes Bloom, S. P.
Order prefixes such as M’, Mc, and Mac as spelled, not as sounded out.
- MacArthur, B. precedes McCombes, S.
- MacNeil, J. precedes M’Carthy, P.
Works authored by people with the same first and last name, but with a suffix such as Jr., Sr. or I, II, III, are ordered chronologically, oldest first.
- Burrows, L., Sr. precedes Burrows, L., Jr.
- Andrews, K. P., II precedes Andrews, K. P., III
If the author of a work is unknown, order the reference by its title. Disregard the words “A”, “An”, and “The” at the beginning of the title.
- The privacy concerns around social media
- Teens, social media, and privacy
Read more about alphabetizing the APA reference page .
Order numerals as though they were spelled out:
- “20 tips to relax” is ordered on the “T” of “Twenty”.
- “100 cities you should visit” is ordered on the “O” of “One hundred”.
Popular word processors like Microsoft Word and Google Docs can order lists in alphabetical order, but they don’t follow the APA Style alphabetization guidelines .
If you use Scribbr’s APA Citation Generator to create citations, references are ordered automatically based on the APA guidelines, taking into account all the exceptions.
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
Streefkerk, R. (2022, June 16). Ordering works on the APA reference page. Scribbr. Retrieved February 27, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/ordering-references/
Is this article helpful?
Other students also liked, setting up the apa reference page | formatting & references (examples), beginner's guide to apa in-text citation, how to format tables and figures in apa style, scribbr apa citation checker.
An innovative new tool that checks your APA citations with AI software. Say goodbye to inaccurate citations!
Alphabetizer: Online Alphabetical Order Sorter for Reference Lists
Do you need a list alphabetizer? We know that students often write their papers in a hurry when every minute counts. So, we offer you this free alphabetical order generator! It is a great tool to sort alphabetically your References, Works Cited Page, and Bibliography. Apply any format you need, be it A to Z, Z to A, or by the last names of authors.
- Alphabetize ABC
- Alphabetize XYZ
- Alphabetize by Last Name
- Blank Space
- Custom separator
How Our List Alphabetizer Works?
Improving an essay has never been so easy with our list alphabetizer organizer! First of all, you don't need to create an account. So, you can be our guest. The algorithm we've written is user-friendly because your comfort is our top priority. With an ABC order tool, you may sort list alphabetically completely automatically. Just put your numbers in order. We can offer many options. Now, let's look at how our alphabetical name sorter works.
You may copy and paste your text into a particular alphabetical list organizer field. It will take a few seconds!
Define how to sort and what formatting to use for the results. Manage other fields to alphabetize a list online.
After you click the alphabetize button, our software will put the words in alphabetical order. Just copy them.
Sort Alphabetically Online and Enjoy Various Benefits
How often were you trying to make an order in your paper? Were you spending a lot of time doing this on your own? Try to sort list online using the latest advanced technology. We are sure when you sort alphabetically online, you will be definitely satisfied with the results. Here are some benefits of using our tool.
We created a free online alphabetizer accessible to everyone. All you need for instant results — open the StudyCrumb website and start working.
Our alphabetical order tool provides the best quality! You will receive an accurate and ready-to-use list for your paper in a few seconds.
Auto alphabetize a list of references or works cited. Be sure we will save the formatting and citation guideline rules you applied.
StudyCrumb's alphabet sorter is an automated solution. We do not collect or share any personal data. No one will find that you used it.
Need Expert Help?
Looking for something more than a source alphabetizer online? We have an extensive database of academic experts who provide top-quality writing and editing services. Just choose the type of assistance you need, and we will handle the rest.
Backed by qualified writers, we deliver unique academic papers tailored to clients' specific needs. Have an expert create a customized paper and format the references from the ground up.
Take your writing to a whole new level with our editing and proofreading services. Our academic proofreaders will polish your writing according to any paper formatting style you choose.
Why Choose StudyCrumb
Who Can Use an Alphabetical Order Generator?
An alphabetical order word organizer can be used by anyone who works with text — whether you write papers, articles, or research. Let’s see who uses our tool for creating a list in alphabetical order most frequently.
Academic writing style requires you to provide references from A to Z in order. It can be challenging doing this if you combine sources from various resources. Alphabetize works cited generator is the best solution! Use APA reference alphabetical order generator to ensure the quality of citations.
Our ABC order sorter provides vast support for academics or scientists who work with massive databases. They usually need to create a reference list for each paper and article. The alphabetical order list maker will manage this task successfully!
