Legal Memo Format Basics
March 2, 2023
IN THIS ARTICLE
What is the legal memo assignment?
What’s the difference between a closed legal memo and an open legal memo, what’s the standard legal memo format, how to write a legal memo.
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The legal memo is an objective memorandum that provides you the opportunity to review and research relevant case law, investigate relevant facts using available resources, analyze those facts under that law, and impartially assess the potential outcome of a matter. The legal memo is an assignment that law firm associates are frequently asked to provide to senior attorneys.
Far too often, however, the assigning attorney takes one look at the result and replies, “I knew this already.” To prevent this outcome, it’s important to write a legal memo with sufficient understanding of audience, scope, purpose, and format. With proper planning, law firm associates can maximize the odds of favorable reception at the outset.
Bloomberg Law can help you understand and apply legal issues to your legal memo assignment, so your final product addresses all relevant points right out of the gate.
A closed legal memo is an assignment where you are given the case law or other primary law to be used in your writing. Far more challenging is an open legal memo, where you will need to research and identify the relevant law, investigate and analyze the most legally significant facts involving a particular client, and provide a critical assessment of how the court may apply the law to the matter.
By extension, unlike a court brief, the legal memo is not the place to wager a legal opinion or argue facts. The legal memorandum serves as an objective standalone document and identifies the risks and any unknown facts that need investigation. It should maintain an impartial tone, with no implied preference for one side or the other.
How to conduct legal research
Learn about the best practices in legal research, including where to start, familiarizing yourself with an issue, and tips for searching documents.
Generally, a legal memorandum comprises six sections, with the following information:
1. Heading or caption
A section, titled, “Memorandum,” identifies the recipient (To: _______), the author (From: ____), the assignment submission date (typically in MMMM DD YYYY format), and subject of the memo (Re: __________).
2. Question presented
A brief one-sentence statement that defines how the law applies to the legal question at hand, and the jurisdiction where the matter will be decided. The question presented is specific and impartial and doesn’t assume a legal conclusion.
3. Brief answer
A quick-hit legal prediction to the question presented, based on a short (four to five sentences) explanation that references relevant law and facts.
4. Statement of facts
A concise, impartial statement of the facts that captures the heart of the legal matter, as well as current and past legal proceedings related to the issue. The facts can be chronological or grouped thematically, whichever format presents the facts in the clearest manner.
Restates the main facts and delineates the overarching legal rule. Several paragraphs outline the various legal topics to be addressed in the case and provide an analysis of the legal issues, usually ordered in subsections.
The assigning attorney will likely read this section first. It predicts how the court will apply the law, and how confident you are in your prediction based on the data. With an impartial advisory tone, you identify next steps and propose a legal strategy to proceed.
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Legal research memos can come in many forms—from broad 50-state surveys to more nuanced research on a particular point of law—but whatever the format, it’s important that you fully understand the task entrusted to you before you start typing.
If you tackle your assignment by following the recommended approaches in the legal memo example below, you’ll be more likely to find an appreciative supervising attorney, deliver better work product, cut down on the number of drafts required to arrive at a final product, and, most importantly, please the client.
Learn the essentials of litigation writing, research, and document review with our Core Litigation Skills Practical Guidance Toolkit , available to Bloomberg Law subscribers.
Legal memorandum sample assignment
Assignment: Prepare an open legal memo on whether, under the Fourteenth Amendment’s Due Process Clause, there is personal jurisdiction over a foreign car manufacturer involving a products liability case.
Step 1: Understand the legal issues
Review legal memo assignment materials.
In an open legal memo, you will be tasked with researching relevant primary and secondary resources, such as from national, single, or multiple state entities, as well as appeals circuits, to include in your analysis.
Locate secondary sources
Secondary sources, such as books, treatises, law reviews, legal analysis publications, and Practical Guidance are a great starting point to assist with your legal memo research. Although secondary sources are not binding on courts, meaning courts are not required to follow these sources, they are still helpful tools to use when you know little about a topic.
However, remember that while you may know little about a topic, the same may not hold true for your audience. Readers like law partners and assigning attorneys will already know general law. Identify your audience’s presumed level of knowledge, then the most mission-critical questions to address. These identified gaps will inform your fact-finding and research.
Use secondary resources to better fill in the main legal topics and issues as they relate to the facts in the legal memo assignment. Your legal research should help frame the issue and lead to other relevant materials, including cases and statutes.
Throughout, utilize legal memo space wisely. Remember, legal memo length varies by subject. Some topics require only a short summary, while others compel long-form treatment. For guidance, search your firm’s office document management system for previous legal memos.
Sample assignment – Step 1
Understand the legal issues: Legal research depends on the right search terms. In the case, for example, you can use the keywords: (“personal jurisdiction” and manufacture!)) to locate relevant resources on the Bloomberg Law platform.
More broadly, while your search into secondary sources may span books and treatises, law review articles, and other legal analysis publications, make sure to vet all legal authorities for relevance.
[Research tip: It can be challenging to know all relevant keywords. Bloomberg Law provides a convenient search results page, where relevant article blurbs showcase additional keywords to explore. Based on targeted keywords, you can better gather the most relevant background information to assist with your analysis.]
Step 2: Develop a research plan
Identify primary law.
Primary sources can often be identified with research tools, such as court opinions searches for relevant case law. However, primary sources are not always apparent. In such cases, work your way backward. Reviewing secondary sources can help you identify a list of relevant primary law resources, like case law and related statutes. Keep your research organized and create a research plan to identify key resources. The research plan will list the relevant primary law and how the case or statute relates to your comprehensive legal analysis.
Save the relevant cases and statutes to a designated workspace. Bloomberg Law provides a streamlined and secure digital working area where you can add your notes as well as upload and store your drafts to keep organized.
Sample assignment – Step 2
Develop a research plan: In the assignment, some legal research may mention cases on what contacts a foreign defendant must have for the court to have personal jurisdiction over it, such as Ford Motor Co. v. Montana Eighth Judicial District Court . Read through these articles to reveal additional relevant cases and statutes to support your analysis.
Step 3: Confirm your legal memo research
Once you have your research plan, you want to verify all your research to make sure you’re relying on the most current case law available. Bloomberg Law’s litigation tools like the BCite citator tool help you work smarter and faster to validate your case law research—specifically, to determine whether a citation still represents good law and can be relied upon—and helps you to conduct additional research to find more cases and resources that support your legal memo’s findings and conclusions.
Robust verification should ensure you know the following information:
- Composite analysis – the overall treatment of the cited case by other courts.
- Direct history – How a cited case has moved through the court system.
- Case analysis – Cases that have subsequently cited to the case.
- Authorities – Cases relied on by the court in the main case.
- Citing documents – Legal materials, such as court opinions, administrative decisions, and secondary sources that reference your case by citation.
Sample assignment – Step 3
Confirm your research: To see whether Ford Motor Co. v. Montana Eighth Judicial District Court is still good law, you will of course need to pull up and review the case status. As part of this verification, you should review how other courts have treated the case. Once you have verified case status, you can better find additional secondary cases and other sources that cite to your case.
[Research tip: Carefully review whether case law citation can be relied on in your legal memo. While a legal memo is written for internal stakeholders like the assigning attorney, and not for the court system, it may nonetheless serve as a primer for future material.]
Attorneys may later incorporate any case law citations within the legal memo into court filings in support of their arguments. Given this broad potential reach, it’s imperative to verify all case law within your legal memo. Any unverified case law that later makes its way into public documents will result in an admonition from the court.
It is also important not to cherry-pick case citations. Remember the legal memo’s purpose is to inform, not to argue the facts. The legal memo must therefore provide an objective summary of all relevant case law and how it applies to the facts at hand. The omission of negative case law only compromises future legal strategy and heightens client legal exposure.
Step 4: Write an objective analysis
The legal memo showcases your critical legal thinking skills. Use your research plan and research materials to help organize your analysis. Remember to clearly state the law and the facts, in the active voice, and present your analysis in a logical manner.
Even with the IRAC legal memo format (Issue, Rule, Application, and Conclusion), it can be a challenge to write with precision. For example, it may not be clear which details to include in the statement of facts. Skilled legal memo writers often begin with the discussion. With complementary considerations of legal authority and factual criteria, this section clarifies the most legally significant facts and informs other earlier sections like the question presented and brief answer.
Across all stages, Bloomberg Law provides a vast trove of articles and resources to assist you in preparing your legal memo. Whether this is your first or fiftieth legal memo assignment, you can showcase clear and impartial legal analysis in your legal memo and other writing assignments in ways that establish you as a strong legal mind.
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Throughout your law studies , you will need to complete a variety of different assignments. See below to explore four different forms of assignments .
- What goes into a case note?
- Tips by Students
- Case Note Examples
A case note is a summary or a summary and critical analysis of a case.
A case note will usually include:
- Citations details- include the full citation details.
- Procedural history- write about how the matter came to court if there is a history, e.g. is the case on appeal?
- Facts- Explain the main points of the dispute or the reason the parties are in court. What orders or decision as they asking the court to make?
- Legal Issues- Explain what the legal issues are and how they apply to the facts.
- Decision summary- What did the court decide and why? What was the ratio (the rule of law on which the decision is based) and was there any obiter (the Judge's opinion that isn't essential to the decision). Also include and dissenting Judges where applicable.
- Critical Analysis- Some case notes will also require you to critically analysis the case, this will involve looking at the case in the wider body of law and discuss the merit or importance of the points of law raised in the case.
You usually have a strict word count for your case note, because of this limit the detail that you have for the background information and focus on the analysis.
Tip: Always read through your assignment instructions for specific information that will apply to your assessment task.
Read advice from other law students on how to survive law school. These links come from the Survive Law Blog .
- How to Write a Case Note
- Case note assignments This online tutorial from Monash University will take you step by step through writing a case note.
- Case Note: Betting Across Boarders This case note examines the recent High Court decision of Betfair Pty Limited v Western Australia.
- Case Note: Australian Securities and Investment Commission v MacDonald Australian Securities and Investments Commission v Macdonald [No 11] required the New South Wales Supreme Court to determine whether company directors and officers of James Hardie Industries Ltd had breached their duties.
- Case Note: Giller v Procopets This casenote deals with the claims concerning the videoing of the sexual encounters between the parties and the exhibition and/or distribution of the video to third parties.
- Essay Template
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- AGLC Template You can use this template to help you with formatting.
