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How to Write a Research Paper

Writing a research paper is a bit more difficult that a standard high school essay. You need to site sources, use academic data and show scientific examples. Before beginning, you’ll need guidelines for how to write a research paper.

Start the Research Process

Before you begin writing the research paper, you must do your research. It is important that you understand the subject matter, formulate the ideas of your paper, create your thesis statement and learn how to speak about your given topic in an authoritative manner. You’ll be looking through online databases, encyclopedias, almanacs, periodicals, books, newspapers, government publications, reports, guides and scholarly resources. Take notes as you discover new information about your given topic. Also keep track of the references you use so you can build your bibliography later and cite your resources.

Develop Your Thesis Statement

When organizing your research paper, the thesis statement is where you explain to your readers what they can expect, present your claims, answer any questions that you were asked or explain your interpretation of the subject matter you’re researching. Therefore, the thesis statement must be strong and easy to understand. Your thesis statement must also be precise. It should answer the question you were assigned, and there should be an opportunity for your position to be opposed or disputed. The body of your manuscript should support your thesis, and it should be more than a generic fact.

Create an Outline

Many professors require outlines during the research paper writing process. You’ll find that they want outlines set up with a title page, abstract, introduction, research paper body and reference section. The title page is typically made up of the student’s name, the name of the college, the name of the class and the date of the paper. The abstract is a summary of the paper. An introduction typically consists of one or two pages and comments on the subject matter of the research paper. In the body of the research paper, you’ll be breaking it down into materials and methods, results and discussions. Your references are in your bibliography. Use a research paper example to help you with your outline if necessary.

Organize Your Notes

When writing your first draft, you’re going to have to work on organizing your notes first. During this process, you’ll be deciding which references you’ll be putting in your bibliography and which will work best as in-text citations. You’ll be working on this more as you develop your working drafts and look at more white paper examples to help guide you through the process.

Write Your Final Draft

After you’ve written a first and second draft and received corrections from your professor, it’s time to write your final copy. By now, you should have seen an example of a research paper layout and know how to put your paper together. You’ll have your title page, abstract, introduction, thesis statement, in-text citations, footnotes and bibliography complete. Be sure to check with your professor to ensure if you’re writing in APA style, or if you’re using another style guide.


artificial intelligence research paper format

Research Paper Template

Create a new age interactive research paper with bit's robust rich text editor., what is a research paper.

A research paper is a study conducted by yourself or analyzed across published information and shared in a report. There is typically a hypothesis, tests and a conclusion as to what the findings were.

Why Research Papers are important?

Research papers are an important way of sharing unique findings around a specific question. It's an important method of sharing your findings with instructors, classmates and others in the industry. Unique important insights in research papers have the ability to change thoughts and actions. It's also important for the validity of your research and others can use your same methodology to verify and replicate your findings.

Research Paper Template

What You Should Include in Your Research Paper?

Research Paper Title

Published Date:


Add an abstract at the start of your research paper that provides a short summary of the most important elements of your paper.


Add an introduction to tell your reader what they will be learning from this research paper.

Use various headings and subheadings to organize the sections of your paper.

Subheadings help make sub points easy to understand for the reader.

Key Benefits of Creating Your Research Paper on

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How to Make Your Research Paper Interactive?

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Artificial Intelligence, which commenced publication in 1970, is now the generally accepted international forum for the publication of results of current research in this field. The journal welcomes basic and applied papers describing mature work involving computational accounts of aspects of intelligence. Specifically, it welcomes papers on:• automated reasoning• computational theories of learning• heuristic search• knowledge representation• qualitative physics• signal, image and speech understanding• robotics• natural language understanding• software and hardware architectures for AI. The journal reports results achieved; proposals for new ways of looking at AI problems must include demonstrations of effectiveness. From time to time, the journal publishes survey articles. Read Less

Artificial Intelligence, which commenced publication in 1970, is now the generally accepted international forum for the publication of results of current research in this field. The journal welcomes basic and applied papers describing mature work involving computational accoun...... Read More

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Frequently asked questions

1. can i write artificial intelligence in latex.

Absolutely not! Our tool has been designed to help you focus on writing. You can write your entire paper as per the Artificial Intelligence guidelines and auto format it.

2. Do you follow the Artificial Intelligence guidelines?

Yes, the template is compliant with the Artificial Intelligence guidelines. Our experts at SciSpace ensure that. If there are any changes to the journal's guidelines, we'll change our algorithm accordingly.

3. Can I cite my article in multiple styles in Artificial Intelligence?

Of course! We support all the top citation styles, such as APA style, MLA style, Vancouver style, Harvard style, and Chicago style. For example, when you write your paper and hit autoformat, our system will automatically update your article as per the Artificial Intelligence citation style.

4. Can I use the Artificial Intelligence templates for free?

Sign up for our free trial, and you'll be able to use all our features for seven days. You'll see how helpful they are and how inexpensive they are compared to other options, Especially for Artificial Intelligence.

5. Can I use a manuscript in Artificial Intelligence that I have written in MS Word?

Yes. You can choose the right template, copy-paste the contents from the word document, and click on auto-format. Once you're done, you'll have a publish-ready paper Artificial Intelligence that you can download at the end.

6. How long does it usually take you to format my papers in Artificial Intelligence?

It only takes a matter of seconds to edit your manuscript. Besides that, our intuitive editor saves you from writing and formatting it in Artificial Intelligence.

7. Where can I find the template for the Artificial Intelligence?

It is possible to find the Word template for any journal on Google. However, why use a template when you can write your entire manuscript on SciSpace , auto format it as per Artificial Intelligence's guidelines and download the same in Word, PDF and LaTeX formats? Give us a try!.

8. Can I reformat my paper to fit the Artificial Intelligence's guidelines?

Of course! You can do this using our intuitive editor. It's very easy. If you need help, our support team is always ready to assist you.

9. Artificial Intelligence an online tool or is there a desktop version?

SciSpace's Artificial Intelligence is currently available as an online tool. We're developing a desktop version, too. You can request (or upvote) any features that you think would be helpful for you and other researchers in the "feature request" section of your account once you've signed up with us.

10. I cannot find my template in your gallery. Can you create it for me like Artificial Intelligence?

Sure. You can request any template and we'll have it setup within a few days. You can find the request box in Journal Gallery on the right side bar under the heading, "Couldn't find the format you were looking for like Artificial Intelligence?”

11. What is the output that I would get after using Artificial Intelligence?

After writing your paper autoformatting in Artificial Intelligence, you can download it in multiple formats, viz., PDF, Docx, and LaTeX.

12. Is Artificial Intelligence's impact factor high enough that I should try publishing my article there?

To be honest, the answer is no. The impact factor is one of the many elements that determine the quality of a journal. Few of these factors include review board, rejection rates, frequency of inclusion in indexes, and Eigenfactor. You need to assess all these factors before you make your final call.

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14. What are the most common citation types In Artificial Intelligence?

15. how do i submit my article to the artificial intelligence, 16. can i download artificial intelligence in endnote format.

Yes, SciSpace provides this functionality. After signing up, you would need to import your existing references from Word or Bib file to SciSpace. Then SciSpace would allow you to download your references in Artificial Intelligence Endnote style according to Elsevier guidelines.

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artificial intelligence research paper format

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Guide for Authors

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The journal of Artificial Intelligence (AIJ) welcomes papers on broad aspects of AI that constitute advances in the overall field including, but not limited to, cognition and AI, automated reasoning and inference, case-based reasoning, commonsense reasoning, computer vision, constraint processing, ethical AI, heuristic search, human interfaces, intelligent robotics, knowledge representation, machine learning, multi-agent systems, natural language processing, planning and action, and reasoning under uncertainty. The journal reports results achieved in addition to proposals for new ways of looking at AI problems, both of which must include demonstrations of value and effectiveness.

Papers describing applications of AI are also welcome, but the focus should be on how new and novel AI methods advance performance in application areas, rather than a presentation of yet another application of conventional AI methods. Papers on applications should describe a principled solution, emphasize its novelty, and present an indepth evaluation of the AI techniques being exploited.

From time to time, there are special issues devoted to a particular topic. Such special issues must always have open calls-for-papers. Guidance on the submission of proposals for special issues, as well as other material for authors and reviewers can be found at .

Regular Papers

AIJ caters to a broad readership. Papers that are heavily mathematical in content are welcome but should include a less technical high-level motivation and introduction that is accessible to a wide audience and explanatory commentary throughout the paper. Papers that are only purely mathematical in nature, without demonstrated applicability to artificial intelligence problems may be returned. A discussion of the work's implications on the production of artificial intelligent systems is normally expected.

Research Notes

Research Field Reviews: AIJ expects broad coverage of an established or emerging research area, and the articulation of a comprehensive framework that demonstrates the role of existing results, and synthesizes a position on the potential value and possible new research directions. A list of papers in an area, coupled with a summary of their contributions is not sufficient. Overall, a field review article must provide a scholarly overview that facilitates deeper understanding of a research area. The selection of work covered in a field article should be based on clearly stated, rational criteria that are acceptable to the respective research community within AI; it must be free from personal or idiosyncratic bias.