Spend less time making list orders, references, and orders for tables and graphs. Use our instrument and get instant results quickly in a few seconds. Another group of professionals who often alphabetize sources is researchers.
It does not matter what type of text you are working with. Our tool can help make this work more accessible. For example, you can put names in alphabetical order, organize lists in essays, and ensure that it was done correctly.
You have a list of words to put in alphabetical order or check if the writer did it right. Our tool is the most effective for such tasks. Do not rely on your manual work. Trust new technological solutions. We will become your best helper.
Universal ABC Order Generator: 1 Alphabetical Sorter – Many Options
An automatic alphabetizer sorter is one of the frequently used academic tools that help save time. Improve your paper quality and create accurate lists for various assignments. It covers different aspects of any writing work. So, make your academic journey more accessible. You can specify the data you need to remove and choose the appropriate result format. Create various types of sorting — from ABC to XYZ or randomize your list with an online ABC order machine. Use our ABC order word sorter to ensure the quality of the final work version.
Put Words in Alphabetical Order
Our word alphabetizer is the best tool for editing text or managing any type of data you need to systemize. To put these words in alphabetical order just make some simple steps. Copy and insert them into the specific field, choose the settings you need and get results. We developed advanced settings to ensure our clients get the best and the most accurate results. Use this tool for improving your assignments, checking lists, and systemizing references in your academic paper.
Organize Names in Alphabetical Order
For creating a list of names in alphabetical order select your text and copy it to our tool. You may have a random list of people you need to systematize. It can be easy if you have only three-five names on this list. But what if you have 100+? How to deal with this case? Need to systematize names, save the suitable citation format, add numbers or capitalize names? We created an alphabetical order generator for names specifically for such cases!
Alphabetize Works Cited List
Every student and academic researcher knows how long it can take to manage cited works. And you shouldn’t lose any specific details from a defined citation style. Our works cited alphabetizer for words is the best solution for academic writers. You may work with APA or MLA style and care about all formatting rules to follow. We created works cited page alphabetical order tool to ensure accuracy with your text. You can remove duplicates, brackets, or punctuation. Manage your list in advance.
Alphabetize List of References
References are the next part of your work that will be checked by your professor. So, you should put list in alphabetical order correctly. Imagine you spent days on the paper and did not get an A because of mistakes in the reference list. That’s why you need to run our tool. At the same time, check on duplicates and, if necessary, remove some common mistakes. Try references in alphabetical order arranger and see how easy your work can be.
Alphabetize Bibliography in ABC Order
Bibliography alphabetical order is required for application to fellowship or PhD degree. To do it right, trust StudyCrumb! We work with numerous academic tools and offer professional writing help. We created a bibliography alphabetical order sorter for anyone who struggles with academic assignments or works with texts. Use our tool even before launching research or as a part of your student paper. It will be a million times you will need to put bibliography in alphabetical order, clean the data, manage some links, or add additional information.
Tired of writing essays?
Let professional writers deal with your paper, quickly and efficiently.
Free Alphabetizer Tool: Put in Alphabetical Order With Ease!
Our text alphabetizer program is based on AI and machine learning algorithms. It ensures the quality of systemizing lists, accuracy, and the possibility of improving the tool. Use it as a last name alphabetizer machine if you have a random list of managed names. You may think that putting words in alphabetical order online is not a big deal. But imagine that the program lost one item in the list, changed formatting, or mixed first and last names. For example, a reference list alphabetizer online for citations is critical for the best university grade or to submit an article for an academic journal. Have 100+ references for paper — put this in alphabetical order first. Delete duplicates and edit them with our tool. Be sure that your work will be appropriately evaluated. We created a tool to put a list in alphabetical order maker. We all were students and some of us work in academia. So, we all want to make education more accessible for everyone.
Why You May Need an Alphabetical Word Sorter?
With a word sorter alphabetical tool from StudyCrumb, your study can become a real joy! It is a simple and intuitive instrument. Use it to make the process of writing an essay a bit easier. When creating a bibliography section, one needs to put words into alphabetical order. That's just a fact that is plain and simple. Our sorting algorithm is quick and efficient just like essay writing help by StudyCrumb. You can have an indefinite number of words and points organized within seconds. Why our clients use ABC word sorter:
- Create a list words in alphabetical order very fast. It will take a few seconds!
- Save time — trust tech solutions to alphabetize words. There is no need to do it manually.
- Ensure accuracy of final references, check duplicates and add or delete some information.
- Manage a massive amount of data. For sorting and editing a list with 100 or more items, use an alphabetical word organizer by StudyCrumb.