This resource uses a visual approach to take students through the process of essay writing for University. Although not law specific this resource will demonstrate formulating, refining and expressing academic essay writing:
One of the best ways to develop your writing skills is to read. Reading will expose you to different styles of writing and through reading you will form your own style. Think about the reports and cases that you read that frustrated you in finding out what the main ratio was. Compare that to this recent well written coroners report:
- Inquest into the deaths of William George Scott [2015 ] NTMC 022 & Lanh Van Tran  NTMC 023
Read advice from other law students on how to survive law school. These links come from the Survive Law Blog :
- Five Tips for Writing Awesome Assignments
- Tips from your Tutor: How to Write the Perfect Law Essay Introduction
- Writing Convincing Assignments: Critical Analysis Checklist
This is a list of CDU student papers that were submitted for the Honours Research Papers. These are excellent examples of legal writing.
- Double Jeopardy Reform: Political Expediency of Much Needed Change?
- The Euthanasia Fallacy: Why it is time to regulate in Australia
- Everybody Knows: Snowden's NSA Leaks, Metadata And Privacy Implications For Australia
- Intellectual Disability in the Australian Criminal Justice System
- New South Wales Right To Silence Reforms: Maximum Admissions, Minimum Silence
- Same-Sex Parents: Won't Somebody Please Think Of The Children!
- Testamentary Capacity & Rational Suicide: the Law, Medicine & Safe-guarding your Intentions
- Problem Solving Questions
- eBook on Problem Solving
- Tips from your Tutor: 10 Ways to Improve your Problem Solving Assignment
- Using IRAC to Answer Problem Solving Questions
- Preparing for a Law Exam
- Past Exam Papers from CDU
Exams come in different formats, they can be:
- Invigilated open book exam
- Invigilated closed book exam
- Take home exam
Read advice from other law students on how to survive law school. These links come from the Survive Law Blog :
- Advice from your Tutor: Law Exam Preparation and Technique
- Exam Countdown: Making the most of the Last 24 Hours
- How to Make an Exam Answer Template
- How to Make a Study Timetable for Exams
- How to Study for a Closed Book Exam
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Five Tips for a Great Legal Writing Assignment
September 25, 2012 By Lee Burgess 2 Comments
- Follow the format outlined by your professor. It is likely your legal writing professor has given you instructions for the overall format of your legal writing assignment. In addition, your professor may have given you formatting instructions for the body of your assignment, such as that you need to follow IRAC. Whatever the instructions, follow them . Sure, you may think it is an overly formal or a frustrating way to write—but to be honest, no one cares. You need to write for your professor . It is more important to write in the way your professor has outlined, than as you personally prefer. And it is not going to be the last time your writing will need to conform to someone else’s rules. As a working attorney you often need to write in the format requested by your boss or even by the court. So get used to it!
- Remember, your writing doesn’t need to be full of legalese—the best legal writing is often simple! So many law students make the mistake of thinking that to “sound like a lawyer” they must use every possible legal term out there. This is just not the case. Often the most effective legal writing is very clear and concise and only uses legal terms or “legalese” when appropriate (say, when you are using a term of art). It is also important to work on writing in a clear, concise way because your assignments may have maximum word count. So using extra words to sound “more professional” won’t really help your grade in the end.
- Answer the question asked by your assignment. Often students get so caught up in writing their assignment that they forget to focus on the question that was asked of them. It is important to read and re-read (and even read again) the assignment sheet. You don’t want to make a mistake and write something off topic. Remember, answering the question is key to getting a good grade!
- Plan before you write. A great legal writing assignment is organized. And for most of us this means that you need to plan your paper just as you would plan an essay or any other project. Organization is key and it takes time to sit with the research and develop your answer. Make sure you build this time into your plan of how you are going to get your assignment done.
- Proofread and double-check citations. As an attorney-in-training, it is very important to present yourself in a professional way. That means that you need to proofread your assignments to present yourself in a professional way to your professor as well. If your assignment is riddled with typos, it is distracting for the professor and likely will cause your grade to drop. Also, students often are lax when handling citations. You are typically graded on the accuracy of your citations. Citations are not hard, but you must be detail oriented and look things up! I have seen many a legal writing grade go down because students didn’t spend adequate time or energy on citations. Don’t let this happen to you.
Legal writing, like most things, gets easier the more that you do it. So do every practice assignment assigned and get as much feedback as you can. This will help you become an excellent legal writer, which is a critical skill in our profession.
Check out these other helpful posts:
- Surviving the first weeks of law school .
- Law school exam prep 101 .
- Getting feedback on past exams is critical .
- Pay attention in class, it can save you time !
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About Lee Burgess
Lee Burgess, Esq. is the co-founder of the Law School Toolbox , a resource for law students that demystifies the law school experience and the Bar Exam Toolbox , a resource for students getting ready for the bar exam. Lee has been adjunct faculty at two bay area law schools teaching classes on law school and bar exam preparation. You can find Lee on Twitter at @leefburgess , @lawschooltools , & @barexamtools .
Thank very much for the tips i have just read they been beneficial to me because am a distance law school student.
I need more guide to legal writing because am lecturing this course for Magistrates
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Office Memo Format and Explanation
This handout sets out a short description of one way to put together an office memorandum. The format and structure may differ somewhat from law office to law office (and, here in law school, from professor to professor). Once you are in practice, you can adjust the format to your office’s requirements.
You are writing this for the benefit of another lawyer who has asked you to address a specific question, and expects an answer to that question. Your reader may have a general familiarity with the law you are discussing but may not be familiar with specific cases (or, if applicable, statutory provisions) that you have found to be relevant to the analysis. Therefore, as you write, keep asking yourself: will the reader be able to follow my analysis? Have I organized my analysis to track all the steps in the “CRRACC” paradigm (conclusion-rule statement-rule explanation-application-counterargument-conclusion)? If your organization plan skips any steps of your thought process (for example, if you move directly from a bare statement of the rule to an application to your facts, without first discussing in greater depth the cases from which the rule is derived), your reader will not be able to follow your analysis and ultimately will not find your work to be useful. Remember to keep the needs and expectations of your audience (here, a legally-trained reader) in mind.
One final but important reminder: an office memorandum is a predictive statement of the law. You are not writing to persuade a court but to predict how a court would apply the law to the facts of your situation. Therefore, you need to maintain an objective tone, and remember to address any counterarguments.
The standard office memorandum usually contains the following sections:
1. HEADING or CAPTION 2. QUESTION PRESENTED 3. BRIEF ANSWER 4. FACTS 5. DISCUSSION 6. CONCLUSION
HEADING OR CAPTION
Begin the first page as follows:
TO: Name of person who assigned the research project FROM: Your name DATE: Date memo is turned in RE: Name of client, and a short description of the subject matter of the memorandum
Put the title of each subsequent section of your memo at the beginning of that section, in all caps, and centered.
The subject of the memo is a question: How does the relevant law apply to the key facts of the research problem? Thus, the question presented is analogous to the issue or question presented in a case brief. The question presented should be sufficiently narrow and should be objective. It is usually one sentence, and often begins: “Whether….” or “Does….” The question incorporates legally relevant facts as well as the rule involved. Although questions are usually framed so that they can be answered yes or no (or probably yes or probably no), sometimes they cannot (such as “Under New York law, has a retailer made a binding offer when…?”). Always include the name of the jurisdiction involved, e.g., New York, the Second Circuit.
The brief answer should clearly and fully respond to the question presented. Begin with your conclusion: yes, no, probably yes, etc., if the question can be answered that way. Then give a brief (usually no more than four or five sentences long) self-contained explanation of the reasons for your conclusion. Summarize for your reader how the relevant law applies to your significant facts. As a general rule, include no citations.
Provide a formal and objective description of the legally significant facts in your research problem. The legally significant facts are the facts that are relevant to answering the legal question presented. For example, in an issue involving whether a minor can disaffirm a contract, a legally significant fact would include the nature of the item or service contracted for (was it clothing, food, shelter, related to health care, etc.) and whether the minor had access to the item in any case, without having to become contractually obligated to pay for it. The description should be accurate and complete. Present the facts in a logically coherent fashion, which may entail a chronological order. Include legally significant facts – facts upon which the resolution of the legal question presented will turn, whether they are favorable or unfavorable to the client for whom you are writing – and include background facts that will make the context of the problem clear. In this section, do not comment upon the facts or discuss how the law will apply to the facts. All factual information that later appears in the discussion section of the memorandum should be described in the facts section.
This is the heart of the memo. Here, you need to educate the reader about the applicable legal principles, illustrate how those principles apply to the relevant facts, and explore any likely counterarguments to the primary line of analysis you present.
Many law offices will expect you to begin with a short thesis paragraph that briefly identifies the issue and the applicable rule (without elaboration), and restates the short answer. Follow with an introductory section, which provides a map or framework for the discussion as a whole. The introductory section should summarize and synthesize the rule, setting out all subparts of the rule and clarifying how they relate to one another. When the synthesized rule is derived from case law, the discussion of the cases should focus on general principles, on the criteria that courts use to describe the rule, rather than on the specific facts and reasoning of the cases. The introductory section is also where you would mention, if applicable, information about the procedural posture of a case, about burdens and standards of proof, and about rules of interpretation pertinent to the law you are applying. You should identify any undisputed issues, and explain why they are not in dispute. Then state the order in which the remaining issues or subparts of an issue will be discussed. For a useful discussion of an introductory section, please see pp. 111-114 in Linda H. Edwards, Legal Writing and Analysis (Aspen 2003).
You should use “CRRACC” as a guide to constructing the discussion section. Use a separate “CRRACC” for each issue or sub-issue.
After setting forth the conclusion and the rule, you should explain the rule by providing an in-depth discussion of the cases from which the rule is derived. Your discussion of the cases should be specific as to their facts and reasoning.
In your application section, you should compare the facts and the reasoning of the cases to the facts of your client’s situation. You need to analogize and distinguish the cases – show why they are similar to or different from your client’s circumstances. Be sure to address any counterarguments that could be raised, but show why you believe they would not prevail.
Ultimately for each issue or sub-issue you should conclude as to how you think a court would likely rule on your facts.
The basic structure of the discussion section might look like this:
Short thesis paragraph: = C
Briefly restate the question and your answer
Introductory paragraph: = R
Provide a map or framework for the discussion as a whole, including statement of the synthesized rule Provide background regarding the general rule Explain policy reasons underlying the rule Explain any exceptions to the rule Explain policy reasons underlying the exception(s)
In-depth explanation of the rule = R
Illustrate how rule has been applied in other cases
Application of law to facts = A
Analogize and distinguish other cases to your case
Counterargument = C
Discuss and resolve any counterarguments in favor of your principal line of analysis
Conclusion = C
Answer the question presented
Summarize your analysis and conclusion to the question presented. Identify the level of certainty with which you render a conclusion for each issue or sub-issue, but be sure to draw a conclusion even for closer questions. Do not provide citations. The conclusion should be limited to one paragraph, and in some cases involving just one short issue, the conclusion might not be necessary at all.