Book Reviews: We seek reviewers for books received, and suggestions for books to be reviewed. In the case of the former, the review editors solicit reviews from researchers assessed to be expert in the field of the book. In the case of the latter, the review editors can either assess the relevance of a particular suggestion, or even arrange for the refereeing of a submitted draft review.

Turing Tape papers are by invitation only, where authors can then submit a 2-page proposal of a Turing Tape paper for confirmation by the special editors. The 2-page proposal should include a convincing motivational discussion, articulate the relevance to artificial intelligence, clarify the originality of the position, and provide evidence that authors are authoritative researchers in the area on which they are expressing the position. Upon confirmation of the 2-page proposal, the full Turing Tape paper can then be submitted and then undergoes the same review process as regular papers.

Competitions between AI systems are now well established (e.g. in speech and language, planning, auctions, games, to name a few). The scientific contributions associated with the systems entered in these competitions are routinely submitted as research papers to conferences and journals. However, it has been more difficult to find suitable venues for papers summarizing the objectives, results, and major innovations of a competition. For this purpose, AIJ has established the category of competition summary papers.

From time to time, there are special issues devoted to a particular topic. Such special issues must always have open calls-for-papers. Guidance on the submission of proposals for special issues, as well as other material for authors and reviewers can be found at

AIJ welcomes basic and applied papers describing mature, complete, and novel research that articulate methods for, and provide insight into artificial intelligence and the production of artificial intelligent systems. The question of whether a paper is mature, complete and novel is ultimately determined by reviewers and editors on a case-bycase basis. Generally, a paper should include a convincing motivational discussion, articulate the relevance of the research to Artificial Intelligence, clarify what is new and different, anticipate the scientific impact of the work, include all relevant proofs and/or experimental data, and provide a thorough discussion of connections with the existing literature. A prerequisite for the novelty of a paper is that the results it describes have not been previously published by other authors and have not been previously published by the same authors in any archival journal. In particular, a previous conference publication by the same authors does not disqualify a submission on the grounds of novelty. However, it is rarely the case that conference papers satisfy the completeness criterion without further elaboration. Indeed, even prize-winning papers from major conferences often undergo major revision following referee comments, before being accepted to AIJ.

There is no restriction on the length of submitted manuscripts. However, authors should note that publication of lengthy papers, typically greater than forty pages, is often significantly delayed, as the length of the paper acts as a disincentive to the reviewer to undertake the review process. Unedited theses are acceptable only in exceptional circumstances. Editing a thesis into a journal article is the author's responsibility, not the reviewers'. Research Notes The Research Notes section of the Journal of Artificial Intelligence will provide a forum for short communications that cannot fit within the other paper categories. The maximum length should notexceed 4500 words (typically a paper with 5 to 14 pages). Some examples of suitable Research Notes include, but are not limited to the following: crisp and highly focused technical research aimed at other specialists; a detailed exposition of a relevant theorem or an experimental result; an erratum note that addresses and revises earlier results appearing in the journal; an extension or addendum to an earlier published paper that presents additional experimental or theoretical results.

The AIJ invests significant effort in assessing and publishing scholarly papers that provide broad and principled reviews of important existing and emerging research areas, reviews of topical and timely books related to AI, and substantial, but perhaps controversial position papers (so-called "Turing Tape" papers) that articulate scientific or social issues of interest in the AI research community.

Research Field Reviews are by invitation only, where authors can then submit a 2-page proposal of a Research Field Review for confirmation by the special editors. The 2-page proposal should include a convincing motivational discussion, articulate the relevance of the research to artificial intelligence, clarify what is new and different from other surveys available in the literature, anticipate the scientific impact of the proposed work, and provide evidence that authors are authoritative researchers in the area of the proposed Research Field Review. Upon confirmation of the 2-page proposal, the full Invited Research Field Reviews can then be submitted and then undergoes the same review process as regular papers. Book Reviews: We seek reviewers for books received, and suggestions for books to be reviewed. In the case of the former, the review editors solicit reviews from researchers assessed to be expert in the field of the book. In the case of the latter, the review editors can either assess the relevance of a particular suggestion, or even arrange for the refereeing of a submitted draft review.

Although Competition Papers serve as an archival record of a competition, it is critical that they make clear why the competition's problems are relevant to continued progress in the area, what progress has been made since the previous competition, if applicable, and what were the most significant technical advances reflected in the competition results. The exposition should be accessible to a broad AI audience.

Submission checklist You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details: • E-mail address • Full postal address

Further considerations • Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked' • All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet) • A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare • Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed • Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

Declaration of competing interest Corresponding authors, on behalf of all the authors of a submission, must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. All authors, including those without competing interests to declare, should provide the relevant information to the corresponding author (which, where relevant, may specify they have nothing to declare). Corresponding authors should then use this tool to create a shared statement and upload to the submission system at the Attach Files step. Please do not convert the .docx template to another file type. Author signatures are not required.

Preprints Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy . Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see ' Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication ' for more information).

Reporting sex- and gender-based analyses Reporting guidance For research involving or pertaining to humans, animals or eukaryotic cells, investigators should integrate sex and gender-based analyses (SGBA) into their research design according to funder/sponsor requirements and best practices within a field. Authors should address the sex and/or gender dimensions of their research in their article. In cases where they cannot, they should discuss this as a limitation to their research's generalizability. Importantly, authors should explicitly state what definitions of sex and/or gender they are applying to enhance the precision, rigor and reproducibility of their research and to avoid ambiguity or conflation of terms and the constructs to which they refer (see Definitions section below). Authors can refer to the Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines and the SAGER guidelines checklist . These offer systematic approaches to the use and editorial review of sex and gender information in study design, data analysis, outcome reporting and research interpretation - however, please note there is no single, universally agreed-upon set of guidelines for defining sex and gender.

Contributors Each author is required to declare their individual contribution to the article: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure.

Article transfer service This journal uses the Elsevier Article Transfer Service to find the best home for your manuscript. This means that if an editor feels your manuscript is more suitable for an alternative journal, you might be asked to consider transferring the manuscript to such a journal. The recommendation might be provided by a Journal Editor, a dedicated Scientific Managing Editor , a tool assisted recommendation, or a combination. If you agree, your manuscript will be transferred, though you will have the opportunity to make changes to the manuscript before the submission is complete. Please note that your manuscript will be independently reviewed by the new journal. More information .

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

Author rights As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information .

Role of the funding source You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, it is recommended to state this.

Elsevier Researcher Academy Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.

Submission Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Revisions It is the Journal's policy that, except in extenuating circumstances, only one revision of a submitted manuscript will be considered for publication in the Journal.

Use of wordprocessing software It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the wordprocessor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the wordprocessor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: ). All figures and tables should be embedded in the text to facilitate reviewing. Please also supply the source files of figures, tables and text graphics. See also the section on Electronic illustrations. To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the "spell-check" and "grammar-check" functions of your wordprocessor.

Article structure

Introduction State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Theory/calculation A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis.

Discussion This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

Appendices If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Highlights Highlights are optional yet highly encouraged for this journal, as they increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights .

Abstract A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

Abbreviations Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

Formatting of funding sources List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Footnotes Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.

Electronic artwork General points • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork. • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option. • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar. • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text. • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files. • Provide captions to illustrations separately. • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version. • Submit each illustration as a separate file. • Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.

Color Artwork Submit colour illustrations as original photographs, high-quality computer prints or transparencies, close to the size expected in publication, or as 35 mm slides. Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF, EPS or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. Polaroid colour prints are not suitable. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in th eprinted version. Color illustrations will be printed in color if, in the opinion of the Editors, the color is essential. If this is not the case, you will receive information regarding the costs for colour reproduction in pribnt from Elsevier, after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see . Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting colour figures to "grey scale" (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

Tables Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.

Reference links Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, Crossref and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.

Web references As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Reference to software We recommend that software (including computational code, scripts, models, notebooks and libraries) should be cited in the same way as other sources of information to support proper attribution and credit, reproducibility, collaboration and reuse, and encourage building on the work of others to further research. To facilitate this, useful information is provided in this article on the essentials of software citation by FORCE 11, of which Elsevier is a member. A reference to software should always include the following elements: creator(s) e.g. the authors or project that developed the software, software title, software repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier.

References in a special issue Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference formatting There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the article number or pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

• Journal papers: Names and initials of all authors, title of paper, journal name, volume number, issue number, year of publication, and first and last page numbers of the paper. Example: W. Stallings, Local networks, ACM Comput. Surveys 16 (1) (1984) 3-41. [dataset] [1] M. Oguro, S. Imahiro, S. Saito, T. Nakashizuka, Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1, 2015. .

• Edited volume papers: Names and initials of all authors, title of paper, names and initials of the volume editors, title of the edited volume, publisher, publisher's residence, year of publication, and first and last page numbers of the paper. Example: K. Eda, T. Kiyosawa, H.Ohta, N-compactness and its applications, in: K. Morita, J. Nagata, (Eds.), Topics in General Topology, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1989, pp. 65-78.