- Improve paper or article with automated tools if you have a detailed list of various points.
- Check someone's/other students’ work and have a time limit.
- Can not focus on a task for a long time but needs to systemize a long list of items.
- Automate and store lists for research or tables before running analytical tools.
Intuitive Auto Alphabetizer App for Everyone
Why do millions of students, academics, and writers worldwide choose our alphabetize app daily? The reason is the simplicity and user-friendly interface we offer. Need a citation alphabetizer list? Just copy and paste your text, manage settings and generate the text. What can be easier to use? We added some settings to our bibliography alphabetizer you may need. For example, choose what removal data should be. It can be HTML formatting in case you need clean text. You may remove duplicates or brackets, add numbers or capitalize some words. We have an ongoing dialogue with our clients and improve the tool based on requests. StudyCrumb is a leader in providing academic tools like text editors, uppercase to lowercase tool, citation makers, word counter , and other essential things for academia. It is famous as our instrument offers many additional options for students simplifying the whole research process. We know what our clients want, as we also have educational and academic backgrounds. It helped create the alphabetizer generator for any type of complicated tasks and assignments. Try it! Get your custom-sorted list now!
Alphabetical Order Organizer for Lists
Our alphabetical organizer generator can create various lists for any situation or case. It covers different students' assignments and helps with writing applications. For example, the bibliography alphabetical organizer free tool became considerable support in case you apply for a fellowship or research project. Save time and get an organized list of references in a few seconds or hire an annotated bibliography writer . The alphabetical citation organizer we developed helps make an order in research papers, articles, and essays. Imagine you have hundreds of names as well as citations and need to manage them properly. How to do it manually? It will take a long time. But we know how to accelerate this work. Try our tool for an alphabetical order list. Why is it an effective software solution? It can sort your lists, references, and bibliography items in ABC or XYZ order. It can provide a random list if you run giveaways for social media or need to generate random lists for research. Moreover, our alphabetical list maker can sort lists by the second name even if you have the first name in the list. We are 100% sure that our tool can be the perfect solution for complicated tasks. It is free, easy, and safe!
How to Alphabetize My List With Alphabetical Order Sorter for Papers?
“Alphabetize for me the list of items — first and second names.” This is the most common request we receive from our clients. What can we do to meet their expectations? Let's look at how algorithms for alphabetical paper sorter work and how to get instant results in a moment! We can introduce one of the most professional tools for alphabetical order lists creation. First, enter your text into the first field. This is a list of items without order or editing. Then figure out what setting you need for the best results. Choose how to sort your list — run ABC sorter or choose XYZ order. You may choose to randomize this list or sort by the last name or buy term paper at StudyCrumb. Our online alphabetical sorter for papers is effective for any type of list you're working with. Try our coursework writing service or see how our tool sorts names, items, or reference lists! The next step is to choose how to format the list — with blank space, commas, semicolons, or a new line. You can add numbers or roman numerals, minor or capital letters to your list. Also, you will need to define how your original list was formatted. The last setting is the possibility to remove something from your list. For example, duplicates, punctuation, bracket, or HTML formatting.
Alphabetize Generator: Why StudyCrumb's Alphabetical Arranger?
An alphabetize online tool from StudyCrumb has many options here to choose from. This is why it's so popular among students. Using such an alphabetizing generator will save you more time to focus on the main task like proving your point of view in an essay or researching a paper. If you strive for sublime result, buy a research paper online . Get your custom-sorted list now! Our tool is available for everyone and free to use. Why choose an AI-programmed tool to arrange in alphabetical order any list?
- Save your time Our software will put these in alphabetical order on any list. You don't need to do it manually.
- Ensure clarity The tool will put citations in alphabetical order. It will help make your paper more substantial and valuable.
- Complete complicated orders We added advanced settings to make your list management more accurate.
We have a solid reputation to provide advanced tools for academics and students. We are pro-team in all academic topics. It helped us create the most popular instruments for students and teachers. Our service also focuses on custom help with your assignments. How to alphabetize a bibliography? How to manage a reference list? How to improve the text? All answers are on the StudyCrumb website.
Deadline around the corner?
Share order details and have a paper completed on time.
FAQ About Our Alphabetical Order Calculator
If you are looking for how to put works cited in alphabetical order, check our FAQ section first. We tried to cover the most critical students' questions.