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Sample Undergraduate 1st Criminal Law Assignment
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Criminal Responsibility / Criminal Liability
English law sets the age of criminal responsibility, the lowest age at which a person may be criminally liable,  at ten years old.  This is controversial for being the lowest in Europe (where most countries set the age at fourteen or higher  ) after a successful bid to raise the Scottish age of criminal responsibility from eight to twelve.  Justifying this low threshold is important because of the severe impact on a child’s life the label and consequences of criminality have.  Several commentators and politicians have argued that English law should follow Scotland’s lead and raise the threshold. 
These bids to raise the age of criminal responsibility in the UK raise the issue of whether the current age at which children can be labelled criminals under English law too low. This essay will explore this issue. After an examination of theories of criminal responsibility and their application to children, it will argue that many children over ten years old lack the qualities required to justifiably label them criminals. It will discuss how the law might be improved through reform in this regard.
Justifying Criminal Liability
Criminal liability is distinct from other forms, as reflected in the heightened consequences of stigma, the label of ‘criminal’ and potential loss of liberty.  This difference is because criminal liability reflects a moral judgement; that what the defendant did was seriously morally wrong.  Moral judgment of this kind requires the defendant to be sufficiently ‘culpable’ that they can reasonably be blamed for their actions.  As such, a child should be capable of criminal liability only if they demonstrate the requisite culpability.
What does it mean to be culpable? Two theories of criminal culpability have traditionally been deployed to explain culpability: character and choice theory.  Character theory posits that criminal judgement is only warranted where the person’s behaviour indicates a moral defect in their character.  For example, a person acting involuntarily due to a reflex or without knowledge of consequences which would have deterred them is not culpable.  Some, such as Brudner, have argued that this theory unfortunately characterises mental disorders with character-based symptoms as a ‘defect’ rather than ground for exculpation or mitigation, putting it out of step with modern thought.  This is not a necessary feature of the theory, however. Bayles, a leading proponent of the theory, argues that ‘defects’ of character are limited to those within the defendant’s voluntary control.  A mental disorder is not normally within the defendant’s control, and so not a defect.
In this sense, character theory overlaps with choice theory. Choice theory posits that blame can only be ascribed to a person who has moral agency. This requires both ‘capacity’ and ‘freedom’ to make moral decisions.  Capacity requires the defendant to be sufficiently capable of certain cognitive functions: commonly identified as the ability to understand, remember and properly evaluate information.  These functions allow the defendant to consider their desires and beliefs and deliberate on the value actions accordingly.  Freedom, meanwhile, is the absence of external duress, coercion or unreasonable influence. 
This essay does not propose to evaluate which theory is ‘correct’. Rather, the next section will demonstrate that ascribing criminal blame to many children is problematic under both theories.
Children and Blame
Brain-development in children is incomplete, and areas associated with decision-making (moral and otherwise) are ongoing until their late teens.  Children are also less socially and emotionally mature than adults, both as a matter of their physical development and because of the unique social dynamics which are imposed upon them within the family and their peer groups. 
The combination of these two factors means that children’s capacity is impaired. Research by Cauffman and Steinberg indicates that this is particularly true in three areas. The first is ‘responsibility’, which they define as the ability to develop independence and ‘clarity of identity’.  The second is ‘temperance’, which they define as the ability to evaluate situations. weigh-up relevant information before acting and fighting impulsiveness.  The third is perspective, which is the ability to consider ‘ situations from different viewpoints and placing them in broader social and temporal contexts ’ (itself part of the function of weighing-up relevant information).  These deficiencies can lead to children being unable to easily consider the justifications for their actions, prioritising irrational considerations or being unduly influenced by external circumstances (such as peer pressure or abuse). An example of such warped reasoning can be seen in the JM case, where a child refused life-saving bone grafting treatment because he found the idea of ‘his foot being in his mouth’ unpalatable.  According to Cauffman and Steinberg’s research, most cognitive and psychosocial development in decision-making occurs between sixteen and nineteen years. 
How are these deficiencies to be evaluated under choice and character theories? The implications for choice theory are relatively obvious: children are deficient in several crucial functions for having ‘capacity’, particularly the ability to understand and properly evaluate information. Their lack of psychosocial maturity and the heightened risk of coercive social relationships also have significant implications for their freedom of action. This can be seen from cases where an abusive parent orders the child to commit a crime. Typically, the child’s motivation is fear of disobedience,  which is not a motivation a free person would have or consider particularly weighty. It is for these reasons that other laws concerning consent and capacity presume its absence in children below a certain age. 
At first brush character theory seems to condemn children, since their lack of capacity is a matter of biological and psychological characteristics which form their character. However, as Bayles stresses, involuntary character traits should not be deemed defects in this sense. Since the deficiencies which might lead them to criminal action are normal and unavoidable, they should not be characterised as defects. As such, the child who commits a crime because of his underdevelopment has not done something indicating a defective character; moral judgement is unwarranted.
This leads to the conclusion that many children, particularly those under sixteen, do not meet the conditions for moral blame under either theory of criminal culpability. The implications of this for the age of criminal responsibility will be discussed in the next section.
Implications for the Age of Criminal Responsibility
The analysis of the previous section indicated that children may fail to meet the capacity and freedom requirements for criminal culpability. This leads to the conclusion that these children should not be capable of criminal liability, because liability without culpability is inappropriate. Given that significant development does not occur in most children until the age of sixteen, setting the age of criminal responsibility at ten seems obviously too low.
As Sutherland points out, however, increasing the threshold to sixteen is unlikely to be politically feasible.  In addition, children mature and develop at different rates: raising the age of criminal responsibility too high will result in culpable children escaping liability. As such, there is a strong case for raising the age of responsibility to one where children are very unlikely to have the necessary development (perhaps fourteen to reflect common practice in Europe  ) and finding an alternative solution for excusing incapable older children while still allowing capable children to be prosecuted.
Previously, the law provided an alternative solution: doli incapax . This defence presumed that children aged thirteen or younger did not have the capacity for criminal responsibility, which could be rebutted by evidence that the child knew their actions were ‘seriously wrong.’  This could not be presumed from the fact that they committed the offence, ran away when caught, or the obvious seriousness of the behaviour from an adult perspective.  The defence was abolished in 1998. 
The broad approach of the defence of doli incapax would be desirable for protecting non-culpable minors. However, it had problems and so would require modification if reintroduced. Firstly, given that significant development does not usually occur until the age of sixteen and even seventeen-year-olds can be insufficiently developed, the threshold for the defence was too low. A reintroduced defence would need to apply to anyone under the age of eighteen. To increase the political palatability of the defence, perhaps the burden of proof could be on the prosecution for children under sixteen and on the defence for children over the age of sixteen. Secondly, any reintroduction of the defence would need to rectify its incomplete view of children’s capacity. As explained above, the deficiencies which children have are not merely a reduced ability to understand right and wrong, but an inability to properly prioritise and weigh-up information. A child may conclude that the action is seriously wrong if asked to think about it, but still be non-culpable because they fail to realise this is relevant at the time of acting or over-prioritise a coercive social influence or some other irrational factor. A better defence would arguably require proof not only that the child knew that the action was seriously wrong, but that they had sufficiently developed reasoning skills and psychosocial maturity to assign proper weight to this consideration relative to other factors.
In conclusion, an analysis of the choice and character theories of culpability and research on the development of children, leads to the conclusion that ten is too low an age of criminal responsibility. This is because significant development necessary for culpability does not occur until a much later age in most children. This leads to the conclusion that the age of criminal responsibility should be raised. Nevertheless, there is still a need to distinguish between capable and incapable children over the age of criminal responsibility to ensure that children who have matured particularly quickly can still be prosecuted without criminalising those who have not. To this end, the law should reintroduce a modified defence of doli incapax , requiring proof that the child is capable of evaluating the morality of their actions before deciding to act and ascribes proper relative weight to morality (perhaps with a reversed burden for children over sixteen).
Table of Cases
A v DPP  Crim LR 125
A v Sharples  Crim LR 34
JTB  UKHL 20
Re JM (a child)  EWHC 2832
R v Wilson  EWCA Crim 1251
Table of Legislation
Crime and Disorder Act 1998
Arthur R, Young Offenders and the Law: How the Law Responds to Youth Offending (Routledge 2010)
̶ ̶ The Moral Foundations of the Youth Justice System: Understanding the Principles of the Youth Justice System (Taylor & Francis 2016)
Bayles MD, ‘Hume on Blame and Excuse’ (1976) 2 Hume Stud 17
Beauchamp T, Childress J, Principles of Biomedical Ethics (7 th edn, Oxford University Press 2013)
Bratman ME, ‘Valuing and the Will’ (2000) 14 Act & Free 249
Brooks L, ‘Scotland to raise age of criminal responsibility to 12 years’ ( The Guardian , 1 December 2016) <https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/dec/01/scotland-to-raise-age-of-criminal-responsibility-to-12-years> accessed 23 June 2019
Brudner A, Punishment and Freedom (Oxford University Press 2009)
Cauffman E, Steinberg L, ‘(Im)maturity of Judgment in Adolescence: Why Adolescents May Be Less Culpable Than Adults’ (2000) 18 BSL 741
Clarkson CMV, Understanding Criminal Law (Sweet & Maxwell 2005)
Diduck A, Peleg N, Reece H, Law in Society: Reflections on Children, Family, Culture and Philosophy (BRILL 2015)
Elliott C, ‘Criminal responsibility and children: a new defence required to acknowledge the absence of capacity and choice’ (2011) 75(4) JCL 289
Fletcher G, Rethinking Criminal Law (Oxford University Press 2000)
Goswami U, The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive Development (John Wiley & Sons 2011)
Herring J, Criminal Law: Text, Cases, and Materials (5 th edn, Oxford University Press 2012)
Husak D, The Philosophy of Criminal Law: Selected Essays (Oxford University Press 2010)
Levine LE, Munsch J, Child Development (SAGE 2013)
Lynch J, ‘Hello Doli? the case for the return of a lost presumption’ (2010) 10 Arch Rev 4
Monaghan N, Criminal Law (4 th edn, Oxford University Press 2016)
Ormerod D, Laird K, Smith, Hogan, and Ormerod's Text, Cases, and Materials on Criminal Law (12 th edn, Oxford University Press 2017)
Roberts T, ‘Raising the age of criminal responsibility’ (2009) SCL 667
Sutherland E, ‘The age of reason or the reasons for an age? The age of criminal responsibility’ (2002) 1 SLT 1
Wilson W, Criminal Law: Doctrine and Theory (Pearson Education 2008)
 Nicola Monaghan, Criminal Law (4 th edn, Oxford University Press 2016) 341-342.