• Unpublished papers: Names and initials of all authors, title of the article, and all other relevant information needed to identify the article (e.g., technical report, Ph.D. thesis, institute, year of compilation, etc.). Example: J. Goldstine, Abstract families of languages generated by bounded languages, Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 1970.

Video Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect . Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages . Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. When sharing data in one of these ways, you are expected to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page .

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page .

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Research Elements is a suite of peer-reviewed, open access journals which make your research objects findable, accessible and reusable. Articles place research objects into context by providing detailed descriptions of objects and their application, and linking to the associated original research articles. Research Elements articles can be prepared by you, or by one of your collaborators.

More information can be found on the Research Elements page .

Offprints The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect . The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link. visitor survey

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JAIR Formatting

Instructions for formatting jair articles.

To ensure that all articles published in the journal have a uniform appear-ance, authors must produce a PDF document that meets the formatting specications outlined here. The PDF document will be used for both the hardcopy and electronic versions of the journal.

To assist you in formatting your article according to the instructions below, we have make available a sample PDF article that illustrates the JAIR format (along with style files) in the JAIR Author Kit . Your article should look as similar as possible to the sample article. Below we outline the basic specications, including font sizes, margins, etc. However, the point is to have your articles look similar to the sample, and when in doubt you should use the sample as your guide, as well as recent articles published in the journal. Please feel free to contact the editors or production managers at JAIR if you have any questions ([email protected]).

To ready your work for publication, please typeset it using software such Latex or Word that produces PDF output. (LaTex is preferred.) A LaTex style file is available from the JAIR site, as well as a Word sample.

Style and Format

Papers must be printed in the single column format as shown in the JAIR sample article. Margins should be 1 1/4 inch left and right. Headers should be 1/2 inch from the top and the footer should be 1 inch from the bottom of page. The title should start 1 1/2 inches from the top of the page.

You should use Times Roman style fonts. Please be very careful not to use nonstandard or unusual fonts in the paper. Including such fonts will cause problems for many printers.

Headers and Footers should be in 9pt type. The title of the paper should be in 14pt bold type. The abstract title should be in 11pt bold type, and the abstract itself should be in 10pt type. First headings should be in 12 point bold type and second headings should be in 11 point bold type. The text and body of the paper should be in 11 point type.

The title appears near the top of the first page, centered. Authors' names should appear in designated areas below the title of the paper in twelve point bold type. Authors' complete addresses should be in italics, and their electronic addresses should be in small capitals.

The abstract appears at the beginning of the paper, indented 1/4 of an inch from the left and right margins. The title “Abstract" should appear in bold face 11 point type, centered above the body of the abstract. The abstract body should be in 10 point type.

The text and body of the paper should be in 11 point type. References to gures, tables, sections, examples, theorems and so on should be capitalized, as in “…in Section 4, we show that...".

Citations within the text should include the author's last name and year, for example (Cheeseman, 1992). Append lower-case letters to the year in cases of ambiguity, as in (Cheeseman, 1993a). Multiple authors should be treated as follows: (Cheeseman & Englemore 1988) or (Englemore, Cheeseman & Buchanan, 1992). In the case of three or more authors, the citation can be shortened by referring only to the first author, followed by “et al.", as in(Clancey et al. 1991). Multiple citations should be separated by a semi-colon, as in (Cheeseman, 1993a; Buntine, 1992). If two works have the same author or authors, the appropriate format is as follows: (Drummond 1990, 1991).

If the authors' names are mentioned in the text, the citation need only refer to the year, as in \Cheeseman and Englemore (1988) showed that...".

Avoid using citations as nouns. A phrase such as “In (Buntine, 1992) it is shown that..." is more properly expressed as follows: “Buntine (1992) showed that...". Similarly, the phrase “...established in (Buntine, 1992)" should be “...established by Buntine (1992)".  In this way, the article should read perfectly well if the citations (in parentheses) were removed.

In general, you shouldn't have parenthetical statements embedded in parenthetical statements. Therefore, citations within parenthetical remarks should not be embedded in parentheses. Use commas as separators instead. For instance, rather than “(as shown by Bresina (1992))" you should write “(as shown by Bresina, 1992)". Similarly, “(e.g., (Bresina, 1992))" should be “(e.g., Bresina, 1992). Note that THEAPA style file for LaTex on the JAIR site supports the inclusion of prefixes in citations, so this is one way to achieve the required formatting for citations in parenthetical remarks.

If you have questions about more complex cases you can consult the “Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association", which describes the APA style that JAIR uses for citations, or ask the JAIR editorial staff.

Headings and Sections

When necessary, headings should be used to separate major sections of your paper. First-level headings should be in 12 point bold type and second-level headings should be in 11 point bold type. Do not skip a line between paragraphs. Third-level headings should also be in 11 point bold type. All headings should be capitalized. After a heading, the first sentence should not be indented.

The acknowledgments section, if included, appears after the main body of the text and is titled “Acknowledgments." The section should not be numbered. This section typically includes acknowledgments of help from associates and colleagues, financial support, authors’ affiliations (which may not be evident from the author’s address on the first page) and permission to publish.

Appendices, if included, follow the acknowledgments. Each appendix should be lettered, e.g., “Appendix A". If online appendices are submitted, they should not be included in the PDF manuscript (see below), although they may be referred to in the manuscript. They will be published online in separate files. The online appendices should be numbered and may referred to as Online Appendix 1, Online Appendix 2, etc.

The reference section should be labeled “References" and should appear at the end of the paper in APA format. A sample list of references is given at the end of these instructions. Poorly prepared, incomplete or sloppy references reflect badly on the quality of your research. Please prepare complete and accurate citations.

Figures and Tables

Figures and tables should be inserted in proper places throughout the text. Do not group them together at the beginning of a page, nor at the bottom of the paper. Number figures and tables sequentially, e.g., Figure 1, and so on.

The figure or table number and the caption should appear under the illustration. Leave a margin of one-quarter inch around the area covered by the gure and caption. Captions, labels, and other text in illustrations must be at least nine-point type.

Page Numbering and Publication Date

After your paper is accepted, upon final approval of the associate editor in charge of your paper, you will be assigned a page number that should be the first page of your article. You should number the remainder of your article accordingly. Page numbers should appear at the bottom of the page in the center. You will also be assigned a volume number and publication date that you will use in the header.

Headers and Footers

The first page of your article should include the journal name, volume number, year and page numbers in the upper left corner, the submission date and publication date in the upper right corner, and the copyright notice in the lower left corner. The JAIR production staff will let you know the volume number, year, pages, submission date and publication date.

On the even numbered pages, the header of the page should be the authors names. On the odd pages, starting with the third page, the header should be the title of the paper (shortened if necessary, as in the sample).

We encourage authors to use footnotes sparingly. Footnotes should be numbered sequentially and should appear at the bottom of the page.

Style Files

We have created a LaTex style file that takes care of the formatting requirements for the paper (jair.sty, theapa.sty, theapa.bst). With help from the community, we've also created sample files that will enable you to use Word. (Latex is preferred, however.)  All sample and style files links are available here .

For LaTex users, the following command can be used in the LaTex version of your paper to set the first page header:


Please note that the specific numbers in the example above for the volume, pages, etc. will be different for your article, will be provided to you by the JAIR production staff immediately prior to publication.

LaTex users can set the title and authors for headings via the following command:

\ShortHeadings{short title}{authors}

For example: 

\ShortHeadings{Minimizing Conflicts}{Minton et al.}

Similarly, to set your page number, use this commond:


Of course, instead of 99 you should use the starting page number that you have been assigned.

Examples of the APA format for References:

Cormen, T. H., Leiserson, C. E., & Rivest, R. L. (1990).  Introduction to Algorithms . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Edited Book

Fisher, D. H., Pazzani, M. J., & Langley, P. (Eds.) (1991).  Concept Formation: Knowledge and  Experience  in Unsupervised Learning .  San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.

Journal Article

Smith, R.C. & Cheeseman, P. (1987). On the representation and estimation of spatial uncertainty.  The International Journal of Robotics Research , 5, 56-68.

Proceedings Paper

Cardie, C., & Lehnert, W. (1991). A cognitively plausible approach to under standing complex syntax.  In Proceedings of AAAI-91.

Allen, J. A., & Langley, P. (1990). Integrating memory and search in planning.  In Proceedings of the 1990 Darpa Workshop on Innovative Approaches to Planning ,  Scheduling, and Control.  San Diego, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.

University Technical Report

Rice, J. (1986). Poligon: A system for parallel problem solving. Tech.  rep. KSL-86-19, Department of Computer Science, Stanford University.

Dissertation or Thesis

Clancey, W. J. (1979).  Transfer of rule-based expertise through a tutorial dialogue.  Ph.D. thesis, Department of Computer Science, Stanford Univer-sity.

Forthcoming Publication

Doe, W. J. (1993). The engineering of qualitative models. Submitted for publication.

Schlimmer, J. C., & Langley, P. (in press). Machine learning. In S. Shapiro (Ed.),  Encyclopedia of articial intelligence (2nd ed.).  New York: John Wiley & Sons.