1. How to put citations in alphabetical order?
To alphabetize citations lists you need our tool. This is the best way to ensure the quality and accuracy of your work. Our alphabetical order machine is simple and you can access it from any place 24/7. Insert your list, manage settings — choose what you need and click the generate button. You will have your alphabetical order citations in a few seconds. All you need to do is to copy it and paste it into your paper.
2. Do I need to register to use Work Cited alphabetical order sorter?
Using the work cited alphabetical order generator, you don't need to register or share any personal data with us. For example, to use an alphabetical order sorter for bibliography, open the website, insert your list of references, manage some settings, and click generate. We ensure the safety of your search. This tool is free and will be accessible in the future.
3. Can I put my name in alphabetical order using alphabetical list maker?
Yes, you can use an alphabetical name organizer to manage a list of names. It is easy to understand and apply to any type of name list. You can choose how to sort your list in settings. Moreover, even if you have first and second names, you can sort the list by each index.
4. Is this alphabetize tool unlimited?
Our automatic alphabetical order word organizer tool can be used as many times as needed. There are no limitations. We understand that you may have several lists in your paper — our tool is free to use unlimited times. Do not waste your time sorting the list manually. Our agency can do it in seconds.
Other Tools You May Like
StudyCrumb offers you more than just an alphabetizer. We’ve designed a whole bundle of free writing tools that can improve your academic experience. Check them out below!
APA (7th Edition) Referencing Guide
- Information for EndNote Users
- Authors - Numbers, Rules and Formatting
- In-Text Citations
Everything must match!
Setting out the reference list, example reference list, apa 7th reference lists.
- Books & eBooks
- Book chapters
- Journal Articles
- Conference Papers
- Newspaper Articles
- Web Pages & Documents
- Specialised Health Databases
- Using Visual Works in Assignments & Class Presentations
- Using Visual Works in Theses and Publications
- Using Tables in Assignments & Class Presentations
- Custom Textbooks & Books of Readings
- ABS AND AIHW
- Videos (YouTube), Podcasts & Webinars
- Blog Posts and Social Media
- First Nations Works
- Dictionary and Encyclopedia Entries
- Personal Communication
- Theses and Dissertations
- Film / TV / DVD
- AI software
- APA Format for Assignments
- What If...?
- Other Guides
Notes on the layout for your reference list:
Layout of page:
- The reference list starts on a new page, after your assignment and before any appendices. Place the word "References", centered, in bold, at the top of the page. APA does not require other formatting for the title of your reference page (like underlining), but check with your lecturer.
- Each entry in the reference list has a hanging indent , so that the first line of the entry is flush with the left margin, but all other lines are indented (this is the opposite of the paragraph structure in the body of your essay). Tip: You can do this easily by selecting your references, and pressing Ctrl + T on a PC, or Command (⌘) + T on a Mac. (For Word Online, see the instructions for creating a hanging indent here: https://libanswers.jcu.edu.au/faq/266638 ).
Order of references:
- For APA the reference list is arranged in alphabetical order of authors' surnames.
- Arrange by first author's name, then by second author if you have the same first author, etc. ( check the page on Authors for how to lay out the reference if you have more than one author ).
- If a reference has no author , list it alphabetically according to the title. Ignore the words 'A', 'An' and 'The' at the beginning of a corporate author or title for deciding where it fits alphabetically.
- N.B. A year without a date is considered to be "older" than a year with a date ("nothing comes before something"), so 2018 will go before 2018, September - and a month without a day will go before a month with a day, so 2018, September will go before 2018, September 12. Please note that the year only is required in-text, so you will need to follow the advice below whenever you have multiple citations in the same year.
- N.B. If you have a full date, only use the title to order the references if the date is identical. Always use 'a', 'b', etc after the year, if more than one work has been published by the same author in the same year, as this is used in the in-text referencing, e.g. (2019a, April 12), (2019b, March 23). For example:
Queensland Health. (2017a, April 9). Managing your asthma symptoms . https://www.health.qld.gov.au/news-alerts/news/managing-asthma-symptoms
Queensland Health. (2017b, August 23). Five things you might not know about asthma . https://www.health.qld.gov.au/news-alerts/news/5-things-you-might-not-know-about-asthma
Format of titles:
- APA uses sentence case for all titles except for journal titles.
- Begin each title and subtitle with a capital letter, but only names should be capitalised for all titles other than journal titles.
Below is an example of a reference list formatted in APA style. Mouse over the references to find more information about writing a reference list.
This list has been single spaced for this guide, but you will probably be asked to double-space your assignment, and that includes the reference list.