 Alison Diduck, Noam Peleg, Helen Reece, Law in Society: Reflections on Children, Family, Culture and Philosophy (BRILL 2015) 295.
 Libby Brooks, ‘Scotland to raise age of criminal responsibility to 12 years’ ( The Guardian , 1 December 2016) <https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/dec/01/scotland-to-raise-age-of-criminal-responsibility-to-12-years> accessed 23 June 2019.
 Tom Roberts, ‘Raising the age of criminal responsibility’ (2009) SCL 667, 667.
 Monaghan (n 1) 342; Catherine Elliott, ‘Criminal responsibility and children: a new defence required to acknowledge the absence of capacity and choice’ (2011) 75(4) JCL 289, 289; John Lynch, ‘Hello Doli? the case for the return of a lost presumption’ (2010) 10 Arch Rev 4, 4.
 Christopher MV Clarkson, Understanding Criminal Law (Sweet & Maxwell 2005) 6.
 David Ormerod, Karl Laird, Smith, Hogan, and Ormerod's Text, Cases, and Materials on Criminal Law (12 th edn, Oxford University Press 2017) 140-141.
 Douglas Husak, The Philosophy of Criminal Law: Selected Essays (Oxford University Press 2010) 179.
 Ibid 327.
 William Wilson, Criminal Law: Doctrine and Theory (Pearson Education 2008) 188.
 George Fletcher, Rethinking Criminal Law (Oxford University Press 2000) 799-802.
 Alan Brudner, Punishment and Freedom (Oxford University Press 2009) 67.
 Michael D Bayles, ‘Hume on Blame and Excuse’ (1976) 2 Hume Stud 17, 17.
 Elliot (n 6) 289.
 Tom Beauchamp, James Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics (7 th edn, Oxford University Press 2013) Ch 4.
 Michael E Bratman, ‘Valuing and the Will’ (2000) 14 Act & Free 249, 251-252.
 Jonathan Herring, Criminal Law: Text, Cases, and Materials (5 th edn, Oxford University Press 2012) 18.
 Usha Goswami, The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive Development (John Wiley & Sons 2011) 339-340; Laura E Levine, Joyce Munsch, Child Development (SAGE 2013) 181-182.
 Elizabeth Cauffman, Laurence Steinberg, ‘(Im)maturity of Judgment in Adolescence: Why Adolescents May Be Less Culpable Than Adults’ (2000) 18 BSL 741, 756.
 Ibid 751.
 Ibid 756.
 Ibid 745.
 Re JM (a child)  EWHC 2832.
 Cauffman and Steinberg (n 20) 756.
 E.g. R v Wilson  EWCA Crim 1251.
 Raymond Arthur, The Moral Foundations of the Youth Justice System: Understanding the Principles of the Youth Justice System (Taylor & Francis 2016) 105.
 Elaine Sutherland, ‘The age of reason or the reasons for an age? The age of criminal responsibility’ (2002) 1 SLT 1, 4.
 Roberts (n 5) 667.
 Raymond Arthur, Young Offenders and the Law: How the Law Responds to Youth Offending (Routledge 2010) 45.
 A v DPP  Crim LR 125; A v Sharples  Crim LR 34.
 Crime and Disorder Act 1998, s 34; JTB  UKHL 20.
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Experts Tips on College Assignment Formats & Structure with Examples
The first thing that every student should consider while beginning any assignment is a complete understanding of the assignment format. Depending upon the type of the assignment its structure and formatting requirements vary. Students are generally given guidelines from their professors regarding the assignment formatting such as file format, font, layout, word count, referencing style, headers, footers, numbering and heading requirements. In case you have no idea what should be the structure of your assignment, the following article presents some common assignment formats with examples.
Basic Structure Elements of an Assignment
Our online assignment help experts always suggest the students to at least maintain the generalized structure of the assignment if their instructor has not specified any format. A university assignment typically comprises of the following six sections. Along with these, there can be certain presentation schemes to be followed such as providing a proper referencing format, leaving adequate margins, line spacing, page numbers, and font style and font size.
- Table of Contents
Also Read: Assignment Cover Sheet Sample and Templates
Research Paper Assignment Format
A research paper is divided into the following parts:
- Â Â Â Title of the Research
- Â Â Â Abstract
- Â Â Â Table of Contents
- Â Â Â Introduction
- Â Â Â Research Methodology
- Â Â Â Findings and discussions
- Â Â Â Conclusions
- Â Â Â References and Citations
- Â Â Â Appendices
The presentation of the research paper is based on the referencing format suggested by your college instructor. For instance, if you are using MLA referencing format you will name the source page as â€˜Works Citedâ€ while in case of APA format you will name it as â€˜Referencesâ€. Below you can find a sample MLA assignment format.
Essay Assignment Format
An essay consists of the following five parts. Below them, you can find a sample template elaborating the significance of each section.
- Â Â Â Thesis Statement
- Â Â Â Conclusion
- Â Â Â Citations
You should always keep this basic format in mind while preparing your college essays. In this way, you will be able to divide your content accordingly. Each paragraph of an essay can also be divided into three parts namely, the topic sentence of the paragraph, the supporting details and the conclusion statement.
Project Report Assignment Format
A project report is generally a compulsory academic assignment for students. Most of the university professors prefer that the report should be written as per an academic standard. A project report has the following structure:
- Â Â Â Title Page
- Â Â Â Acknowledgement
- Â Â Â Problem definition
- Â Â Â Objective
- Â Â Â Background
- Â Â Â Methodology
- Â Â Â Analysis
- Â Â Â Discussion
- Â Â Â Conclusion / Recommendations
- Â Â Â References / Bibliography
Case Study Assignment Format
A case study assignment includes the following sections:
- Â Â Â Background knowledge
- Â Â Â Alternatives and constraints
- Â Â Â Proposed Solutions
- Â Â Â Recommendations
The following example of a case study assignment depicts the sections stated above. You can find more case study templates and our expert assignment help on writing an effective case study on our website. Our experts will provide you with a step by step guide to writing a case study assignment.
Article Review Assignment Format
The format of a review paper includes:
- Body (Subtopics)
The college students are expected to use a standardized referencing system such as APA, AMA, MLA, Chicago etc. Each section has an appropriate word count associated with it and students have to maintain that. Consider the template of a literature review format given below.
Reflective Journal Assignment Format
Reflective journal assignments are of various types such as peer reviews, essays, journal, long book or learning diary. Each journal entry includes the given sections:
- Triggering event or situation
- Conclusion or Integration
Below you can find an example of a learning journal entry in which the author is presenting their weekly reflection. Read carefully and go through the numbered points and always consider them while writing a reflective assignment.
Annotated Bibliography Format
The annotated bibliography comprises two elements: the citation and annotation. The citation part is formatted according to the referencing format suggested by your university professors such as MLA or APA . The annotation part is a summary of 100-300 words about the source. Here is an example of an annotated bibliography written in MLA style.
Tips on Formatting Assignments Accurately
- Read your instructor’s guidelines carefully before beginning an assignment. Make sure you understand every instruction correctly and you are following them while writing the assignment.
- If there is any confusion regarding the presentation or format of the assignment you can just cross-check with your professor once again. You can also seek assistance from our experts. They are well-versed in academic assignment writing formats.
- Also, always make sure that you understand the writing task. The format of every assignment is different. Sometimes students misinterpret an assignment question and then have to reconsider the format as well.
- Go through some assignment format examples first to understand the pattern of writing. You can find assignment samples from our website anytime. If your professor provides you with some examples make sure you go through them first.
- Take note of the referencing format you are using in your assignment. You should know all the formatting guidelines for the referencing style so that you can work accordingly.
Also Read: How to Write a Perfect Assignment?
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Using The IRAC Structure In Writing Law Assignments
March 05, 2023
The Ultimate Essay, and Interesting Topics yours with Examples
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Writing law assignments has always been a challenging and complicated task for students. Since dealing with legal problems in an assignment is like dealing with an erroneous task because of its facts and structured approach. Many a time, students seek law assignment help to overcome such problems. However, this blog discusses how to structure your law assignment by using the IRAC format.
What is IRAC Format and How Do I Use It in My Law Assignment?
IRAC is an abbreviation used for Issue, Rule, Application, and Conclusion. It is a function of the methodology used for legal analysis. This format is mostly used in bar exams and law schools to solve hypothetical questions. To help you understand this concept, we will take the example of LEGL 1001 assignment. Our Law team at My Essay Mate has solved thousands of similar assessments for students in the past eight years.
LEGL1001 assignment is an individual task based on IRAC format. In this assignment, you are required to draft an answer by using the IRAC method of analysis. This assignment covers 20 marks including 4 marks for Issue, 6 marks for Rules, 8 marks for Application, and 2 marks for Conclusion. The maximum word length allowed for LEGL1001 assessment is 1000 words.
Here is a law assignment sample for this question:
The IRAC methodology function can be termed as a framework to organise the assignment answers to a particular business law question. The important sections to be defined while writing a law assignment by using IRAC format are - Issue, Rule, Analysis, and Conclusion. In case, if you find any difficulties in IRAC format of a law assignment, read the details explained below by our assignment help experts.
Important Sections of IRAC
As per the IRAC methodology, the term "issue" is just a legal question that a student is asked to answer. This issue takes place whenever the facts and evidence related to a case shows a legal ambiguity. Such issues can be solved by consulting legal precedents such as court rules, past cases, existing statutes, etc.
The Rule is the second section of an IRAC. The rule section is explained as a statement for rules applicable in determining the stated issue. Rules are originated from statute and precedent of a court case as per the common law jurisdiction. The information involved in this section completely based on the question’s specificity. The rules help to present a clear and accurate legal analysis of an issue by using the evidence and facts. You should present the rules section as a legal summary that is used in analysing. If you want to know more about the rule section, feel free to contact our law assignment help experts. They are well-versed with the use of IRAC in law assignment.