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Feature papers are submitted upon individual invitation or recommendation by the scientific editors and must receive positive feedback from the reviewers.

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artificial intelligence research paper format

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Submission Checklist

Manuscript Submission Overview

Types of publications.

Full experimental details must be provided so that the results can be reproduced. AI requires that authors publish all experimental controls and make full datasets available where possible (see the guidelines on Supplementary Materials and references to unpublished data).

Manuscripts submitted to AI should neither be published previously nor be under consideration for publication in another journal. The main article types are listed below and a comprehensive list of article types can be found here.

Article: These are original research manuscripts. The work should report scientifically sound experiments and provide a substantial amount of new information. The article should include the most recent and relevant references in the field. The structure should include an Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions (optional) sections, with a suggested minimum word count of 4000 words. Please refer to the journal webpages for specific instructions and templates.

Review: Reviews offer a comprehensive analysis of the existing literature within a field of study, identifying current gaps or problems. They should be critical and constructive and provide recommendations for future research. No new, unpublished data should be presented. The structure can include an Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Relevant Sections, Discussion, Conclusions, and Future Directions, with a suggested minimum word count of 4000 words.

Submission Process

Manuscripts for AI should be submitted online at . The submitting author, who is generally the corresponding author, is responsible for the manuscript during the submission and peer-review process. The submitting author must ensure that all eligible co-authors have been included in the author list (read the criteria to qualify for authorship ) and that they have all read and approved the submitted version of the manuscript. To submit your manuscript, register and log in to the submission website . Once you have registered, click here to go to the submission form for AI . All co-authors can see the manuscript details in the submission system, if they register and log in using the e-mail address provided during manuscript submission.

Accepted File Formats

Authors are encouraged to use the Microsoft Word template or LaTeX template to prepare their manuscript. Using the template file will substantially shorten the time to complete copy-editing and publication of accepted manuscripts. The total amount of data for all files must not exceed 120 MB. If this is a problem, please contact the Editorial Office [email protected] .com . Accepted file formats are:

Disclaimer: Usage of these templates is exclusively intended for submission to the journal for peer-review, and strictly limited to this purpose and it cannot be used for posting online on preprint servers or other websites.

Free Format Submission

AI now accepts free format submission:

Cover Letter

A cover letter must be included with each manuscript submission. It should be concise and explain why the content of the paper is significant, placing the findings in the context of existing work. It should explain why the manuscript fits the scope of the journal.

Any prior submissions of the manuscript to MDPI journals must be acknowledged. If this is the case, it is strongly recommended that the previous manuscript ID is provided in the submission system, which will ease your current submission process. The names of proposed and excluded reviewers should be provided in the submission system, not in the cover letter.

All cover letters are required to include the statements:

Author Biography

Authors are encouraged to add a biography (maximum 150 words) to the submission and post it to SciProfiles . This should be a single paragraph and should contain the following points:

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Manuscript Preparation

General considerations.

A graphical abstract (GA) is an image that appears alongside the text abstract in the Table of Contents. In addition to summarizing the content, it should represent the topic of the article in an attention-grabbing way. Moreover, it should not be exactly the same as the Figure in the paper or just a simple superposition of several subfigures. Note that the GA must be original and unpublished artwork. Any postage stamps, currency from any country, or trademarked items should not be included in it.

The GA should be a high-quality illustration or diagram in any of the following formats: PNG, JPEG, TIFF, or SVG. Written text in a GA should be clear and easy to read, using one of the following fonts: Times, Arial, Courier, Helvetica, Ubuntu or Calibri.

The minimum required size for the GA is 560 × 1100 pixels (height × width). The size should be of high quality in order to reproduce well.

Front Matter

These sections should appear in all manuscript types

Research Manuscript Sections

Back Matter

In the text, reference numbers should be placed in square brackets [ ], and placed before the punctuation; for example [1], [1–3] or [1,3]. For embedded citations in the text with pagination, use both parentheses and brackets to indicate the reference number and page numbers; for example [5] (p. 10). or [6] (pp. 101–105).

The reference list should include the full title, as recommended by the ACS style guide. Style files for Endnote and Zotero are available.

References should be described as follows, depending on the type of work:

Preparing Figures, Schemes and Tables

Supplementary Materials, Data Deposit and Software Source Code

MDPI Research Data Policies

MDPI is committed to supporting open scientific exchange and enabling our authors to achieve best practices in sharing and archiving research data. We encourage all authors of articles published in MDPI journals to share their research data. Individual journal guidelines can be found at the journal ‘Instructions for Authors’ page. Data sharing policies concern the minimal dataset that supports the central findings of a published study. Generated data should be publicly available and cited in accordance with journal guidelines.

MDPI data policies are informed by TOP Guidelines and FAIR Principles .

Where ethical, legal or privacy issues are present, data should not be shared. The authors should make any limitations clear in the Data Availability Statement upon submission. Authors should ensure that data shared are in accordance with consent provided by participants on the use of confidential data.

Data Availability Statements provide details regarding where data supporting reported results can be found, including links to publicly archived datasets analyzed or generated during the study.

Below are suggested Data Availability Statements:

Data citation:

Computer Code and Software

For work where novel computer code was developed, authors should release the code either by depositing in a recognized, public repository or uploading as supplementary information to the publication. The name and version of all software used should be clearly indicated.

Supplementary Material

Additional data and files can be uploaded as "Supplementary Files" during the manuscript submission process. The supplementary files will also be available to the referees as part of the peer-review process. Any file format is acceptable, however we recommend that common, non-proprietary formats are used where possible. For more information on supplementary materials, please refer to .

Unpublished Data

Restrictions on data availability should be noted during submission and in the manuscript. "Data not shown" should be avoided: authors are encouraged to publish all observations related to the submitted manuscript as Supplementary Material. "Unpublished data" intended for publication in a manuscript that is either planned, "in preparation" or "submitted" but not yet accepted, should be cited in the text and a reference should be added in the References section. "Personal Communication" should also be cited in the text and reference added in the References section. (see also the MDPI reference list and citations style guide).

Remote Hosting and Large Data Sets

Data may be deposited with specialized service providers or institutional/subject repositories, preferably those that use the DataCite mechanism. Large data sets and files greater than 60 MB must be deposited in this way. For a list of other repositories specialized in scientific and experimental data, please consult or The data repository name, link to the data set (URL) and accession number, doi or handle number of the data set must be provided in the paper. The journal Data also accepts submissions of data set papers.

References in Supplementary Files

Citations and References in Supplementary files are permitted provided that they also appear in the reference list of the main text.

Research Ethics

Research involving human subjects.

When reporting on research that involves human subjects, human material, human tissues, or human data, authors must declare that the investigations were carried out following the rules of the Declaration of Helsinki of 1975 ( ), revised in 2013. According to point 23 of this declaration, an approval from the local institutional review board (IRB) or other appropriate ethics committee must be obtained before undertaking the research to confirm the study meets national and international guidelines. As a minimum, a statement including the project identification code, date of approval, and name of the ethics committee or institutional review board must be stated in Section ‘Institutional Review Board Statement’ of the article.

Example of an ethical statement: "All subjects gave their informed consent for inclusion before they participated in the study. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and the protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of XXX (Project identification code)."

For non-interventional studies (e.g. surveys, questionnaires, social media research), all participants must be fully informed if the anonymity is assured, why the research is being conducted, how their data will be used and if there are any risks associated. As with all research involving humans, ethical approval from an appropriate ethics committee must be obtained prior to conducting the study. If ethical approval is not required, authors must either provide an exemption from the ethics committee or are encouraged to cite the local or national legislation that indicates ethics approval is not required for this type of study. Where a study has been granted exemption, the name of the ethics committee which provided this should be stated in Section ‘Institutional Review Board Statement’ with a full explanation regarding why ethical approval was not required.

A written informed consent for publication must be obtained from participating patients. Data relating to individual participants must be described in detail, but private information identifying participants need not be included unless the identifiable materials are of relevance to the research (for example, photographs of participants’ faces that show a particular symptom). Patients’ initials or other personal identifiers must not appear in any images. For manuscripts that include any case details, personal information, and/or images of patients, authors must obtain signed informed consent for publication from patients (or their relatives/guardians) before submitting to an MDPI journal. Patient details must be anonymized as far as possible, e.g., do not mention specific age, ethnicity, or occupation where they are not relevant to the conclusions. A template permission form is available to download. A blank version of the form used to obtain permission (without the patient names or signature) must be uploaded with your submission. Editors reserve the right to reject any submission that does not meet these requirements.

You may refer to our sample form and provide an appropriate form after consulting with your affiliated institution. For the purposes of publishing in MDPI journals, a consent, permission, or release form should include unlimited permission for publication in all formats (including print, electronic, and online), in sublicensed and reprinted versions (including translations and derived works), and in other works and products under open access license. To respect patients’ and any other individual’s privacy, please do not send signed forms. The journal reserves the right to ask authors to provide signed forms if necessary.