Note: the DOIs and URLs in the reference list above should be hyperlinked to the appropriate page, but the code for hyperlinking and the code for mouseover text was not compatible. In your reference list, make sure your DOIs and URLs are hyperlinked to the relevant page.
Click to play in full screen
- << Previous: In-Text Citations
- Next: Books & Book Chapters >>
- Last Updated: Mar 1, 2023 5:08 PM
- URL: https://libguides.jcu.edu.au/apa
- USMC History
- Special Features
- Audio Marine Minute
- Press Releases
- Social Media
- Marines Mobile
- Marine Corps Executive Forum
- Non-Aviation Requests
- Aviation Requests
- Band Requests
- Force Design 2030
- Talent Management 2030
- Training and Education 2030
- Installations and Logistics 2030
MCO 1300.8 CH-1
- Guest Posts
- LEARNING SKILLS
- Study Skills
- A - Z List of Learning Skills
- What is Learning?
- Learning Approaches
- Learning Styles
- 8 Types of Learning Styles
- Understanding Your Preferences to Aid Learning
- Lifelong Learning
- Decisions to Make Before Applying to University
- Top Tips for Surviving Student Life
- Living Online: Education and Learning
- Critical Thinking Skills
- Critical Thinking and Fake News
- Understanding and Addressing Conspiracy Theories
- Top Tips for Study
- Staying Motivated When Studying
- Student Budgeting and Economic Skills
- Getting Organised for Study
- Finding Time to Study
- Sources of Information
- Assessing Internet Information
- Using Apps to Support Study
- What is Theory?
- Styles of Writing
- Effective Reading
- Critical Reading
- Note-Taking from Reading
- Note-Taking for Verbal Exchanges
- Planning an Essay
- How to Write an Essay
- The Do’s and Don’ts of Essay Writing
- How to Write a Report
- Assignment Finishing Touches
- Reflecting on Marked Work
- 6 Skills You Learn in School That You Use in Real Life
- Top 10 Tips on How to Study While Working
- Exam Skills
- Writing a Dissertation or Thesis
- Research Methods
- Teaching, Coaching, Mentoring and Counselling
- Employability Skills for Graduates
Subscribe to our FREE newsletter and start improving your life in just 5 minutes a day.
You'll get our 5 free 'One Minute Life Skills' and our weekly newsletter.
We'll never share your email address and you can unsubscribe at any time.
For information on how to reference this website for non-academic purposes, see the SkillsYouNeed referencing guide .
Citing and referencing information can be daunting for students who do not understand the principles.
There are numerous ways to reference. Different institutions, departments or lecturers may require different styles so check with your teacher, lecturer or instructor if you are unsure.
Bad referencing is a common way for students to lose marks in assignments so it is worth taking the time and effort to learn how to reference correctly.
Why Do We Cite and Reference?
When writing any academic essay, paper, report or assignment, you need to highlight your use of other author's ideas and words so that you:
- Give the original author credit for their own ideas and work
- Validate your arguments
- Enable the reader to follow up on the original work if they wish to
- Enable the reader to see how dated the information might be
- Prove to your tutors/lecturers that you have read around the subject
- Avoid plagiarism
There are many different styles of referencing, including Harvard, APA (from the American Psychological Association), Chicago and Vancouver. The Harvard referencing system is of the most popular styles and the remainder of this article deals with this system. However, your university may prefer the use of a different system so check with your lecturer or in your course information as to which referencing style to use.
What is Plagiarism?
- Presenting another's ideas as if they are your own – either directly or indirectly
- Copying or pasting text and images without saying where they came from
- Not showing when a quote is a quote
- Summarising information without showing the original source
- Changing a few words in a section of text without acknowledging the original author
Plagiarism is a serious academic offence. You are likely to be awarded 0% for an assignment which has evidence of plagiarism. If you continue to plagiarise then you may be excluded from your course.
Most universities will want a signed declaration with submitted work to say that you have not plagiarised.
Universities use anti-plagiarism software to quickly find plagiarised work. This software usually draws on huge databases of web sources, books, journals and all previously submitted student work to compare your work to so you will be found out.
Therefore, if you plagiarise, you are likely to be caught so don't take the risk and reference properly.
When writing an essay, report, dissertation or other piece of academic work, the key to referencing is organisation. As you go along, keep notes of the books and journal articles you have read and the websites you have visited as part of your research process.
There are various tools to help here. Your university may be able to provide you with some specialist software (Endnote – www.endnote.com ) or you can simply keep a list in a document or try Zotero ( www.zotero.org ) a free plugin for the Firefox browser.