This section is also known as the Analysis section. The application of an IRAC is used to apply the rules developed in the rules section. It only includes the set of rules mentioned in the above section. While writing this section in your assignment, it is important to apply rules based only on the facts of a specific case. Along with this, argue or explain the reasons behind applying or not applying a particular rule in the given case. The analysis or application section can be the most crucial section of your law assignment because it is a place where you provide the solution to your issue. You must act like a lawyer and argue the facts before making a conclusion.
For example –
The conclusion is the final section of an IRAC where you describe your answer to the identified issue. To provide a strong conclusion, you should present the analysis result. Talking about the above law assignment sample on IRAC, the conclusion can be written as follows –
Additional Hints to writing the LEGL1001 Assignment Answer Using the IRAC Rule
Willing to compose the best LEGL 1001 assignment paper, consider the steps given below by our law assignment writing expert.
Step 1: Determine the law areas that should be appropriate to the case. Also, clearly explain the legal problems that you are going to address.
Step 2: The next thing required in writing an ICAR law assignment is to find out the related legal principles and its authority source. But remember that the authority source should be the case law, Act of Parliament, or both.
Step 3: Now, you must consider the identified legal principle and describe the facts relevant to it. You must also explain how to apply or differentiate them in order to support the arguments.
Step 4: In the end, you should conclude all the facts stated above and present the overview describing the ways in which arguments address the issue.
Are You Stuck with a Similar Law IRAC Assignment? Avail Help Today!
If you are finding any sort of problems in writing the LEGL1001 or any other IRAC-based law assignment, just get in touch with our law assignment help experts. They have solved thousands of law assessments in which IRAC is used. In addition to this, our assignment writing experts offer value-added services like proofreading, editing, plagiarism check, and lots more, which will assure you to get an error-free and high-quality document. So, hurry and call or chat with our experts today!
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How to write a law assignment
Last updated on April 19th, 2018 at 01:20 pm
Is it really all that difficult to write a good law assignment?
Sometimes, a verbal contract just doesn’t cut it…
Law assignments are an important part of reading Law at the graduate level. But writing a law assignment is not as difficult as they would have you believe. It is simple enough actually, if you follow a few simple pointers, as we have explained.However, if you are currently stuck with you Law essay and would love to use some assistance, do not hesitate to place an order for our professional writing service to help you out.
The purpose of a law assignment is basically to test the concepts and knowledge of different laws you have acquired during the course of your lessons. There are different kinds of law assignments you may encounter during the course of your studies. These include commercial law, contract law, business law, family and personal laws amongst other things.
To give an example: contract law assignments need the students to be familiar with the contract laws and their applications. Contracts take place between parties when one party asks the other to complete certain tasks- and thus imposes obligations and benefits on the other. Such assignments involve cases of possible contractual breaches. The student has to use her knowledge to identify the possible breaches and what portion of the law is breached. The student may also have to suggest possible methods of resolution.
Formatting and Language
Some points to remember when writing a law assignment. The use of English language and structure becomes important. You need to have very good control over the English language- grammar, structure, spelling, and punctuations. You have to be very clear in the structure and phrasing used. There should be no cause for ambiguity. Choose correct and appropriate words. Avoid verbosity. The structure of thoughts in your text should be orderly and methodical with each argument leading up to the next. The more structured your argument, the better would your advocacy be.
In addition, using legal language can be very tricky and confusing for the legal student at the beginning of his course. Legal assignments may involve the use of heavy legal language, vocabulary and complex sentences, which may intimidate a student. Students may feel spurred to use an overdose of “legal” language in their writing to create an effect; however, that is not necessarily wise. Using simple language to make your point with use of necessary and unavoidable legal terms can make your essay or assignment meaningful.
Another part of writing legal assignments is the format. You need to pay careful attention to the format used. The lecturer would usually provide you with instructions regarding the kind of format to be used, so please ensure that you stick to it. Try not to use interpretations of your own in this regard; standard formats are the norm. Even when you are a practicing lawyer, you may have to follow a format requested by your superiors.
Arguments must be supported by valid evidence
A Law essay requires you to be extremely critical of everything. In essence, it requires you to be a cat.
Central to all legal writing is the use of well-reasoned and structured arguments. So , you must do a lot of preparation and in-depth reading and research work, before setting out on writing the essay. Determine the stand you are going to take and find out the evidence to support it. The evidence should be strong and reliable and as far as possible, beyond doubt. Any views or opinions presented should be backed up by a support. Your argument should have the least possible number of holes, which can be attacked by a combative opposition.
The premises and the conclusion should match each other. The premises are the reasons which you give for supporting a particular conclusion. A wrong argument or invalid argument is one in which the wrong kind of premises is used to justify a particular conclusion. Sometimes it may be difficult to really dissect an issue but even in that case, it is better to present what can be reasonably proved beyond doubt.
At the beginning of the essay or the assignment, it is good to introduce the key terms which may be used throughout the essay. This would help the reader understand the thread of the discourse.
Re-read the essay/assignment to ensure that you are on track and you have written all your arguments lucidly, briefly and with the factual evidence to support them. Also, proofread your paper thoroughly.
How to use references and footnotes in legal essays
There are different standards used for the citation of papers and other resources used as sources of information in legal studies. OSCOLA (The Oxford Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities) is the legal standard recommended to be followed for reference in some of the law schools in Britain as well as outside UK.
There are two kinds of sources used for deriving information to support arguments in legal assignments- primary sources and secondary sources. Primary sources are the sources of direct information. These include statutes, reports, legal publications. Secondary sources are based on information obtained from primary sources. Law teachers encourage students to primarily use information from primary sources for their research as that information would be more detailed, elaborate and precise. Use secondary sources where primary sources of information are not available. Overuse of secondary sources may lead to the danger of quoting inaccurate statements, and insubstantial discussions. Hence, assessors prefer that students use primary sources as much as possible.
Referencing is required to be done when you use external sources of information such as authorities for the preparation of the essay and especially for making specific statements. The incorporation of a bibliography at the end of an essay fulfills the former purpose. The use of footnotes at the bottom of every page fulfils the latter purpose.
Footnotes are a very important part of the OSCOLA system of reference as they provide linkage to the evidence which is used to support statements that you make as part of your arguments. Hence, they can be used as a reference by the reader as to the veracity/authority of the statement you are making. Footnotes refer to the inserted numbers, placed as superscripts, at the end of a sentence in the body of a text.
The number contains a reference to a piece of text from which information in the sentence is quoted. The full reference is expanded at the bottom of the page in the notes section. Footnotes may also be used to present additional information, which is not directly required in the main text but provides support to the argument.
Use of valid footnotes would increase the reliability and quality of the essay. Footnotes need to be ended with a full stop. The OSCOLA system does not depend on the extensive use of punctuation. Footnotes can also be placed next to a term or phrase used in the text if required.
References, when repeated, can be abbreviated. But it should be mentioned in the first use of the citation that it would be referred to in the particular shortened form later on.
Quotations from legal texts/statements when used in the text, need to be cited in full. In fact, even if there are errors in the original documents, those errors should be retained in the quoted text. The use of quotations come for special attention under the OSCOLA as legal arguments may involve the necessity of quoting extensively from previous judgments/statutes/laws/rulings. Hence, there are many rules in this direction.
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An assignment examples on law s is a prosaic composition of a small volume and free composition, expressing individual impressions and thoughts on a specific occasion or issue and obviously not claiming a definitive or exhaustive interpretation of the subject.
Some signs of law s assignment:
- the presence of a specific topic or question. A work devoted to the analysis of a wide range of problems in biology, by definition, cannot be performed in the genre of law s assignment topic.
- The assignment expresses individual impressions and thoughts on a specific occasion or issue, in this case, on law s and does not knowingly pretend to a definitive or exhaustive interpretation of the subject.
- As a rule, an essay suggests a new, subjectively colored word about something, such a work may have a philosophical, historical, biographical, journalistic, literary, critical, popular scientific or purely fiction character.
- in the content of an assignment samples on law s, first of all, the author’s personality is assessed - his worldview, thoughts and feelings.
The goal of an assignment in law s is to develop such skills as independent creative thinking and writing out your own thoughts.
Writing an assignment is extremely useful, because it allows the author to learn to clearly and correctly formulate thoughts, structure information, use basic concepts, highlight causal relationships, illustrate experience with relevant examples, and substantiate his conclusions.
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- How to Prepare for Law School
- How to brief a case
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How to write a case brief for law school: Excerpt reproduced from Introduction to the Study of Law: Cases and Materials ,
Third edition (lexisnexis 2009) by michael makdisi & john makdisi.
C. HOW TO BRIEF
The previous section described the parts of a case in order to make it easier to read and identify the pertinent information that you will use to create your briefs. This section will describe the parts of a brief in order to give you an idea about what a brief is, what is helpful to include in a brief, and what purpose it serves. Case briefs are a necessary study aid in law school that helps to encapsulate and analyze the mountainous mass of material that law students must digest. The case brief represents a final product after reading a case, rereading it, taking it apart, and putting it back together again. In addition to its function as a tool for self-instruction and referencing, the case brief also provides a valuable “cheat sheet” for class participation.
Who will read your brief? Most professors will espouse the value of briefing but will never ask to see that you have, in fact, briefed. As a practicing lawyer, your client doesn’t care if you brief, so long as you win the case. The judges certainly don’t care if you brief, so long as you competently practice the law. You are the person that the brief will serve! Keep this in mind when deciding what elements to include as part of your brief and when deciding what information to include under those elements.
What are the elements of a brief? Different people will tell you to include different things in your brief. Most likely, upon entering law school, this will happen with one or more of your instructors. While opinions may vary, four elements that are essential to any useful brief are the following:
(a) Facts (name of the case and its parties, what happened factually and procedurally, and the judgment)
(b) Issues (what is in dispute)
(c) Holding (the applied rule of law)
(d) Rationale (reasons for the holding)
If you include nothing but these four elements, you should have everything you need in order to recall effectively the information from the case during class or several months later when studying for exams.
Because briefs are made for yourself, you may want to include other elements that expand the four elements listed above. Depending on the case, the inclusion of additional elements may be useful. For example, a case that has a long and important section expounding dicta might call for a separate section in your brief labeled: Dicta. Whatever elements you decide to include, however, remember that the brief is a tool intended for personal use. To the extent that more elements will help with organization and use of the brief, include them. On the other hand, if you find that having more elements makes your brief cumbersome and hard to use, cut back on the number of elements. At a minimum, however, make sure you include the four elements listed above.