If the study reports research involving vulnerable groups, an additional check may be performed. The submitted manuscript will be scrutinized by the editorial office and upon request, documentary evidence (blank consent forms and any related discussion documents from the ethics board) must be supplied. Additionally, when studies describe groups by race, ethnicity, gender, disability, disease, etc., explanation regarding why such categorization was needed must be clearly stated in the article.

Ethical Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Research

The editors will require that the benefits potentially derived from any research causing harm to animals are significant in relation to any cost endured by animals, and that procedures followed are unlikely to cause offense to the majority of readers. Authors should particularly ensure that their research complies with the commonly-accepted '3Rs [1]':

Authors must include details on housing, husbandry and pain management in their manuscript.

For further guidance authors should refer to the Code of Practice for the Housing and Care of Animals Used in Scientific Procedures [2], American Association for Laboratory Animal Science [3] or European Animal Research Association [4].

If national legislation requires it, studies involving vertebrates or higher invertebrates must only be carried out after obtaining approval from the appropriate ethics committee. As a minimum, the project identification code, date of approval and name of the ethics committee or institutional review board should be stated in Section ‘Institutional Review Board Statement’. Research procedures must be carried out in accordance with national and institutional regulations. Statements on animal welfare should confirm that the study complied with all relevant legislation. Clinical studies involving animals and interventions outside of routine care require ethics committee oversight as per the American Veterinary Medical Association. If the study involved client-owned animals, informed client consent must be obtained and certified in the manuscript report of the research. Owners must be fully informed if there are any risks associated with the procedures and that the research will be published. If available, a high standard of veterinary care must be provided. Authors are responsible for correctness of the statements provided in the manuscript.

If ethical approval is not required by national laws, authors must provide an exemption from the ethics committee, if one is available. Where a study has been granted exemption, the name of the ethics committee that provided this should be stated in Section ‘Institutional Review Board Statement’ with a full explanation on why the ethical approval was not required.

If no animal ethics committee is available to review applications, authors should be aware that the ethics of their research will be evaluated by reviewers and editors. Authors should provide a statement justifying the work from an ethical perspective, using the same utilitarian framework that is used by ethics committees. Authors may be asked to provide this even if they have received ethical approval.

MDPI endorses the ARRIVE guidelines ( ) for reporting experiments using live animals. Authors and reviewers must use the ARRIVE guidelines as a checklist, which can be found at . Editors reserve the right to ask for the checklist and to reject submissions that do not adhere to these guidelines, to reject submissions based on ethical or animal welfare concerns or if the procedure described does not appear to be justified by the value of the work presented.

Research Involving Cell Lines

Methods sections for submissions reporting on research with cell lines should state the origin of any cell lines. For established cell lines the provenance should be stated and references must also be given to either a published paper or to a commercial source. If previously unpublished de novo cell lines were used, including those gifted from another laboratory, details of institutional review board or ethics committee approval must be given, and confirmation of written informed consent must be provided if the line is of human origin.

An example of Ethical Statements:

The HCT116 cell line was obtained from XXXX. The MLH1 + cell line was provided by XXXXX, Ltd. The DLD-1 cell line was obtained from Dr. XXXX. The DR-GFP and SA-GFP reporter plasmids were obtained from Dr. XXX and the Rad51K133A expression vector was obtained from Dr. XXXX.

Research Involving Plants

Experimental research on plants (either cultivated or wild) including collection of plant material, must comply with institutional, national, or international guidelines. We recommend that authors comply with the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention on the Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora .

For each submitted manuscript supporting genetic information and origin must be provided. For research manuscripts involving rare and non-model plants (other than, e.g., Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana, Oryza sativa , or many other typical model plants), voucher specimens must be deposited in an accessible herbarium or museum. Vouchers may be requested for review by future investigators to verify the identity of the material used in the study (especially if taxonomic rearrangements occur in the future). They should include details of the populations sampled on the site of collection (GPS coordinates), date of collection, and document the part(s) used in the study where appropriate. For rare, threatened or endangered species this can be waived but it is necessary for the author to describe this in the cover letter.

Editors reserve the rights to reject any submission that does not meet these requirements.

Torenia fournieri plants were used in this study. White-flowered Crown White (CrW) and violet-flowered Crown Violet (CrV) cultivars selected from ‘Crown Mix’ (XXX Company, City, Country) were kindly provided by Dr. XXX (XXX Institute, City, Country).

Arabidopis mutant lines (SALKxxxx, SAILxxxx,…) were kindly provided by Dr. XXX , institute, city, country).

Clinical Trials Registration


MDPI follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) guidelines which require and recommend registration of clinical trials in a public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrollment as a condition of consideration for publication.

Purely observational studies do not require registration. A clinical trial not only refers to studies that take place in a hospital or involve pharmaceuticals, but also refer to all studies which involve participant randomization and group classification in the context of the intervention under assessment.

Authors are strongly encouraged to pre-register clinical trials with an international clinical trials register and cite a reference to the registration in the Methods section. Suitable databases include , the EU Clinical Trials Register and those listed by the World Health Organisation International Clinical Trials Registry Platform .

Approval to conduct a study from an independent local, regional, or national review body is not equivalent to prospective clinical trial registration. MDPI reserves the right to decline any paper without trial registration for further peer-review. However, if the study protocol has been published before the enrolment, the registration can be waived with correct citation of the published protocol.

CONSORT Statement

MDPI requires a completed CONSORT 2010 checklist and flow diagram as a condition of submission when reporting the results of a randomized trial. Templates for these can be found here or on the CONSORT website ( ) which also describes several CONSORT checklist extensions for different designs and types of data beyond two group parallel trials. At minimum, your article should report the content addressed by each item of the checklist.

Sex and Gender in Research

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For developers, how to write a good research paper in the machine learning area.

Research paper on Machine Learning.

A research paper on machine learning refers to the proper technical documentation that explains any fundamental theory, topic survey, or proof of concept using a mathematical model or practical implementation. It demands hours of study and effort to lay out all the information ideally that addresses the topic in a presentable manner.

The reviewers of the research paper utilize thumb rules, such as replicability of results, availability of code, and others, to analyze its worth. Additionally, the acceptance guidelines from all the prestigious journals and conferences like ICLR, ICML, NeurIPS, and others are quite strict. After so much skimming of the research paper, only a few lucky ones get selected and the rest are all discarded.

These few high-valued papers get published or applauded by the top researchers of the community and they get into practical applications.

Thus, it is important to know the ins and outs of how to write research paper in machine learning. In this article, we will help you with expert advice on how you can ace your research paper in machine learning.

Table of Contents

What makes an excellent research paper on machine learning?

An excellent machine learning paper is based on good research that is transparent and reproducible. It should be replicable in nature so that the study's findings can be tested by other researchers.

Such papers demand research with a completely new architecture, algorithm, or fundamentals. Include the goals of your research and categorize your paper in terms of some familiar class like a computational model of human learning, a formal analysis, application of any established methods, a description of any new learning algorithm, and others.

Further, ensure that you bring together various evidence, views, and facts about the topic that you are targeting in machine learning. You can derive your information from different interviews, articles, and books to verify the facts included in your research paper.

The four major characteristics that the writer of a machine learning research paper should consider are its length, format, style, and sources.

Additionally, including an abstract to your research paper will bring your machine learning paper into a nutshell from its introduction to the conclusion.

What are the important parts of a research paper?

An excellent research paper is drafted in a formal structure that includes several sections maintaining the flow of the content. It is important to ensure that the readers can quickly find the information they are looking for in your research paper.

Here’s a complete list of everything a research paper should include.

These are some of the standard sections that is available is almost every research paper. However, there can be additional sections based on the topic you choose to write on, such as a dedicated space for the related research papers on machine learning to the author’s work.

Types of machine learning papers you can write

The initial step toward writing an excellent machine learning research paper is to select your targeted category. The below-given image will clear your thoughts on the same.

Types of research papers for machine learning.webp

1. Survey paper without implementation

This paper category includes an excessive survey for any machine learning domain. For example, if someone wants to write a research paper on healthcare and machine learning, there will be tons of research already being carried out. To summarize that work in a single paper by finding some interesting facts can be enough to start with survey paper writing.

The following are excellent websites to check for the latest research papers.

You can download a research paper on machine learning from the sites mentioned above, and then you can take any particular application or algorithm and check for advancement in it. Finally, prepare the summarized table of all the research held in your selected area with proper citation, its merits, and demerits.

2. Survey Paper With Implementation

If you wish to write a survey paper with implementation, you should select a topic and get the dataset for that domain. Following are the websites to get a free dataset.

For example, using various machine learning algorithms, you can select the topic as employee attrition prediction. Next, you can datasets available for public use, apply supervised or unsupervised machine learning algorithms, and check the accuracy. Finally, show the comparative table of all five or six algorithms you are using for that dataset and conclude the best algorithm for your chosen problems.

3. Paper with just proof of concept

This category of paper requires in-depth knowledge of the selected area. Here, you must understand any available machine learning or deep learning algorithm and optimize it by modifying it or analyzing it mathematically. This paper showcases the brief, logical, and technical proof of the proposed new architecture or algorithm.