What Needs to be Recorded?
Record as much information as possible in references to make finding the original work simple.
Include the author/s name/s where possible. You should write the surname (last name) first followed by any initials. If there are more than three authors then you can cite the first author and use the abbreviation 'et al', meaning 'and all'.
For one, two or three authors: Jones A, Davies B, Jenkins C
For more than three authors Jones A et al.
For some sources, especially websites, the name of the author may not be known. In such cases either use the organisation name or the title of the document or webpage.
Example: SkillsYouNeed or What Are Interpersonal Skills.
Date of Publication
You should include the year of publication or a more specific date if appropriate, for journal or newspaper articles/stories. For webpages look for the when the page was last updated. Include dates in brackets (2020) after author information. If no date can be established, then put (no date).
Title of Piece
Include the title of the piece; this could be the name of the book, the title of a journal article or webpage. Titles are usually written in italics . For books you should also include the edition (if not the first) to make finding information easier. Often when books are republished information remains broadly the same but may be reordered, therefore page numbers may change between editions.
Usually only relevant for books, but for these you should include the publisher name and place of publication.
If you are referencing a particular part of a book, then you should include the page number/s you have used in your work. Use p. 123 to indicate page 123 or pp. 123-125 to indicate multiple pages.
URL and Date Accessed
For webpages you need to include the full URL of the page (http://www... etc.) and the date you last accessed the page. The web is not static and webpages can be changed/updated/removed at any time, so it is therefore important to record when you found the information you are referencing.
Once you have recorded the information, you have everything you need in order to reference correctly. Your work should be both referenced in the text and include a reference list or bibliography at the end. The in text reference is an abbreviated version of the full reference in your reference list.
If you are directly quoting in your text you should enclose the quote in quotation marks, and include author information:
"Communication is simply the act of transferring information from one place to another." SkillsYouNeed (2019)
For longer direct quotations it may be neater to indent the quotation in its own paragraph.
Your reference list should then include the full version of the reference:
SkillsYouNeed (2022) What is Communication? [online] available at www.skillsyouneed.com/ips/what-is-communication.html (Accessed October 14 2022)
For a book you would use, in your text:
“Long before the twelfth century rhetoricians had collected quotations, particularly from classical authors, into anthologies called florilegia…” (Clanchy, M.T, 1993)
The reference list would then include the full reference:
Clanchy, M.T. (1993) From Memory to Written Record England 1066 – 1307 Oxford, Blackwell, p. 115
The same rules also apply when you are referencing indirectly and you have not included a direct quote. If you have used the ideas of another source, reference both in your text at the relevant point and in your reference list or bibliography at the end of your document.
Further Reading from Skills You Need
The Skills You Need Guide for Students
Develop the skills you need to make the most of your time as a student.
Our eBooks are ideal for students at all stages of education, school, college and university. They are full of easy-to-follow practical information that will help you to learn more effectively and get better grades.
When quoting you may sometimes want to leave out some words , in which case use … (three dots).
"Communication is … transferring information from one place to another"
If you need to add words to a quote for clarity, then square brackets are used:
“Communication is simply the act [in communication skills] of transferring information from one place to another.”
You can use [sic] to note an original error and/or foreign spelling , SkillsYouNeed is a UK site and therefore uses UK spellings:
"The color [sic] of the water..."
Continue to: Common Mistakes in Writing Sources of Information
See Also: Note-Taking for Reading What is Theory? | Writing an Essay | Punctuation
Assignments Referencing in your assignments In academic work of any kind, effective referencing of your sources will ensure that you: show that you are writing from a position of understanding of your topic. demonstrate that you have read widely and deeply.
Use this tool for improving your assignments, checking lists, and systemizing references in your academic paper. Organize Names in Alphabetical Order For creating a list of names in alphabetical order select your text and copy it to our tool. You may have a random list of people you need to systematize.
The reference list starts on a new page, after your assignment and before any appendices. Place the word "References", centered, in bold, at the top of the page. APA does not require other formatting for the title of your reference page (like underlining), but check with your lecturer.
MCO 1300.8 CH-1 > United States Marine Corps Flagship > Electronic Library Display. PRINT. SHARE. New. DOWNLOAD PDF. MCO 1300.8 CH-1. REQUEST PRINTED COPY.
Why Do We Cite and Reference? When writing any academic essay, paper, report or assignment, you need to highlight your use of other author's ideas and words so that you: Give the original author credit for their own ideas and work Validate your arguments Enable the reader to follow up on the original work if they wish to