Elements that you may want to consider including in addition to the four basic elements are:
(e) Dicta (commentary about the decision that was not the basis for the decision)
(f) Dissent (if a valuable dissenting opinion exits, the dissent’s opinion)
(g) Party’s Arguments (each party’s opposing argument concerning the ultimate issue)
(h) Comments (personal commentary)
Personal comments can be useful if you have a thought that does not fit elsewhere. In the personal experience of one of the authors, this element was used to label cases as specific kinds (e.g., as a case of vicarious liability) or make mental notes about what he found peculiar or puzzling about cases. This element allowed him to release his thoughts (without losing them) so that he could move on to other cases.
In addition to these elements, it may help you to organize your thoughts, as some people do, by dividing Facts into separate elements:
(1) Facts of the case (what actually happened, the controversy)
(2) Procedural History (what events within the court system led to the present case)
(3) Judgment (what the court actually decided)
Procedural History is usually minimal and most of the time irrelevant to the ultimate importance of a case; however, this is not always true. One subject in which Procedure History is virtually always relevant is Civil Procedure.
When describing the Judgment of the case, distinguish it from the Holding. The Judgment is the factual determination by the court, in favor of one party, such as “affirmed,” “reversed,” or “remanded.” In contrast, the Holding is the applied rule of law that serves as the basis for the ultimate judgment.
Remember that the purpose of a brief is to remind you of the important details that make the case significant in terms of the law. It will be a reference tool when you are drilled by a professor and will be a study aid when you prepare for exams. A brief is also like a puzzle piece.
The elements of the brief create the unique shape and colors of the piece, and, when combined with other pieces, the picture of the common law takes form. A well-constructed brief will save you lots of time by removing the need to return to the case to remember the important details and also by making it easier to put together the pieces of the common law puzzle.
D. EXTRACTING THE RELEVANT INFORMATION: ANNOTATING AND HIGHLIGHTING
So now that you know the basic elements of a brief, what information is important to include under each element? The simple answer is: whatever is relevant. But what parts of a case are relevant? When you read your first few cases, you may think that everything that the judge said was relevant to his ultimate conclusion. Even if this were true, what is relevant for the judge to make his decision is not always relevant for you to include in your brief. Remember, the reason to make a brief is not to persuade the world that the ultimate decision in the case is a sound one, but rather to aid in refreshing your memory concerning the most important parts of the case.
What facts are relevant to include in a brief? You should include the facts that are necessary to remind you of the story. If you forget the story, you will not remember how the law in the case was applied. You should also include the facts that are dispositive to the decision in the case. For instance, if the fact that a car is white is a determining factor in the case, the brief should note that the case involves a white car and not simply a car. To the extent that the procedural history either helps you to remember the case or plays an important role in the ultimate outcome, you should include these facts as well.
What issues and conclusions are relevant to include in a brief? There is usually one main issue on which the court rests its decision. This may seem simple, but the court may talk about multiple issues, and may discuss multiple arguments from both sides of the case. Be sure to distinguish the issues from the arguments made by the parties. The relevant issue or issues, and corresponding conclusions, are the ones for which the court made a final decision and which are binding. The court may discuss intermediate conclusions or issues, but stay focused on the main issue and conclusion which binds future courts.
What rationale is important to include in a brief? This is probably the most difficult aspect of the case to determine. Remember that everything that is discussed may have been relevant to the judge, but it is not necessarily relevant to the rationale of the decision. The goal is to remind yourself of the basic reasoning that the court used to come to its decision and the key factors that made the decision favor one side or the other.
A brief should be brief! Overly long or cumbersome briefs are not very helpful because you will not be able to skim them easily when you review your notes or when the professor drills you. On the other hand, a brief that is too short will be equally unhelpful because it lacks sufficient information to refresh your memory. Try to keep your briefs to one page in length. This will make it easy for you to organize and reference them.
Do not get discouraged. Learning to brief and figuring out exactly what to include will take time and practice. The more you brief, the easier it will become to extract the relevant information.
While a brief is an extremely helpful and important study aid, annotating and highlighting are other tools for breaking down the mass of material in your casebook. The remainder of this section will discuss these different techniques and show how they complement and enhance the briefing process.
Many of you probably already read with a pencil or pen, but if you do not, now is the time to get in the habit. Cases are so dense and full of information that you will find yourself spending considerable amounts of time rereading cases to find what you need. An effective way to reduce this time is to annotate the margins of the casebook. Your pencil (or pen) will be one of your best friends while reading a case. It will allow you to mark off the different sections (such as facts, procedural history, or conclusions), thus allowing you to clear your mind of thoughts and providing an invaluable resource when briefing and reviewing.
You might be wondering why annotating is important if you make an adequate, well-constructed brief. By their very nature briefs cannot cover everything in a case. Even with a thorough, well-constructed brief you may want to reference the original case in order to reread dicta that might not have seemed important at the time, to review the complete procedural history or set of facts, or to scour the rationale for a better understanding of the case; annotating makes these tasks easier. Whether you return to a case after a few hours or a few months, annotations will swiftly guide you to the pertinent parts of the case by providing a roadmap of the important sections. Your textual markings and margin notes will refresh your memory and restore specific thoughts you might have had about either the case in general or an individual passage.
Annotations will also remind you of forgotten thoughts and random ideas by providing a medium for personal comments.
In addition to making it easier to review an original case, annotating cases during the first review of a case makes the briefing process easier. With adequate annotations, the important details needed for your brief will be much easier to retrieve. Without annotations, you will likely have difficulty locating the information you seek even in the short cases. It might seem strange that it would be hard to reference a short case, but even a short case will likely take you at least fifteen to twenty-five minutes to read, while longer cases may take as much as thirty minutes to an hour to complete. No matter how long it takes, the dense material of all cases makes it difficult to remember all your thoughts, and trying to locate specific sections of the analysis may feel like you are trying to locate a needle in a haystack. An annotation in the margin, however, will not only swiftly guide you to a pertinent section, but will also refresh the thoughts that you had while reading that section.
When you read a case for the first time, read for the story and for a basic understanding of the dispute, the issues, the rationale, and the decision. As you hit these elements (or what you think are these elements) make a mark in the margins. Your markings can be as simple as “facts” (with a bracket that indicates the relevant part of the paragraph). When you spot an issue, you may simply mark “issue” or instead provide a synopsis in your own words. When a case sparks an idea — write that idea in the margin as well — you never know when a seemingly irrelevant idea might turn into something more.
Finally, when you spot a particularly important part of the text, underline it (or highlight it as described below).
With a basic understanding of the case, and with annotations in the margin, the second read-through of the case should be much easier. You can direct your reading to the most important sections and will have an easier time identifying what is and is not important. Continue rereading the case until you have identified all the relevant information that you need to make your brief, including the issue(s), the facts, the holding, and the relevant parts of the analysis.
Pencil or pen — which is better to use when annotating? Our recommendation is a mechanical pencil. Mechanical pencils make finer markings than regular pencils, and also than ballpoint pens. Although you might think a pencil might smear more than a pen, with its sharp point a mechanical pencil uses very little excess lead and will not smear as much as you might imagine. A mechanical pencil will also give you the freedom to make mistakes without consequences. When you first start annotating, you may think that some passages are more important than they really are, and therefore you may resist the urge to make a mark in order to preserve your book and prevent false guideposts. With a pencil, however, the ability to erase and rewrite removes this problem.
Why highlight? Like annotating, highlighting may seem unimportant if you create thorough, well-constructed briefs, but highlighting directly helps you to brief. It makes cases, especially the more complicated ones, easy to digest, review and use to extract information.
Highlighting takes advantage of colors to provide a uniquely effective method for reviewing and referencing a case. If you prefer a visual approach to learning, you may find highlighting to be a very effective tool.
If annotating and highlighting are so effective, why brief? Because the process of summarizing a case and putting it into your own words within a brief provides an understanding of the law and of the case that you cannot gain through the process of highlighting or annotating.
The process of putting the case into your own words forces you to digest the material, while annotating and highlighting can be accomplished in a much more passive manner.
What should you highlight? Similar to annotating, the best parts of the case to highlight are those that represent the needed information for your brief such as the facts, the issue, the holding and the rationale.
Unlike annotating, highlighting provides an effective way to color code, which makes referring to the case even easier. In addition, Highlighters are particularly useful in marking off entire sections by using brackets. These brackets will allow you to color-code the case without highlighting all the text, leaving the most important phrases untouched for a more detailed highlight marking or underlining.
Highlighting is a personal tool, and therefore should be used to the extent that highlighting helps, but should be modified in a way that makes it personally time efficient and beneficial. For instance, you might combine the use of annotations in the margins with the visual benefit of highlighting the relevant text. You may prefer to underline the relevant text with a pencil, but to use a highlighter to bracket off the different sections of a case. Whatever you choose to do, make sure that it works for you, regardless of what others recommend. The techniques in the remainder of this section will describe ways to make full use of your highlighters.
First, buy yourself a set of multi-colored highlighters, with at least four, or perhaps five or six different colors. Yellow, pink, and orange are usually the brightest. Depending on the brand, purple and green can be dark, but still work well. Although blue is a beautiful color, it tends to darken and hide the text.
Therefore we recommend that you save blue for the elements that you rarely highlight.
For each different section of the case, choose a color, and use that color only when highlighting the section of the case designated for that color. Consider using yellow for the text that you tend to highlight most frequently. Because yellow is the brightest, you may be inclined to use yellow for the Conclusions in order to make them stand out the most. If you do this, however, you will exhaust your other colors much faster than yellow and this will require that you purchase an entire set of new highlighters when a single color runs out because colors such as green are not sold separately. If instead you choose to use yellow on a more frequently highlighted section such as the Analysis, when it comes time to replace your yellow marker, you will need only to replace your yellow highlighter individually. In the personal experience on one of the authors, the sections of cases that seemed to demand the most highlighter attention were the
Facts and the Analysis, while the Issues and Holdings demanded the least. Other Considerations and
Procedural History required lots of highlighting in particular cases although not in every case.
Experiment if you must, but try to choose a color scheme early on in the semester and stick with it. That way, when you come back to the first cases of the semester, you will not be confused with multiple color schemes. The basic sections of a case for which you should consider giving a different color are:
Issue (and questions presented)
Holding (and conclusions)
Other Considerations (such as dicta)
Not all of these sections demand a separate color. You may find that combining Facts and Procedural History or Issues and Holdings works best. Furthermore, as mentioned above, some sections may not warrant highlighting in every case (e.g., dicta probably do not need to be highlighted unless they are particularly important). If you decide that a single color is all that you need, then stick to one, but if you find yourself highlighting lots of text from many different sections, reconsider the use of at least a few different colors. Highlighters make text stand out, but only when used appropriately. The use of many colors enables you to highlight more text without reducing the highlighter’s effectiveness. Three to four colors provides decent color variation without the cumbersomeness of handling too many markers.