4. Developing new machine learning algorithms

Machine learning is still an emerging field. However, there are many application areas of machine learning algorithms like agriculture, health, social media, computer vision, image processing, NLP , sentimental analysis, recommender system, prediction, business analytics, and almost all the fields can directly or indirectly use machine learning in one or another way.

Any machine learning algorithm developed for one application may not work with the same efficiency on another application. Most of the algorithms are application-specific. So, there is always a scope to design a new algorithm for the application. For example, if you wish to apply machine learning for mangrove classification from satellite images, you need to modify any available algorithm that is good for camera-captured images and not satellite images. So it gives scope to create or modify the available algorithm.

5. Developing new architecture

IoT, or the Internet of Things, is an emerging field in the artificial intelligence area. As described in the previous point, machine learning can be applied in almost all areas. So, whenever you wish to include ML in IoT, it gives rise to new IoT+ML architecture. Such type of paper includes newly developed architecture for any technology. Green IoT, Privacy-Preserving ML, IoTML, Healthcare, ML, and more, are areas where there is huge research scope for new or modified architecture.

6. Comparison of various machine learning algorithms

This category of paper sounds more like a survey paper. The paper title for such category includes, “House price prediction: Survey of various machine learning algorithms.” Thus, such a paper includes one problem domain, and all the possible implementations which have already been done are documented using proper citations.

The main novelty of this type of paper lies in the summarized table, which includes algorithms, methods, merits, and demerits of using that algorithm for a given problem domain.

7. Analysis of any manually collected data

This kind of paper is generally preferred in MBA programs. Here researchers send Google forms or any physical questionaries’ to the end-users. The data is collected as per the user experience. Such collected data is then applied to any machine learning model for classification or prediction. Sometimes it can also be used to perform regression analysis . It can also be used for any data collected for business analytics. For example, searching buyers’ buying patterns or churn prediction.

8. Applying ML algorithms for prediction or classification

It is a purely implementation-based category. The first step here will be to define the problem statement, then select the properly suitable dataset for it, and divide the data into training and testing sets. Then assign the target variable in the case of supervised learning. Fit the appropriate machine learning model. Evaluate the result.

To sum up, the points mentioned above, research paper writing is not a skill that can be acquired in a few minutes, but it is a skill you acquire with more and more practice. To write a good research paper, one should be very clear with the objectives. Then, perform the implementation parts and demonstrate the results fruitfully.

How to write a successful research paper in machine learning?

Method to write a good research paper.webp

1. Write as if your reader knows nothing

An average reader is not aware of the importance of your topic. You need to formulate clear thoughts and back up your information with credible sources. Spend enough time on your research and make the reader aware of your topic in the introduction section of your work.

Additionally, you need to bear at least four kinds of readers in mind while writing your research paper on machine learning.

Professionals of your research field: The people in the same research field as yours will know all the relevant terms and related work of your research. They will be a few in number and are less likely to be your peers.

Professionals in closely related research areas: Such people would not be aware of your research or the specific problems you are addressing in your research. But they do have a general understanding of the wider research area you are targeting. So it is important to include an aspect from their perspective to keep them connected till the conclusion of your research paper.

Supervisor: Your supervisor would already know what and why you are doing in your research paper. We recommend that you don’t write a research paper with your supervisor as a reader in your mind.

Professionals from remote areas: The biggest portion of your readers are the people from remotely related research areas. This group would include some of the reviewers or the people who aren’t aware of the importance of your research or methods. We recommend you not explain the same to them and continue writing a research paper considering a basic understanding of the topic in your readers' minds.

2. Write when your results are ready

It is important to have the results on the table before you start writing your machine learning research paper. However, you can write the introduction part as early as possible even before having your results analyzed. This exception will help you get a clear picture of your deep learning papers and identify the relevant work.

Many authors of the machine learning research paper may question the ticking clock towards the deadline. But it is important to know the complete story from the introduction to the conclusion before writing it down. We recommend you get the results of your research first, run an analysis of them, and then move on to writing all about it in your research paper.

3. Review your paper like a critic

There are some things that, as a research paper writer, you should be accustomed to. We have listed them below for you.

Additionally, there are some questions that your machine learning papers reviewer might ask you, so prepare their answers in advance.

4. Avoid too much mathiness

Your research paper can have some formulas to describe your findings or concepts. But they should be put ‌precisely so that the reader or the reviewer doesn’t take much time to understand them.

In many cases, when people overuse the formulae or provide spurious explanations to justify their finding, it reduces the impact of your research paper and you will lose a lot of readers as well, even if your paper gets published.

5. Abstract to be written at last

The abstract is one of the important aspects of a research paper is a vital part that is read by the majority of your readers. We advise you to write it at last so that you can include the key essences and takeaways of your research paper.

How to submit your machine learning research papers?

Once you complete your research paper, it is to be submitted under some policies set by the organizers of various journals. These policies are set up to ensure an established ecosystem that would encourage the machine learning practitioners who are writing research papers to volunteer for reproducing the claimed results.

In the new program introduced, there are three components that you should keep in mind.

They demanded these parameters from all machine learning papers in order to promote best practices and code repository assessments. It helps in eliminating the need to build your future work from scratch.

How are machine learning papers assessed?

Every year, the conferences and the journals receive thousands of research papers. There is an ML code completeness checklist that verifies the code repository in your research paper for artefacts and scripts provided in it.

In addition to the above, the further analysis of the paper by the reviewers ‌sets the final decision on whether your paper will be published or not.

Do’s and don't of writing research paper

Every researcher wished to have their paper published in top journals. But, it isn’t that easy. There is a whole list of things that you should keep in mind while writing your research paper. We have elaborated on it below.

With all said above, you will now know how to write research paper in machine learning. It will no longer be a challenge for you and will make things easier for you. We recommend you stick to the standards, as doing something new will increase the risk involved in getting your paper published. Just stick to the above-mentioned tips and tricks and you are good to go.

We hope you get your research paper published!

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Author is a seasoned writer with a reputation for crafting highly engaging, well-researched, and useful content that is widely read by many of today's skilled programmers and developers.

Frequently Asked Questions

Yes, AI can write a research paper for you in less time than you would take to write it manually.

We have listed down some of the top journals where you can publish machine learning papers below.

Here is a list of some of the best research papers for machine learning.

Unbiased Gradient Estimation in Unrolled Computation Graphs with Persistent Evolution By Paul Vicol, Luke Metz, and Jascha Sohl-Dickstein

Scalable nearest neighbor algorithms for high dimensional data By Lowe, D.G., & Muja, M.

Trends in extreme learning machines By Huang, G., Huang, G., Song, S., & You, K.

Solving high-dimensional parabolic PDEs using the tensor train format By Lorenz Richter, Leon Sallandt, and Nikolas Nüsken

Optimal complexity in decentralized training By researchers at Cornell University, Yucheng Lu and Christopher De Sa

Follow the procedure given below to write a dataset in your research paper.

Step 1: Navigate to your study folder and then “Manage” tab.

Step 2: Select “Manage datasets.”

Step 3: Select “Create new dataset.”

Check out some free platforms which will publish your machine learning papers for free.

An abstract is something that summarises your paper in a small paragraph. So, when you write it for your research paper, ensure that:

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Artificial Intelligence Journal

artificial intelligence research paper format

Formatting Requirements

Articles for submission to the Artificial Intelligence Journal must be submitted via the Editorial Manager system (EM).

Articles must be written in English.

Articles should be formatted for printing on A4 standard (210×297 mm) or Letter size standard (8.5″ x 11″) paper. They should use a format style that facilitates making notes in the margin: single column presentation and at least 11 pt font is desirable. The small-font, double-column format that is used in some conference proceedings should not be used in AIJ submissions.

Submitted articles should contain all the information that normally is part of an article, in particular an abstract and the list of references. Illustrations that are intended to appear in the published paper must be included with the same, or nearly the same graphical quality as in a published article.

If the paper is accepted for publication in the Journal, then the final version of the paper will be sent to Elsevier, our Publisher. The Publisher will then have a number of additional requirements on the form of the paper, as explained on the Elsevier page for the AIJ . (Please click “Guide for authors” and “Artwork” on that page). It is not necessary to adhere strictly to the publisher requirements at the time when an article is submitted for review, but it is recommended in any case to do so since it will facilitate your work later on.

A page describing the recommended latex style files can be found here:

The elsarticle LaTeX document class .

artificial intelligence research paper format

An International Science and Engineering Journal

Submission guidelines

Instructions for authors, manuscript submission, latex and online submission, scientific style, artwork and illustrations guidelines, supplementary information (si), research data policy and data availability statements, editing services, ethical responsibilities of authors, compliance with ethical standards, competing interests, after acceptance.

Open Choice

Open access publishing

Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.


Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.

Online Submission

Please follow the hyperlink “Submit manuscript” and upload all of your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen.

Source Files

Please ensure you provide all relevant editable source files at every submission and revision. Failing to submit a complete set of editable source files will result in your article not being considered for review. For your manuscript text please always submit in common word processing formats such as .docx or LaTeX.

Please note

This journal has a policy of not allowing authorship changes after submission.