Once you are comfortable with your color scheme, determining exactly what to highlight still may be difficult. Similar to knowing what to annotate, experience will perfect your highlighting skills. Be careful not to highlight everything, thus ruining your highlighters’ effectiveness; at the same time, do not be afraid to make mistakes.
Now that we have covered the basics of reading, annotating, highlighting, and briefing a case, you are ready to start practicing. Keep the tips and techniques mentioned in this chapter in mind when you tackle the four topics in the remainder of this book. If you have difficultly, refer back to this chapter to help guide you as you master the case method of study and the art of using the common law.
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Assignments Law and Legal Definition
Assignment in legal terms means the transfer of a property right or title to some particular person under an agreement, usually in writing. Unless an assignment is qualified in some way, it is generally considered to be a transfer of the transferor's entire interest in the estate, chattel, or other thing assigned. An assignment is distinguished from a grant in that an assignment is usually limited to the transfer of intangible rights, including contractual rights, choses in action, and rights in or connected with property, rather than, as in the case of a grant, the property itself. For example, the payee may assign his or her rights to collect the note payments to a bank. Some contracts restrict the right of assignment, so the terms of the contract must be read to determine if assignment is prohibited. In a further example, a landlord may permit a lease to be assigned, usually along with an assumption agreement, whereby the new tenant becomes responsible for payments and other duties of the original lessee.
The owner of a trademark/mark may transfer, give or sell to another person the owner's interest in the trademark/mark. This type of agreement/gift is called an assignment, and the person who receives the owner's interest is called an assignee. An assignee has the right to exclude others from using the trademark/mark. To be enforceable, the assignment must be in writing and signed. It must also include the goodwill of the business connected with the mark.
An assignment, to be effective, must contain the fundamental elements of a contract generally, such as parties with legal capacity, consideration, consent, and legality of object. Words of an assignment are, assign, transfer, and set over; but the words grant, bargain, and sell, or any other words which will show the intent of the parties to make a complete transfer, will amount to an assignment.The deed by which an assignment is made is also called an assignment. In the absence of special statutory provision, no words of art and no special form of words are necessary to effect an assignment.
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Do you require a law assignment sample before proceeding with the law assignment assistance? If you say yes, Professional Assignment Help will send you a law assignment sample pdf so you can see the quality of the assignments we've prepared for other law students.
It's never been easier to complete an assignment. However, writing law projects comes with a slew of difficulties and complications. Law is a vast subject with numerous additional concepts, laws, and regulations that are difficult to remember for any student, especially those new to it. They must have a good comprehension of these topics to compose an assignment independently.
Students must have strong writing abilities and enough time to devote to writing projects in addition to academic knowledge. However, due to all of these circumstances, it becomes difficult for students to maintain the quality of their assignments. As a result, they seek the help of law assignment example, writing specialists.
Our main goal is to help students achieve academic success. With that goal in mind, the entire team at law assignment pdf help works hard to meet law students' expectations by providing good law assignment samples and customized writing services that meet their needs, resulting in the best possible results in the form of higher grades.
We discussed taxation law in our law assignment sample, which deals with tax-related issues. Visit MyAssignmenthelp.com immediately if you need the best assignment help online for your taxes assignment. MyAssignmenthelp.com offers taxation law assignment examples on various tax subtopics, including sales tax, income tax, professional tax, and commercial tax, among others. Because tax laws are part of commercial law, they contain all of the rules and regulations dealing with direct and indirect taxes on corporations, non-corporate organizations, and individuals. The experts here can write any law assignment sample, whether a contract law or case study law assignment sample pdf.
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Taxation law sample:.
Penelope and Norman are Elite Education pupils. Penelope spends her free time on arts and crafts like knitting and creating soap and candles. She is so talented at these things that her friends have frequently requested that she bring some of her soap or candles to birthday celebrations as gifts.
In his spare time, Norman enjoys arts and crafts. Norman is a talented woodworker who frequently creates beautiful bowls, cutting boards, and statues from wood. His pals often request some of his possessions as birthday gifts.
Penelope and Norman decide to start a business together, selling their wares at weekend markets throughout Sydney. They are currently sole traders, and their firm is thriving. However, they recently decided to launch a website and sell their wares online. This has been a huge success and led to increased online sales, as they are now earning over $300,000 per year.
Penelope and Norman come to you for help with their business structure. They are now expanding, having just employed personnel, and require a tax-efficient corporate structure that makes it easier to raise financing. They also wish to reduce their liabilities if something goes wrong. They've tentatively chosen P&N Industries as the name for their company, but they're not sure if it's available.
Assist Penelope and Norman in understanding the characteristics, benefits, and drawbacks of the various business formations accessible in Australia. You should also tell them to check the ASIC website to see if their selected business name is accessible. Advise clients on what type of company they should form, the steps involved in forming and registering a company, and the benefits and drawbacks of doing business as a corporation.
There are three basic types of business structures used in Australia. Sole trader, partnership, and company are the three types of business formations. Every structure has both faults and benefits (Sadgrove 2016). Read More…
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Are you having trouble figuring out how to write law assignment examples? When you're having trouble drafting your paper, MyAssignmenthelp.com's law assignment example comes in handy. With the help of our specialists, you can learn how to write an assignment. In addition, we provide new law assignment pdf samples; keep an eye out for your ideal match.
Here's a quick rundown of the actions needed for the format of the law assignment:
First, decide on a topic
If you have a choice, start with a topic. You should be able to handle it without it being too narrow or too broad. To discover an appropriate topic, look through several online/offline sources.
Researching is a broad phrase, and you're doing it even before deciding on a topic. Continue to look into key issues that arise daily using online and offline resources. If you're having trouble, use our contract law assignment examples.
Prepare for the assignment by brainstorming
Download our assignment sample format to learn how to design your law assignment. The essentials of legal assignments include identifying legal concerns, giving evidence, and formulating arguments, which you will learn more about with our university law assignments examples pdf.
Begin to write
It's time to start writing the first draft after brainstorming. Create an assignment that is clear, simple, and well-referenced. As an example, you can use our law assignment examples. Please take note of how our experts handled the situation. If you're having trouble, get in touch with us for custom solutions.
Citation, proofreading, and editing
Contact us, and we'll create a legal paper that is properly cited, edited, and proofread. You can learn the basics with the law assignment pdf samples that we have posted on the website.
What Are The Topics Cover By Our Experts For Law Assignment?
We don't just help our clients with two or three courses; we help them with law assignment format in a wide range of subjects. Our law assignments pdf services are listed below.
Our law assignment sample pdf assists students with law assignment help on the following topics:
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How to Write a Law Assignment?
Law assignments are tricky, and a robust structure is essential to make them stand out. If you are a fresher in Law and need some help writing it, then here are some of the vital tips that will help you write good law assignments.
- Choose a Right topic
Students often wonder, “how to write law assignment?” when just starting out. The first step is picking out the right topic. A good topic generates interest in the readers and is easy to search for. Go through books, online journals and papers to find a good topic on Law. There are various categories of Law like civil Law, trade law and more. Based on it, find an interesting one to proceed.
Another reason why students wonder," how to write law assignment?' is due to poor search. This is one of the most significant issues which students face from time to time. Once you find your topic, it is time to search for information and exclusive data. Collecting data offline and online means gathering key points that can make your paper unique. This is the step that takes most of the time, so utilise it well.
The next tip is to brainstorm about your topic. Brainstorming includes coming up with good structure, good titles and sub-titles. Brainstorming allows one to be more creative and think of ways to become more unique. Students who do not do this and look for quick ways suffer a lot because they cannot come up with anything new, which makes their work different from others. You can go through papers on the same topic to get refreshing ideas.
- Write a Good Introduction
The introduction is the first part of any assignment. Students who spend a lot of time writing a good one are wise. You need to provide subtle background information on your topic and bring light to matters. If it is poorly written, readers will click off it then and there. Make it exciting to build tension or encourage readers to stay hooked until the end.
- Include Counterarguments in Their Best Light
A good assignment does not only include pieces of evidence on your claim but also answers for counterarguments. While writing, think of questions that might come to the reader's mind. Or, if you are writing for a topic, think of questions that can come from people who are against it and answer them in your paper. This makes the plot clear to people from other perspectives making it quite flawless.
- 6 . Write a Good Conclusion
Many students become lazy in the end, but you should never do that. A poor conclusion is like a bad ending to a good movie. You need to use this space to refresh the readers with the main idea and leave off with a strong impact, like with a solid statement or mind-boggling question, to have a long-lasting impression.
- Proper Referencing and Citation
Assignments like research papers and dissertations also include a separate part after the conclusion for citation. Citation and referencing is the part of giving credit to the work of original authors to avoid plagiarism.
- Proofreading & Editing
And finally, the last part is reviewing the paper and making any changes to make it polished and error-free.
All these points are vital to upgrade any paper and standing out in class. If you need help with any step of assignment making, then get our help and stay at ease.
Most Popular FAQs Searched By Students:
Q1. how do you start a law assignment.
- Introduce the essential points.
- Have an opening sentence that grabs the reader's attention.
- Provide brief information on the topic's overall significance.
- Introduce the essay's main body.
Q2. What are the 5 steps to writing a law essay?
Ans. No two people approach the writing process in the same way. There is no "correct" or "incorrect" method of writing. The following is simply a representation of widely used steps in what may be a highly messy and fluid process.
- Step 1: Pre-Writing
- Step 2: Research
- Step 3: Drafting
- Step 4: Revising
- Step 5: Editing and Proofreading
Q3. What is the format of the law assignment?
Ans. An introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion are usually required in an essay. In general, each paragraph should include only one idea. This could entail writing shorter paragraphs than you would in high school or previous colleges. In the legal profession, precision is crucial.
Q4. Where Can I Get A Law Assignment Sample?
Ans. MyAssignmenthelp.com provides free law assignment sample formats. Go to the website and download the topic that you require. We won't charge you anything for it. Please keep in mind that the assignment format PDF we've provided is merely for reference; please don't copy it.
Q5. How to write law assignments?
Ans. Completing law assignments correctly and precisely in the manner stipulated by the professor is difficult to work for a student or a writing expert. When a new lawyer starts writing about legal topics, it appears as if they are learning a foreign language. Therefore, it is critical to use legal cases, acts, and a thorough comprehension and knowledge of the law to write appealingly and effectively.