Please make sure your title page contains the following information.

The title should be concise and informative.

Author information

If address information is provided with the affiliation(s) it will also be published.

For authors that are (temporarily) unaffiliated we will only capture their city and country of residence, not their e-mail address unless specifically requested.

Large Language Models (LLMs), such as ChatGPT , do not currently satisfy our authorship criteria . Notably an attribution of authorship carries with it accountability for the work, which cannot be effectively applied to LLMs. Use of an LLM should be properly documented in the Methods section (and if a Methods section is not available, in a suitable alternative part) of the manuscript.

Please provide an abstract of 150 to 250 words. The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.

For life science journals only (when applicable)

Please provide 4 to 6 keywords which can be used for indexing purposes.

Statements and Declarations

The following statements should be included under the heading "Statements and Declarations" for inclusion in the published paper. Please note that submissions that do not include relevant declarations will be returned as incomplete.

Please see the relevant sections in the submission guidelines for further information as well as various examples of wording. Please revise/customize the sample statements according to your own needs.

For LaTeX submissions we encourage authors to use the Springer Nature LaTeX template when preparing a submission.

Please ensure you provide all relevant editable source files at every submission and revision.

Text Formatting

Manuscripts should be submitted in LaTeX. We recommend using Springer Nature’s LaTeX template . The submission should include the original source (including all style files and figures) and a PDF version of the compiled output.

Word files are also accepted.

Please use the decimal system of headings with no more than three levels.


Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter.

Footnotes can be used to give additional information, which may include the citation of a reference included in the reference list. They should not consist solely of a reference citation, and they should never include the bibliographic details of a reference. They should also not contain any figures or tables.

Footnotes to the text are numbered consecutively; those to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data). Footnotes to the title or the authors of the article are not given reference symbols.

Always use footnotes instead of endnotes.


Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section on the title page. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.

All source files you upload in the online submission system will be automatically compiled into a single PDF file to be approved by you at the end of the submission process. While the compiled PDF will be used for peer-review purposes, your uploaded source files will be transferred to the publisher for publication upon acceptance.

Please do not use subfolders for your LaTeX submission, e.g. for figures or bibliographic files. Further tips for uploading and compiling your LaTeX submission can be found on the Springer Nature LaTeX Support hub and .

Please always use internationally accepted signs and symbols for units (SI units).

Please use the standard mathematical notation for formulae, symbols etc.:

Cite references in the text by name and year in parentheses. Some examples:

Reference list

The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text.

Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each work. Please alphabetize according to the following rules: 1) For one author, by name of author, then chronologically; 2) For two authors, by name of author, then name of coauthor, then chronologically; 3) For more than two authors, by name of first author, then chronologically.

If available, please always include DOIs as full DOI links in your reference list (e.g. “”).

Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738.

Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:

Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329

Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med.

South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London

Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257

Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. Accessed 26 June 2007

Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California

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More templates for data availability statements, including examples of openly available and restricted access datasets, are available here:

Data availability statements

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Examples of statements to be used when authors have nothing to declare:

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Research and Writing Guides

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How to format your references using the Artificial Intelligence Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Artificial Intelligence Review . For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors .

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Artificial Intelligence Review .

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses :

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

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Ensure that any manuscript you submit conforms to the  Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)  and the  International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)  recommendations for ethics, as well as to the general Frontiers article requirements. All submitted manuscripts will be checked by plagiarism detection software.

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Original Research articles report on primary and unpublished studies. Original Research may also encompass confirming studies and disconfirming results which allow hypothesis elimination, reformulation and/or report on the non-reproducibility of previously published results. Original Research articles are peer-reviewed, have a maximum word count of 12,000 and may contain no more than 15 Figures/Tables. Authors are required to pay a fee (A-type article) to publish an Original Research article. Original Research articles should have the following format: 1) Abstract, 2) Introduction, 3) Materials and Methods, 4) Results, 5) Discussion.

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Review articles cover topics that have seen significant development or progress in recent years, with comprehensive depth and a balanced perspective. Reviews should present a complete overview of the state of the art (and should not merely summarize the literature), as well as discuss the following: 1) Different schools of thought or controversies, 2) Fundamental concepts, issues, and problems, 3) Current research gaps, 4) Potential developments in the field. Review articles are peer-reviewed, have a maximum word count of 12,000 and may contain no more than 15 Figures/Tables. Authors are required to pay a fee (A-type article) to publish a Review article. Review articles should have the following format: 1) Abstract, 2) Introduction, 3) Subsections relevant for the subject, 4) Discussion. Review articles must not include unpublished material (unpublished/original data, submitted manuscripts, or personal communications) and may be rejected in review or reclassified, at a significant delay, if found to include such content.

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Policy & Practice Reviews provide a comprehensive coverage and balanced overview of current and relevant topics related to policy, regulations, and guidelines that may be coming from academia, relevant societies, regulatory bodies, industries and others. In contrast to Policy Briefs, this article type provides authors with more space to elaborate on policies and/or guidelines. Policy & Practice Reviews are peer-reviewed, have a maximum word count of 12,000 and may contain no more than 15 Figures/Tables. Authors are required to pay a fee (A-type article) to publish a Policy & Practice Review. Policy & Practice Reviews should have the following format: 1) Abstract, 2) Introduction, 3) Sections on assessment of policy/guidelines options and implications, 4) Actionable Recommendations, 5) Discussion.

Hypothesis and Theory

Hypothesis and Theory articles present a novel argument, interpretation or model intended to introduce a new hypothesis or theory. They should provide the following: 1) New interpretation of recent data or findings in a specific area of investigation, 2) Accurate presentation of previously posed hypotheses or theories, 3) Hypothesis presented should be testable in the framework of current knowledge, 4) May include original data as well as personal insights and opinions. Hypothesis and Theory articles are peer-reviewed, have a maximum word count of 12,000 and may contain no more than 15 Figures/Tables. Authors are required to pay a fee (A-type article) to publish a Hypothesis and Theory article. Hypothesis and Theory articles should have the following format: 1) Abstract, 2) Introduction, 3) Subsections relevant for the subject, 4) Discussion.


Perspective articles present a viewpoint on a specific area of investigation. They should provide the following: 1) Discuss current advances and future directions, 2) Clear presentation of the authors’ perspective, 3) Accurate presentation and citations of other authors’ work, 4) May include original data as well as personal insights and opinions. Perspective articles are peer-reviewed, have a maximum word count of 3,000 and may contain no more than 2 Figures/Tables. Authors are required to pay a fee (B-type article) to publish a Perspective article. Perspective articles should have the following format: 1) Abstract, 2) Introduction, 3) Subsections relevant for the subject, 4) Discussion.

Clinical Trial

Clinical Trial articles describe the results of interventional studies related to health. These articles can include pilot studies, safety and efficacy trials, surrogate endpoint studies, and proof-of concept studies. Clinical Trial articles are peer-reviewed, have a maximum word count of 12,000 and may contain no more than 15 Figures/Tables. Authors are required to pay a fee (A-type article) to publish a Clinical Trial article. Clinical Trial articles should have the following format: 1) Abstract (please include the clinical trial registry number), 2) Introduction, 3) Materials and Methods (including flow diagram when applicable, for example the CONSORT FLOW DIAGRAM-, 4) Results, 5) Discussion. All clinical trials must be registered in a public trials registry to be considered for publication, and authors should be compliant with the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT).

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A community case study documents local experience in delivering a service to meet an identified need, in contrast to investigator-driven research that is typically evidence-based. Herein, community case studies are defined as a description of, and reflection upon, a program or practice geared towards improving the health and functioning of a targeted population. Under this article type, a broad spectrum of manuscripts will be considered that describe novel public health interventions at the behavioural, organizational, community, environmental and/or policy level. Community Case Study articles are peer-reviewed, have a maximum word count of 5,000 and may contain no more than 5 Figures/Tables. Authors are required to pay a fee (B-type article) to publish a Community Case Study article. Community Case Study articles should have the following format: 1) Abstract, 2) Introduction: Description of the nature of the problem being addressed and rationale for the proposed innovation, 3) Context (setting and population) in which the innovation occurs, 4) Detail to understand key programmatic elements, 5) Discussion section that shares practical implications, lessons learned for future applications, 6) Acknowledgment of any conceptual or methodological constraints.

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Conceptual Analysis articles explore the concepts and issues that define a field. They should examine the constituent elements of each concept, and the connections between them. Conceptual Analysis articles must not include unpublished material (unpublished/original data, submitted manuscripts, or personal communications) and may be rejected or reclassified, at a significant delay, if found to include such content. Instead, Conceptual Analysis articles should extend current knowledge by presenting a novel argument, interpretation, model, or critique. Conceptual Analysis articles are peer-reviewed, have a maximum word count of 8,000 words and may contain no more than 10 Figures/Tables. Authors are required to pay a fee (B-type article) to publish a Conceptual Analysis article. Any inclusion of verbatim text must be contained in quotation marks and clearly reference the original source. Conceptual Analysis articles should have the following format: 1) Abstract, 2) Introduction, 3) Subsections relevant for the subject, 4) Discussion.

Data Report

Data Report articles present a description of research datasets. Datasets must be deposited in a public repository and must be fixed and made publicly available upon publication of the report. Data Reports articles are peer-reviewed, have a maximum word count of 3,000 and may contain no more than 2 Figures/Tables. Authors are required to pay a fee (C-type article) to publish a Data Report article. Data Report articles should have the following format: 1) Introduction, 2) Methods used to collect the data, including data collection period, filters applied, and information on how readers may interpret the dataset and reuse the data, 3) Should include some analysis of the data but should not report the results of any single study or group of studies, 4) Relevant subsections, but cannot include Results or Discussion. Data Reports must include the name of the dataset, the database/repository where it has been submitted and the link for confidential peer-review (which should be updated with the public link before publication). Any published Data Report will be considered for retraction should the data be removed from the repository or the access become restricted. Any updates to the dataset(s) should be deposited as independent versions in a repository and the relevant information may be published as Addendum/Commentary linked to the initial Data Report. Any detailed analyses or new scientific insights relating to the Data Report can be submitted as independent research articles. The protocols and methodology used to collect the data can also be submitted as Methods articles.

Brief Research Report

Brief Research Report articles present original research and/or preliminary findings in a more succinct way, and with fewer details, than Original Research articles. Additionally, in line with the Frontiers ethos of publishing scientifically-sound discoveries, Brief Research Reports also encourage submission of negative results and may report on the non-reproducibility of previously published results. Brief Research Reports articles are peer-reviewed, have a maximum word count of 4,000 and may contain no more than 4 Figures/Tables. Authors are required to pay a fee (B-type article) to publish a Brief Research Report. Brief Research Report articles should have the following format: 1) Abstract, 2) Introduction, 3) Method, 4) Results, 5) Discussion. Supplementary material may be included with Brief Research Reports.

General Commentary

General Commentary articles provide critical comments on a previous publication at Frontiers. Authors wishing to submit commentaries on articles published outside of Frontiers are encouraged to reformat and submit them as an Opinion type. General Commentary articles are peer-reviewed, have a maximum word count of 1,000 words and may contain no more than 1 Figure/Table. They should not contain unpublished or original data. General Commentary articles must be submitted for consideration to the same Journal and Specialty as the original article. Authors are required to pay a fee (C-type article) to publish a General Commentary article. General Commentary articles should have the following format: 1) Title: “Commentary: Title of the original article” (mandatory), 2) Introduction, 3) Subsections relevant for the subject, 4) Discussion. At the beginning of your General Commentary, please provide the complete citation of the article being commented on.

Opinion articles allow authors to contribute viewpoints on the interpretation of recent findings in any research area, value of the methods used, as well as weaknesses and strengths of scientific hypotheses. They should abide to the following guidelines: not contain unpublished or original data, be supported by evidence, be fully referenced, encourage constructive discussion, refrain from emotionally-charged argumentation. Opinion articles are peer-reviewed and have a maximum word count of 2,000 and may contain no more than 1 Figure/Table. Authors are required to pay a fee (C-type article) to publish an Opinion article. Opinion articles should have the following format: 1) Introduction, 2) Subsections relevant for the subject, 3) Discussion.

Corrigendum/Addendum: should authors notice errors that affect the scholarly record or the integrity of the paper, authors are encouraged to submit a correction online. The correction must detail the reason(s) for the error(s) and include only the elements (e.g. sections, sentence, figure) of the manuscript being revised or corrected. All authors of the original paper need to agree to the request for changes. The contribution to the field statement should be used to clearly state the reason for the Correction. Depending on the extent of the correction required, corrections may require peer review. Authors are informed that requests for changes beyond that described here may not be accepted for publication.

Erratum: should authors notice differences between their approved galley proofs and the final published article, thus leading to errors that affect the scholarly record or the integrity of the paper, authors are encouraged to submit a request for erratum to the Frontiers Production Office ([email protected]), clearly specifying the error and the correct information.

Editorials are submitted exclusively by the host editor(s) of a Frontiers Research Topic, to convey to the reader the aims and objectives of the research that pertains to the topic, as well as placing it in a broader context. The Editorial should present the contributing articles of the Research Topic but should not be a mere table of contents. As the final contributing article to the Research Topic, Editorials should be submitted once all expected articles have been accepted and published. Editorials should not include unpublished or original data and the inclusion of references is strongly encouraged. Editorial articles may contain 1 Figure and have a word count of 1,000 for Topics with 5-10 articles. The word limit can be increased for each additional article in the Topic, up to a maximum of 5,000 words for 50 articles or more. Topic editors are not required to pay a fee to publish an Editorial article. Submissions are required to have the title Editorial: "Title of Research Topic".

Technology and Code

Technology & Code articles present new technology, code and/or software or a new application of a known technology or software. This article type aims to open new avenues for theoretical and experimental investigation, data analysis or data reduction within the field of study. Technology & Code articles can also feature studies that implement existing algorithms under novel settings. Technology & Code articles are peer-reviewed, have a maximum word count of 12,000 and may contain no more than 15 Figures/Tables. Authors are required to pay a fee (A-type article) to publish Technology & Code article. Technology & Code articles related to innovative software solutions and/or design should be novel, presented in a well-documented, human-readable format and should be placed online in a repository, with an associated DOI/URI for retrieval. To better support the code documentation, authors can also upload a metadata file in different formats (i.e. JSON-LD, Microdata, RDFa) that incorporates all the relevant information. Authors can refer to the vocabulary, and to the SoftwareApplication/SoftwareSourceCode and Dataset related specifications. Technology & Code articles should have the following format: 1) Abstract, 2) Introduction, 3) Method (including any code description), 4) Results (including examples of use and limitations), 5) Discussion (including scalability and limitations). The following information must also be included: project link (e.g. sourceforge, github), operating system (e.g. Windows, Linux, platform independent), programming language (e.g. Python), any restrictions for non-academic use (e.g. licence needed).

Study Protocol

Study Protocol articles document the design of prospective research and it is intended to facilitate dissemination of ongoing studies and promote transparency. Study Protocol articles are peer-reviewed, have a maximum word count of 12,000 and may include up to 15 Figures/Tables. Authors are required to pay a fee (A-type article) to publish a Study Protocol article. Study Protocol articles should have the following format: 1) Abstract (please include the clinical trial registry number for clinical studies), 2) Introduction, 3) Methods and Analysis (including design; selection/treatment of subjects; interventional methods; data analysis), 4) Discussion, 5) Ethics and Dissemination. For clinical studies, registration in a public clinical trial registry is mandatory prior to the submission of the manuscript and the authors are strongly encouraged to follow the SPIRIT guidelines ( and checklist. Study Protocols are not considered if other articles relating to the study are already published or in review, if it reports any research data from the study, or for any pilot or feasibility study.


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  1. How Do You Make an Acknowledgment in a Research Paper?

    To make an acknowledgement in a research paper, a writer should express thanks by using the full or professional names of the people being thanked and should specify exactly how the people being acknowledged helped.

  2. How to Write a Research Paper

    Writing a research paper is a bit more difficult that a standard high school essay. You need to site sources, use academic data and show scientific examples. Before beginning, you’ll need guidelines for how to write a research paper.

  3. What Are Some Examples of Action Research Papers?

    An action research paper documents a “cycle of inquiry,” in which the writer evaluates a problem and develops a strategy of reform. Educators and educational administrators typically use this writing format to foster continual improvement i...

  4. Research Paper Template

    Use this simple Research Paper Template by to record and compile your research in a creative way.

  5. Artificial Intelligence template

    Typset automatically formats your research paper to Artificial Intelligence formatting guidelines and citation style. Speed and accuracy over MS Word. Comparing

  6. Guide for authors

    The 2-page proposal should include a convincing motivational discussion, articulate the relevance to artificial intelligence, clarify the originality of the

  7. JAIR Formatting

    The title of the paper should be in 14pt bold type. The abstract title should be in 11pt bold type, and the abstract itself should be in 10pt type. First

  8. AI

    We encourage all authors of articles published in MDPI journals to share their research data. Individual journal guidelines can be found at the journal '

  9. Tips on How to Write a Research Paper on Machine Learning

    The four major characteristics that the writer of a machine learning research paper should consider are its length, format, style, and sources.

  10. Formatting Requirements

    Articles for submission to the Artificial Intelligence Journal must be submitted via the Editorial Manager system (EM). Articles must be written in English.

  11. Radiology Artificial Intelligence: Instructions for Authors

    A summary statement (for Original Research and Technical Development papers) of no more than 255 characters in boldface. This should be a single sentence that

  12. Submission guidelines

    Research articles and non-research articles (e.g. Opinion, Review, and Commentary articles) must cite appropriate and relevant literature in support of the

  13. Artificial Intelligence Review citation style [Update 2022]

    Artificial Intelligence Review citation style guide with bibliography and in-text referencing examples: ✓Journal articles ✓Books ✓Book chapters ✓Reports

  14. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence accepts following article types

    Authors are required to pay a fee (B-type article) to publish a Brief Research Report. Brief Research Report articles should have the following format: 1)