Q.6. How to write criminal law assignment?
Ans: To write an excellent criminal law assignment, one needs to come up with a good topic, frame a structure and research well to enrich the paper with information. Then, after completing the entire process of writing, edit and proofread your paper to remove any silly mistakes.
Q.7. How to write contract law assignment?
Ans: Contract law assignment should include all the six significant parts of a contract, i.e. offer, acceptance consideration, legal relations, authority and certainty. You can get our law help to cover all these elements in your paper.
Q.8. How to write a case assignment for media law?
Ans: Media law deals with digital media or intellectual Property. Mentioning the parties involved is mandatory, along with the main issue. Necessary ways to resolve this can also be stated at the end of the assignment.
Q.9. How to write an assignment on family law?
Ans: Family law assignments should state the relations between the concerned family members. The matter of question and tiny details which might influence this situation should be added. You can also add distant family members if they are essential to the case.
Q.10. How to write law assignment on Taxation?
Ans: Students who are instructed to write an assignment on Taxation should have a good knowledge of taxes. Therefore, they should mention the tax laws regarding the matter, state the issue and the objective behind it, along with legal repercussions for it.
Q.11. How to write a Business law assignment?
Ans: Business law assignments can be regarding business, breach of contract, trade laws and employment issues. Having a detailed knowledge o all topics of it is important to compose an error-free business law assignment.
Q.12. How to write law assignment on Civil?
Ans: Civil Law includes public relations rather than criminal, religious or military affairs. Therefore, to write a good assignment, one has to have adequate knowledge and correct means of solutions for it.
Q13. How to write a Tort law assignment?
Ans: Tort law allows a plaintiff to gain unliquidated damages for a wrong civil hearing. You can get our help with excellent tort law assignments if you are new in this area for incredible assignments.
Q.14. How to write a Law assignment on Constitution?
Ans: To write a good assignment on the Constitution, be well versed with all laws, principles, and regulations of the country’s constitution.
Q.15. How to write a Law assignment on Property?
Ans: Property law assignment enlists all the information about the property in question. Therefore, students writing an assignment on it need to have good knowledge of the property to make their assignment unforgettable.
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- Case Study Assignment Sample
All innovative ideas messed up when you are analyzing any case study. Case study assignment needs time and patience and above all, in-depth research of the subject. It needs a practical approach, which many students lack.
Important of Case Study Assignment Sample and Example
Case study analysis is tough as it demands elaborate research on the case. Students can score higher in their assessments if the assignments samples are of higher rank. This cannot be always possible for the students to write case study assignments, as they are under constant pressure of studies and scoring high grades. Case study assignment sample and example helps them to achieve their ambitions by scoring high. They o get an idea of practical scrutiny of the case study by seeing the case study assignment samples and referring it, can write their case study.
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Case study examples for students, the students are not much aware of how to write assignments of case studies. They are scared to write assignments, find it very difficult. It is really very much challenging but can be handled with the help of professional assignment help and going through case study examples for students. A case study is an important task for the students as it has a practical approach towards problems. Various decisions are affected and influenced by case studies. Always take up case study from real life but don’t use the real name. It will be easier for any student to analyze it. Take up the main and key points of real-life events; don’t include events from a different area.
How to Write a Case Study Assignment Example
Case study assignments can be written by professional writers, which are available online also. You may take suggestions from other students, to complete your assignments. But students in most cases prefer to download the template for a case study, and they complete the assignment using a different example. How to write a case study assignment example is very important before started writing any case study. Before making note it is the prior concern to read the case. Then write down the key problems, at least 2 and maximum 5. Find out the best solution to write down the case study examples. The case study can give your brand topical authority. It also depicts that product on which the case study is written can elaborate to solve real problems to the customers.
Assignment Sample Format for College and University Guideline
First of all, plan the paragraph and write a sentence for the topic, which is being researched thoroughly. Do certain things before writing and arranging any paragraph, do research work for the contents of assignment writing. You can do the comparison as well as can contrast different author’s view. Assignment sample format guideline has a particular way to write assignments which starts with an introduction and ends with a conclusion, in between these two it is the body of the content. If this format can be followed a perfect structure of writing can be written.
Case Study Report Introduction Example with PPT & PDF Format
The case study can be defined as an event; problem or activity related to the hypothetical or real-life event, like problems, are facing in the office place, which may influence your decision. The components of writing are to be identified in the case study report. A practical plan has to be developed to write a case study report. In each section the report has to follow analysis, writing strategies and research of the case study is a must. Case study report example in PPT and writing case study assignment pdf is very much subjective. This means writing a report which is having questions regarding self-assessment and worksheets.
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Nursing case study assignment samples are subject to great involvement and research. For understanding the subject matter dissertation, essays and assignments are given by the professors of the institutes. To get higher grades in the study, it is compulsory for the students to carry on these writings in the best possible way. The nursing Case study sample is available online. Anytime it can be downloaded for reference.
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Case study analysis assignment, A case study is assigned to students to study the subject involves decision making, which is based on real-life events. Case study analysis assignment involves many methods. First of all, read the case study so that you can understand the key points of the case study. Then you can handle it with your practical approach. Then note down the main issues of the case. Case study analysis assignment is basically in-depth research of the case giving reference to the practical event. The case related to real life events. so while writing a case study, give reference from practical life.
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Whether we're talking about the law school students or, say, about the business college students, a case study is always the same: it's always a research or an analysis based on 1 person or incident. Medical law, criminal law, environmental law, contract law – it doesn't matter which field you choose, you'll still have to deal with such assignments quite often. Which means you need to read a lot of law case study examples. Like, a LOT of them.
Here, you will find dozens of law case studies examples, including contract and business law case studies, case studies on the most famous legal disputes, etc. Read any case study for law students for free, find inspiration, learn something new from the best writing practices of other students and writers, come up with new ideas that will help you write your own paper… And don't worry if you haven't found the answers to all of your questions.
Because here's another option we'd like to offer: the 'Help me!' option. It's easy and affordable; our writers know how to provide practical research assistance and show the way to creating outstanding papers. Get in touch today and see for yourself!
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WHEREAS the Trust is an open-end management investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the "1940 Act"); and
[Bloomberg Law's Essential Career Toolkit can help you excel in class and jump-start your legal career to successfully transition from law student to lawyer.]. What is the legal memo assignment? The legal memo is an objective memorandum that provides you the opportunity to review and research relevant case law, investigate relevant facts using available resources, analyze those facts under ...
Throughout your law studies, you will need to complete a variety of different assignments. See below to explore four different forms of assignments . Case Notes What goes into a case note? Tips by Students Step-by-Step Case Note Examples Case Notes A case note is a summary or a summary and critical analysis of a case. Essays Essay Template
As you continue to work on legal writing assignments, these are some tips to keep in mind. Follow the format outlined by your professor. It is likely your legal writing professor has given you instructions for the overall format of your legal writing assignment.
A memo or brief you prepared for lawyering seminar can work well as a writing sample. Employers are looking for clear, effective legal writing and analysis. An objective interoffice memo or a persuasive brief are both acceptable vehicles for demonstrating your writing and analysis abilities.
Begin the first page as follows: MEMORANDUM. TO: Name of person who assigned the research project. FROM: Your name. DATE: Date memo is turned in. RE: Name of client, and a short description of the subject matter of the memorandum. Put the title of each subsequent section of your memo at the beginning of that section, in all caps, and centered.
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in the content of an assignment samples on law school , first of all, the author's personality is assessed - his worldview, thoughts and feelings. The goal of an assignment in law school is to develop such skills as independent creative thinking and writing out your own thoughts.
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Project Report Assignment Format. A project report is generally a compulsory academic assignment for students. Most of the university professors prefer that the report should be written as per an academic standard. A project report has the following structure: Â Â Â Title Page. Â Â Â Acknowledgement.
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Step 1: Determine the law areas that should be appropriate to the case. Also, clearly explain the legal problems that you are going to address. Step 2: The next thing required in writing an ICAR law assignment is to find out the related legal principles and its authority source. But remember that the authority source should be the case law, Act ...
Another part of writing legal assignments is the format. You need to pay careful attention to the format used. The lecturer would usually provide you with instructions regarding the kind of format to be used, so please ensure that you stick to it. Try not to use interpretations of your own in this regard; standard formats are the norm.
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Assignment Type: Formal Assignment Report Topic: Managing Financial Resources in Health and Social Care: Assignment Word Count: 3,161 words Pages: 15 pages Citation/Referencing Style: APA Assignment Type: Managing Financial Assignment Marketing Assignment Samples:
This section will describe the parts of a brief in order to give you an idea about what a brief is, what is helpful to include in a brief, and what purpose it serves. Case briefs are a necessary study aid in law school that helps to encapsulate and analyze the mountainous mass of material that law students must digest.
The assignment format and structure depend on the type of assignment you are doing. While most professors include formatting-related standards in assignment guidelines (such as word count, the layout of the assignment, file format, preferred fonts, referencing style, and requirements related to headings, page numbering, college assignment ...
An assignment is distinguished from a grant in that an assignment is usually limited to the transfer of intangible rights, including contractual rights, choses in action, and rights in or connected with property, rather than, as in the case of a grant, the property itself. For example, the payee may assign his or her rights to collect the note ...
1 Higher National Diploma In Law Family Law/ Individual Assignment INTERNATIONAL HIGHER DIPLOMA IN LAW Assignment STUDENT NAME: EDHAT REGISTRATION NO.: PROGRAMME: SUBJECT CODE & TITLE: Family Law ASSIGNMENT TITLE: Summary of the Learning Outcomes Covered: 1.Investigate the history of the family law and explain the creation of marriage relationship considering the various aspects of family law.
Download our assignment sample format to learn how to design your law assignment. The essentials of legal assignments include identifying legal concerns, giving evidence, and formulating arguments, which you will learn more about with our university law assignments examples pdf. Begin to write
The case study assignments tailored on the basis of the needs of a particular student. How To Write A Law Case Study Assignment Sample. The students sometimes get confused to understand legal assignments. Due to the huge academic pressure, they lack time to go through the requirements to write case study assignments. In the prospective law is ...
There are usually two types of law essays: the theoretical based essay and the problem-style essay. The theoretical based essay may ask you to critically discuss a new piece of legislation or a recent case in relation to existing laws or legal principles.
Here, you will find dozens of law case studies examples, including contract and business law case studies, case studies on the most famous legal disputes, etc. Read any case study for law students for free, find inspiration, learn something new from the best writing practices of other students and writers, come up with new ideas that will help …
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